María Robles Rueda  Antea Cabanellas Arroyaga
 
<ul><li>Especific uses related to groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses on objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphatic use. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><li>This is one way to refer to classes, and it is perhaps more formal than using a plural....
<ul><li>National groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group as a whole: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French  eat in restaur...
<ul><li>Other groups: </li></ul><ul><li>If they are clearly plural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  social Democrats,  the  Rol...
<ul><li>Geographical names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following use  the : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers:   the  T...
<ul><li>Place names: </li></ul><ul><li>Post- modification, especially with… of… place a role in place names. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Unique objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  moon,  the  sun. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that there are other suns ...
<ul><li>Titles:  </li></ul><ul><li>This tend to be ‘unique’. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  director of studies. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Other titles:   </li></ul><ul><li>The  may be part of the title, and so is capitalized. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Musical instruments: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jane plays  the  flute (in general). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>This is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This hotel is  the  place to...
<ul><ul><li>Most  hotels in England are very expensive. (making a generalization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is  the ...
<ul><li>The definite article refers to already mentioned items, and so its use depends on context. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Indefinite articles </li></ul>
<ul><li>A  boy An  apple A  car </li></ul>A / AN Use  ' a'  with nouns starting with a  consonant  (letters that are not v...
<ul><li>to refer to something for the first time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An elephant  and  a mouse  fell in love. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>with names of jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John is  a doctor . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary is training to be  an...
<ul><li>to refer to a kind of, or example of something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mouse had  a tiny nose </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'd like  an orange  and two lemons pl...
<ul><li>Cases in which there is no need of the article </li></ul>
<ul><li>After the  's  possessive case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His brother's  car .  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter's  ho...
<ul><li>with the names of  languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French  is spoken in Tahiti. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English...
<ul><li>with the names of  meals . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunch  is at midday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinner  is in the...
<ul><li>with  titles  and  names : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Charles  is  Queen Elizabeth's  son. </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>with  names of shops : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'll get the card at  Smith's . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you go...
<ul><li>with the names of  individual mountains, lakes and islands : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount McKinley  is the highest ...
<ul><li>by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air  (in broadcasting) at school at work at University in church in p...
 
<ul><li>Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. The word ' people ' by i...
<ul><li>Definite and Indefinite articles the, a, an   Demonstratives this, that, these, those </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive...
 
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Articles and determiners Maria R & Antea C

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Articles and determiners Maria R & Antea C

  1. 1. María Robles Rueda Antea Cabanellas Arroyaga
  2. 3. <ul><li>Especific uses related to groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses on objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphatic use. </li></ul><ul><li>Most and the most. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of context. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><li>This is one way to refer to classes, and it is perhaps more formal than using a plural. </li></ul><ul><li>The tiger is threatened with extinction. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>National groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group as a whole: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French eat in restaurants more than the English . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single examples are not formed in the same way: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Frenchman/ woman, an Englishman/woman. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Other groups: </li></ul><ul><li>If they are clearly plural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social Democrats, the Rolling Stones </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Geographical names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following use the : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers: the Thames. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain ranges: the Alps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans: the Mediterranean. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique features: the Channel, the Artic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compass point/ areas: The East, the Middle East. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries (Collective or plural): the United Kingdom, the Netherlands. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This does not apply to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes: Lake Genova. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continents: Asia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries: France, Spain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Place names: </li></ul><ul><li>Post- modification, especially with… of… place a role in place names. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leeds University/ the University of Leeds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If the first part of a place-name is another name, the normal rules about zero article are applied. The same applies in geographical names </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronw’s restaurant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canvey Island. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Unique objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moon, the sun. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This planet has a small moon. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Titles: </li></ul><ul><li>This tend to be ‘unique’. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The director of studies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If the title is post-modified (have a description coming after the noun), the is more likely, but not essential. Compare: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She became President in 2008. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She became ( the ) president of the country in 2008. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Other titles: </li></ul><ul><li>The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers: The Independent, The Sunday Times </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Musical instruments: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jane plays the flute (in general). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The guitar is my favourite instrument (in general). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is, of course, still possible to use an article when we refer to an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was a small brown flute in the window of the shop. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>This is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This hotel is the place to stay. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><li>Most hotels in England are very expensive. (making a generalization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the most expensive hotel in town. (talking about a specific hotel) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The definite article refers to already mentioned items, and so its use depends on context. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Smiths had a son and a daughter. The son was in the Army and the daughter was training to be a doctor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the Saturday, there was a terrible storm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here, the Saturday refers to a day in an area of time already mentioned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the Saturday of that week… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Indefinite articles </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>A boy An apple A car </li></ul>A / AN Use ' a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel ( a,e,i,o,u ) NOTE: An before an h mute - an hour, an honour. A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a eu ropean, a u niversity, a u nit
  17. 18. <ul><li>to refer to something for the first time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An elephant and a mouse fell in love. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you like a drink ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I've finally got a good job . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>with names of jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John is a doctor . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary is training to be an engineer . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with nationalities and religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John is an Englishman . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kate is a Catholic . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with musical instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( BUT to describe the activity we say &quot;He plays the violin.&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with names of days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was born on a Thursday </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>to refer to a kind of, or example of something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mouse had a tiny nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the elephant had a long trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it was a very strange car </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a shame ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She's such a beautiful girl . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'd like an orange and two lemons please. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notice also that we usually say a hundred , a thousand , a million . </li></ul>NOTE: that we use 'one ' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat. We've got six computers but only one printer .
  21. 22. <ul><li>Cases in which there is no need of the article </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>After the 's possessive case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His brother's car . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter's house . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice is the main food in Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk is often added to tea in England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War is destructive. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>with the names of languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French is spoken in Tahiti. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English uses many words of Latin origin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian is a relatively new language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with names of countries (if singular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany is an important economic power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He's just returned from Zimbabwe . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( But: I'm visiting the United States next week.) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>with the names of meals . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunch is at midday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinner is in the evening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakfast is the first meal of the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with people's names (if singular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John ' s coming to the party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George King is my uncle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>with titles and names : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( But: the Queen of England, the Pope . ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with professions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering is a useful career. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He'll probably go into medicine . </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>with names of shops : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'll get the card at Smith's . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you go to Boots for me? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with years : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1948 was a wonderful year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you remember 1995 ? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She lives near Lake Windermere . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you visited Long Island ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victoria Station is in the centre of London. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you direct me to Bond Street? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They're flying from Heathrow. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in broadcasting) at school at work at University in church in prison in bed </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. The word ' people ' by itself is a general reference to some group of human beings. If someone says ' these people', we know which group they are talking about, and if they say ' a lot of people' we know how big the group is. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Definite and Indefinite articles the, a, an Demonstratives this, that, these, those </li></ul><ul><li>Possessives my, your, his, her, its, our, their </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifiers a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers one, ten, thirty, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributives all, both, half, either, neither, each, every </li></ul><ul><li>Difference words other, another </li></ul><ul><li>Question words Which, what, whose </li></ul><ul><li>Defining words which, whose </li></ul><ul><li>The following words are pre-determiners . They go before determiners, such as articles: such and what, half, rather, quite </li></ul>

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