Developed by Bruce Tuckman in the 1970sHelpful explanation of team development and behaviorModel explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style;Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached
Presented by Dr. Debbie AugustinPM ChallengeThursday, February 10, 2011WHEN GOOD PROJECT TEAMS GO BAD!
PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Groups and teams Stages of team development What to do when things go wrong
WHAT IS ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT? Organization Development (OD) is: A holistic approach through partnership that develops organizations, teams, and individuals contributing to NASA’s mission success The process of working across multiple levels of organizational systems to develop strategy, improve performance, and build effective relationships A collaborative, planned process for guiding an organization from current state to desired future state
GROUP OR TEAM? Consider a group or team of which you are a member. Is it a group or a team? What leads you to that conclusion?
WHAT IS A TEAM? A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. 5
TEAM CHARACTERISTICS Two or more individuals Shared or common goal(s) Task interdependency Productive outcome(s)
WORK GROUPS VS. TEAMS WORK GROUP TEAM Leader directed Leadership Shared leadership Chain of command Structure Decentralized decision making Individual goals Performance Common goals Goals Individual Responsibility & Mutual (primary) Accountability Individual (secondary) Matched to individual Skills & Complementary, job Competencies multi-skilled Shared information Communication Collaborative Individual Rewards Shared
STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENTForming “Testing”Storming “Infighting”Norming “Disciplined”Performing “Productive”Adjourning “Closure” 8
STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT 3 2 norming storming 4 1 performing forming
YOUR TEAM’S STAGE Based on the brief descriptions, what stage is your team experiencing?
STORMING This stage of development is characterized by competition and strained relationships among team members Conflict cannot be avoided during this stage and is usually surrounding issues of power, leadership, and decision making This is the most crucial stage a team must work through
TEAM ISSUES Commitment Communication Involvement Accountability Supervision role Pay and rewards Management support Organizational Integration
STORMING BEHAVIORS Discrepancy between hopes and reality Disagreement about goals, tasks, and action plans Lack of progress toward goals Feelings of incompetence and confusion Competition for power and attention Formation of sub-groups “Scapegoating” Resistance to leadership Miscommunication Unresolved conflicts
TEAM DIAGNOSIS Complete the team assessment to determine which issues/challenges are currently facing your team
What is the one thing that is true of all teams?
UNDERSTANDING THE TEAM PLAYERS Tactician Seek to have impact, to get results Logistician Seek responsibility, accountability, and predictability Strategist Seek to understand how the world and things in it work Diplomat Seek identity, meaning, and significance; relationship-oriented
TRIGGERS THAT MAY LEAD TO STORMING DIPLOMAT LOGISTICIAN• Feeling hurt when not appreciated for • Feeling burdened by notunique personal contributions understanding personal responsibilities• Feeling apathetic when seeing no • Feeling useless with no sense of placemeaning or significance STRATEGIST TACTICIAN• Feeling incompetent • Feeling trapped or stuck with no• Feeling powerless with no sense of freedom to actmastery or control • Feeling as though there is no chance to make an impact Gerke & Berens, 2005
IDENTIFYING THE CONFLICTS Mismatch of talents and roles Collision of Approaches Core values Time orientation Evaluating solutions Styles of learning Approach to task and relationships Gerke & Berens, 2005
NEEDS FROM THE LEADER Facilitate the conflict Accept and understand differences Support and encourage participation Acknowledge difficulties Encourage two-way communication Reinforce commitment Facilitate decision making Gerke & Berens, 2005
THE PLAYERS WANT TO KNOW THAT… DIPLOMAT LOGISTICIAN• Team will come out on the other side •Something practical and useful willof storming come from storming• The leader will foster team cohesion • The leader is managing the process• The leader will turn disagreements into • The leader is providing structure fordialogue working through this stage• The leader will surface underlying • The leader is sharing the frameworkdissatisfaction for the storming process STRATEGIST TACTICIAN• What comes out of storming will make • Opportunities won’t be missed and thesense storming process will pay off• The leader is competent and • The leader will move the team tostrategically handling the storming action• The leader is sharing a framework for • The leader will navigate a way throughthe storming process the storming process Gerke & Berens,
TOOLS Dialogue The Ladder of Inference Active listening Assessments Organization development
RECAP: HOW TO MOVE THROUGH STORMING STAGE Revisit “Forming” actions Develop skills Clarify work processes Discuss differences Focus on clarity of communication Focus on shared interests
Gerke, S.K., & Berens, L.V. (2005). The I in team. Huntington Beach, CA: Unite Business Press.Stewart, G.L., Manz, C.C., & Sims, H.P. (1999). Team work and group dynamics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
MORE ON TUCKMAN’S 4 STAGES Forming: “Forming Teams: A Critical Storming: “When Good Project Teams Stage for Project Managers” – Go Bad!” - February 10th 4:30 p.m. February 9th 2-3 p.m. Norming: “Listening, Learning, Performing – “Project Scientist’s Key Leading: Use of 360’s in Project Role in Project Performance” - Teams” – TBD TBD All Stages: “Collaboration Agreement: A Blueprint for Team Success” – February 10th 3 p.m.
FOR INFORMATION ON OD AT YOUR CENTER… Center OD Lead Phone # EmailARC Linda Jensen 650.604.6985 Linda.M.Jensen@nasa.govDFRC Paul Condon 661.276.2656 Paul.D.Condon@nasa.govGRC Adam Ross 216.433.2941 Adam.P.Ross@nasa.govGSFC Kathy Doyle 301.286.8319 Kathryn.L.Doyle@nasa.govHQ Kim Haney-Brown 202.358.0433 Kim.R.Haney-Brown@nasa.govJSC Paul Cruz 281.483.1158 Pablo.Cruzfirstname.lastname@example.orgKSC Laura Gallaher 321.867.6830 Laura.C.Gallaher@nasa.govLaRC Myisha Tucker 757.864.6084 Myisha.Tucker@nasa.govMSFC Jim Andrews 256.544.6846 James.G.Andrews@nasa.govSSC Anita Douglas 228.688.3698 Anita.W.Douglas@nasa.gov
• 1. FORMING Individual Effort• 2. STORMING Transition –• 3. NORMING Group Work• 4. PERFORMING Team Work
STAGE 1: FORMING This stage of team development is an exploration period Team members are often cautious and guarded in their interactions not really knowing what to expect from other team members They explore boundaries of acceptable behavior Behaviors expressed in this early stage are generally polite and noncommittal
STAGE 2: STORMING This stage is characterized by continued politeness in meetings followed by side conversations in subgroups about problems There may be quiet undermining of the teams and/or team leadership Team members may engage in verbal confrontations
STAGE 3: NORMING The Norming stage of development is characterized by cohesiveness among team members After working through the Storming stage, team members discover they do in fact have common interests They learn to appreciate their differences They work better together They problem solve together
STAGE 4: PERFORMING This stage of team development is the result of working through the first three stages By this time, team members have learned how to work together as a fully functioning team They can define tasks They can work out their relationships successfully They can manage their conflicts They can work together to accomplish their
STAGE 5: ADJOURNING This is the final stage of team development for teams that are not permanent Tuckman added this stage to his model later Adjourning takes place as the team begins to break up and individual members move on to other activities