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  2. 2. A/AN with singular nouns <ul><li>The first time you mention a thing/person or when the listener doesn’t know which thing we mean. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I saw an old woman in the garden. </li></ul><ul><li> Tom sat down on a chair (we don’t know which chair) </li></ul><ul><li>When you say what something/somebody is or what something/somebody is like. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: She is a cute girl. (what she is like) </li></ul><ul><li> A dog is an animal. (what it is.) </li></ul><ul><li>When you say what somebody does. (with jobs...) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: He is a fireman. </li></ul><ul><li>In exclamations with What...! </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: What a horrible day! </li></ul><ul><li>In expressions like three times a week. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE <ul><li>When we talk about something we have already mentioned. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: I saw a strange man yesterday night. The man was very tall. </li></ul><ul><li>When there is only one thing of something. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The earth is the planet where we live. </li></ul><ul><li>When it’s clear what you are referring to. For example, in a room we talk about “the light/the floor/the ceiling/the door/etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Michael closed the window. </li></ul><ul><li> Where is the toilet, please? </li></ul><ul><li> Did Ann get the job she applied for? (the speakers know about it previously) </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE <ul><li>We use the with: the police/the fire-brigade/the army, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We also say: the doctor, the dentist, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We usually say the radio . Eg: We often listen to the radio . </li></ul><ul><li>With places in a town: the cinema, the theatre, the bank, the post office,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:I went to the cinema yesterday night. </li></ul><ul><li>With superlatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: She is the most beautiful in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>We use the with some adjectives (without a noun). The meaning is always plural, the rich=rich people in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Why doesn’t the government do more to help the unemployed ? </li></ul><ul><li>We use the with some nationalities. Eg: The French are famous for their food = the French people) </li></ul>
  5. 5. DON’T USE AN ARTICLE… <ul><li>When you are speaking in general (with plural or uncountable nouns). </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Lions are more dangerous than dogs. </li></ul><ul><li> Sugar is sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>With some phrases like at home/work, go home/to bed, </li></ul><ul><li>With institutions ( school, church,prison, etc.) we don’t use an article when you are thinking about the institution and the normal purpose it is used it for. If you are just thinking about the building, use a or the . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: She is in prison (she is a prisoner) </li></ul><ul><li>But compare: </li></ul><ul><li>They must rebuild the prison as it is too old. (the building) </li></ul><ul><li>Before meals, days and months . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I always have lunc h at 2 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>But we say a meal. Eg: We had a meal in a restaurant. </li></ul><ul><li>Before next/last + day s,week,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: We are meeting next Mond ay. </li></ul>
  6. 6. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES <ul><li>Continents: Africa (not The Africa)—NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>Countries and states: France (not The France)—NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>**But we say the with names that include words like ‘republic’,’kingdom’,’states’.--ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:The United Kingdom, The United States </li></ul><ul><li>**We also use the with plural names-ARTICLE: The Netherlands, The Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities: Cairo (not The Cairo)– NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>**Exception: The Hague (in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual islands: Corfu, Sicily, Bermuda,..—NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>**Island groups usually have plural names with the —ARTICLE THE : the Bahamas, the Canaries,… </li></ul><ul><li>Regions: we say Northern England/southern England—NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>**But we say: The Middle East, the north of England – ARTICLE THE </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geographical names <ul><li>Mountains: Individual mountains usually have names without the –NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Mount Everest </li></ul><ul><li>**Mountain ranges usually have plural names with the –ARTICLE THE : the Rocky Mountains, The Andes,… </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes: Lakes usually have names without the : Lake Constance – NO ARTICLE </li></ul><ul><li>Names of oceans/seas/rivers/canals have the –ARTICLE THE :the Atlantic, the Red Sea, the Nile, the Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li> (on the maps the is not usually included in the name) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Names of streets, buildings, etc <ul><li>Names of streets/roads/squares— NO ARTICLE… </li></ul><ul><li>Regent Street Broadway </li></ul><ul><li>**Exceptions: motorways and numbered roads: the M6 </li></ul><ul><li>Many names ( airports, universities …) are two words—NO ARTICLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy Airport/Cambridge University. </li></ul><ul><li>The first word is usually the name of a person or place. We do not usually say the with names like these. </li></ul><ul><li>**But we say ‘the White House’, ‘the Royal Palace’, because white and royal are not names (this is the general rule, but there are exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels, restaurants/pubs,theatres,cinemas,museums/galleries </li></ul><ul><li>— ARTICLE THE </li></ul><ul><li>The Hilton, The Red Lion (pub), the National Theatre, The Odeon, the British Museum. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Names of streets, buildings, etc <ul><li>Shops, restaurants, hotels, banks named after the people who started them. These names end in s or ‘s . –NO ARTICLE. </li></ul><ul><li> Maxim’s restaurant, Luigi’s Italian Restaurant, Lloyds Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Places, buildings + of —ARTICLE THE : the Bank of England, the Houses of Parliament, the Tower of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers —ARTICLE THE : The Times, the Washington Post. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Now you try!
  11. 11. He is ___ doctor.
  12. 12. A
  13. 13. Today ____moon is very big.
  14. 14. the
  15. 15. John is going to ____ theatre next week.
  16. 16. the
  17. 17. Sue is ill today,so she can’t go to ____ school .
  18. 18. No article
  19. 19. Every term parents are invited to____school to meet the teachers.
  20. 20. The
  21. 21. ___cat doesn’t like ___apples.
  22. 22. The (because we are talking about this cat,not in general) / No article
  23. 23. They got married. But ___marriage wasn’t successful.
  24. 24. The
  25. 25. What’s ___ highest mountain in ___ world?
  26. 26. the/the
  27. 27. ___life would be very difficult without ___ electricity.
  28. 28. No article/no article
  29. 29. It was ___beautiful day. __sun shone brightly in __sky.
  30. 30. A/the/the
  31. 31. ___flying can be dangerous!
  32. 32. No article
  33. 33. That’s all!!