Teambuilding Workshop - ULS Leadership Program


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This presentation is designed to help leaders understand why to use teams and how to lead and work with them. Includes sections on kickoff meetings, team size, dealing with issues of trust, establishing norms and getting people to participate. This is one of the workshops in Pitt’s University Library System (ULS) Leadership Program.

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Teambuilding Workshop - ULS Leadership Program

  1. 1. Teambuilding WorkshopULS Leadership ProgramKaren Calhoun5 March 2013This work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.1
  2. 2. Outcomes – Paths to Personal MasteryLearning Outcome UnitsUnderstanding teamsWhy use teams?Types of teamsHow teamwork developsTeam sizeRoles people play in teamsExerciseLeading teamsTeam kickoffsDealing with five team dysfunctionsTrust and trustworthinessExerciseWorking with teamsEstablishing normsGetting people to participateCreative thinkingExercise - Rewarding teams2
  3. 3. Agenda Topic TimeArrival 10:25-10:35 amUnderstanding teams 10:35-11:45 amBox lunches 11:45 am-12:15 pmLeading teams 12:15-1:15pmShort break 1:15-1:25 pmWorking with teams 1:25-2:25 pmClose and get onshuttle2:25-2:30 pm3
  5. 5. Why Use Teams?□ They get thingsdone□ They tear downorganizational walls□ They strengthenorganizations byencouragingcommunications, action, andcollaboration5Photo: Mission Control celebratesApollo 13 splashdownRights: public domain
  6. 6. Some benefits and costs ofteamsBenefits□ Better solutions fromcross-functionalexpertise□ Educate and increaseunderstanding□ Build consensus andhelp to managetransitions□ Encourage stakeholderinvolvement andnetworkingCosts or challenges□ Overhead ofcoordination andintegration□ Team members whoare ―free riders‖(loafing)□ Possible middlemanagementresistance□ How to evaluate?6
  7. 7. What is a team?7―A team is a small number of peoplewith complementary skills who arecommitted to a common purpose, set ofperformance goals, and approachfor which they hold themselves mutuallyaccountable‖—Katzenbach and SmithHandout: Katzenbach, Jon R., andDouglas K. Smith. 1993. ―The Discipline ofTeams.‖ Harvard Business Review 71:111-120.
  8. 8. Calling a group a team does not makethem a teamWork groups□ Individuals responsiblefor own results□ Individual workproducts□ Often report to a singlemanager□ Often ongoing, formalpart of hierarchyTeams□ Responsible for ownand team’s results□ Collective workproducts□ Usually facilitated by ateam leader□ Sometimes temporary(project-based)8―The essence of a team is common commitment‖—Katzenbach and Smith
  9. 9. How teams developRequirements□ Distinct identity□ Shared values□ Definite intention□ Understood roles□ Clear, shared norms□ Defined processes, e.g.for planning andsolving problemsKey questions□ Who are we?□ What do we stand for?□ Where are we going?□ Who will do what?□ How work together?□ How will we allocateresources, manageconflict, adapt?9
  10. 10. Stages of Team DevelopmentStage 1Feelings not dealtwithStatus quoLow involvementUnclear objectivesTop-down decisionsStage 2Feelings raisedExperimentationGreater listeningand involvementIssues and optionsdiscussed/debatedSometimesuncomfortableStage 3CamaraderiedevelopingShared purpose androlesCommitmentemergingConstructive conflictmanagementGroup norms solidifyStage 4InterpersonalresponsibilityResponsible for ownand team’s resultsShared commitmentand leadershipAdaptability andflexibilityShared group normsand values10
  11. 11. Tuckman Model of Group Development111 Forming2 Storming3 NormingPerformingAdjourning Tuckman, Bruce W. 1965. DevelopmentalSequence in Small Groups.Psychological Bulletin 63 (6)
  12. 12. Step Ladder ProcessSAFETY• Whoam ITRUST• Who areyouGROUP• Who areweGOALS• What’sour taskVISION• Whereare wegoing12(and sometimes we mighthave to stop and rebuild)
  13. 13. Setting up teams for learning andperformance13Figure adapted from Hebenstreit, Karl. 2008. ―IPT Bldg. III -- Implementing IPTs -- An Action View.‖
  14. 14. Optimal Team Size141 5 10 20Team Size(number of people)OptimumTeam SizeAdapted from Hebenstreit, Karl. 2008. ―IPT Bldg. II -- Understanding IPTs -- A Systems View.‖
  15. 15. Team SizeConsiderationsA useful source inaddition to this chart:Hoegl, Martin. 2005.―Smaller Teams–BetterTeamwork: How toKeep Project TeamsSmall.‖ BusinessHorizons 48 (3): 209–214.15Chart: McBurnie, Anton, and 3Circle Partners. Belbin North America. 2013.―Fast Team Fundamentals: When It Comes To Teams – Size Matters!‖
  16. 16. Roles People Play in Teams (Belbin)1. Chair – coordinator: clarifies tasks, coordinates efforts, optimizesteam member talents2. Shaper – motivated to get results; shapes and guides teamefforts3. Plant – source of creativity and imagination; problem solver;―idea person‖4. Monitor–evaluator - objective analyst, critic, interpreter of ideasand contributions5. Company worker - turns decisions and strategies into tasks thatpeople can accomplish6. Resource investigator – has many outside contacts; can obtainideas or information7. Team worker – promotes unity and harmony; holds teamtogether; maintains consensus8. Completer-finisher – worries about detail, deadlines and whatcould go wrong16
  17. 17. Exercise – Evaluating Team Character□ Working by yourself:□ Consider the ULS teams of which you are a member andchoose one to evaluate□ Analyze the character of your team using the ―TeamCharacter Inventory‖ handout□ Working at your tables:□ Compare and discuss your personal findings□ Select one factor from each Inventory category (Safetyand Trust, Group, Goals, Vision) that you feel is key to thesuccess of teams in the ULS□ Of those four, select one to report out to the group□ Report your choice and explain why you chose it17
  18. 18. Subject of a post-workshop conversation?18TWO FLY-BY SLIDES BEFORELUNCH
  19. 19. Observing Group Roles (see handout)19Type of Role ExamplesTask Roles InitiatingInformation Seeking or GivingClarifyingSummarizingConsensus TestingMaintenance Roles EncouragingHarmonizingExpressing Group FeelingsGate KeepingCompromising/NegotiatingNorms Setting or TestingHindering Roles DominatingWithdrawingAvoiding, degradingSide conversations, multitasking
  20. 20. More on people and teams – forstrategizing at another timeTo team or not to team□ Integrators – like relating topeople from otherdepartments – want to beon team□ Receptors – respect othersbut don’t desire personalrelationships – goodcontacts but not goodteam members□ Isolates – specialists whowant to work alone – betteras consultants than teammembersDifficult behaviors□ Arguer – tries to cross others up,quibbles, challenges□ Attacker – personally attacksothers, creates destructive conflicts□ Know-it-all – won’t listen andresents being told; imposesopinions on others□ Gossip – introduces overheard infoand hearsay□ Busybody – multitasks duringmeeting, ducks in and out□ Mouse – won’t speak up□ Repeater – ax to grind□ Wanderer – long winded, often offtrack20
  21. 21. LUNCH2111:45 – 12:15Photo by: Blanche, WilPersistent National Archives at College ParkRights: Unrestricted
  22. 22. LEADING TEAMS22
  23. 23. Team Kick-offs23KickoffFigure adapted from Hebenstreit, Karl. 2008. ―IPT Bldg. III -- Implementing IPTs -- An Action View.‖
  24. 24. □ Is a team approach best?□ Mission, tasks, deliverables(charter)□ Resources, constraints,timeline□ Level of team authority□ Membership□ Team leader 24Management: situationalassessment, scenarios, peopleTeam: Kick-offmeetingTeam is formed□ Introductions□ Big Picture□ Vision and mission(empowering)□ Expectations□ Tasks/deliverables□ Timeline□ Communicationsrequirements□ Dependencies□ Some kick-offs start witha social event□ Some kick-offs are offsiteTEAM KICK-OFFMANAGEMENT ACTIONSCHARTER
  25. 25. Apollo 13 Kick-off Meeting?25WATCH THE CLIP AND IDENTIFY:Senior Management Actions Team Actions--Situational assessment --First meeting--Scenarios for success--Assign people
  26. 26. Some ideas for kick-off meetings – warmingpeople up, orienting them□ A lot depends on context, but maybe …□ Food□ Walk around / field trip□ Pre-readings to discuss□ Guest speaker□ Brainstorming exercise (with post-its)—maybe goalsor stakeholders or …□ Self-audit with group exercise of some kind□ Lightning round (to get everyone to say something)□ …26
  27. 27. Dealing with Team Dysfunction27From:Lencioni, Patrick. 2005.―Overcoming the FiveDysfunctions of aTeam.‖ Audio-TechBusiness BookSummaries 14 (5).
  28. 28. Who do you trust?28Gallup. 2012. ―Honesty/Ethics in Professions.‖ December 3. 53 523824 21 1911 10 8Honesty/Ethics in Professions - Extract from GallupPoll, Nov 26-29, 2012% Very high/HighPlease tell me how you wouldrate the honesty and ethicalstandards of people in thesedifferent fields—very high,high, average, low or verylow?
  29. 29. Trust, Leadership, Credibility, Influenceand Reputation29
  30. 30. Trust and Trustworthiness□ Trust:□ Strengthensrelationships□ Sustains positivechange□ Increaseseffectiveness□ Trustworthiness:□ Your own andothers’ confidencein your characterand competence30CHARACTER + COMPETENCE = TRUSTWORTHINESS
  31. 31. Character and Competence□ Character:□ True to your feelings,values,commitments□ Expressing yourselfwith courage andconsideration□ Abundancementality□ Competence:□ Practical knowledgeand skills (incl.communication)□ Able to plan,organize, forecast,solve problems,innovate…□ Able to workcooperatively withothers31
  32. 32. Trust is Fragile – Handle with CareDeposits□ Clear expectations□ Kindness, courtesy□ Making/keepingpromises□ Loyalty to the absent□ Apologies□ Accepting responsibility□ Listening openly□ Giving creditWithdrawals□ Unclear expectations□ Unkindness, rudeness□ Breaking promises,underdelivering□ Disloyalty, duplicity□ Arrogance□ Blaming others□ Being defensive□ Taking credit32
  33. 33. Exercise – Trustworthiness Survey1. Working by yourself, complete the―Trustworthiness Survey‖ handout and circleone or two items where you gave yourself alower score2. Then on the back, complete the following―personal workout‖ by jotting down foryourself:a. What specific ―deposits‖ will you make, when, to work on your trustchallenges?b. Make a quick inventory of the promises/commitments you have made toothers. Ask yourself how you are doing on fulfilling them. If not as well asyou want, jot down ideas of what you can do in future to avoidundelivered promises33
  34. 34. WORKING WITH TEAMSLast hour!34
  35. 35. Establishing Group Norms (Not!)35
  36. 36. An early team conversation□ Pay particular attention to first meetings□ What leaders do is more important than what theysay□ Talk/brainstorm about ―how we will work together‖to meet team purpose and goals. Possibly:Starting and ending on time – Coming prepared – Having agendas -Attendance, paying attention, multitasking during meetings -Contributions (everyone does real work) – Results orientation(everyone gets assignments and does them) – Making the team apriority - Discussion (no sacred cows) – If you don’t understand, ask –Don’t hesitate to disagree - Participate, don’t dominate – Don’t talkover someone else – Actively listen – Evidence-based analysis -Offering constructive criticism – No finger pointing - Have some fun!36
  37. 37. Getting people to participate□ Pay particular attention tofirst meetings□ Be patient□ Gradual acceptance ofgroup norms will help, aspeople feel safer□ Early, interactive trainingsession will help□ Use interactive approachesthat make it easy for all tocontribute□ Encourage creative thinkingand use brainstormingtechniques37
  38. 38. Building Your Team Interaction Tool Kit(more handouts)□ Brainstorming, brain-writing□ Force field analysis – Explore factorsthat support or hinder a change□ Criteria analysis – generate criteria,then use them to evaluate alternatives□ Stakeholder analysis – Identifying thoseaffected by an upcoming change□ So many more …38
  39. 39. Creative Thinking39―Remember: every right idea is eventuallythe wrong idea. Innovation means not onlygenerating new ideas, but escaping fromobsolete ones as well.‖—Roger Van Oech
  40. 40. Barriers to CreativeThinkingKiller phrases:―You can’t be serious‖―It just won’t work here‖―That sounds complicated‖―We need morebackground‖―Who thought of that?‖―Let’s think about that later.‖Roadblocks:Self-imposed barriersFear of appearing foolishConformityClosed mindednessNo sense of humorEvaluating too quickly40Photo by Neil Howard. CC-BY-NC
  41. 41. "It is easier to tone down a wild idea than tothink up a new one."- Alex Osborn□ Osborn’s four rules for brainstorming:1. Defer judgment – withhold criticism – nopositive or negative judging during ideation2. Free-wheel – be aware of barriers andconsciously suspend them3. Quantity, then quality – four tons of ore forone ounce of gold4. Hitchhike – piggyback – during ideation,suspend the notion of idea ownership41
  42. 42. Team recognition: Celebrating success42Photo: US Air Force. CC-BY-NC
  43. 43. Recognizing and CelebratingTeams43Examples –Recognition for:Leading subteams―Extra mile‖ effortsSpeaking upHitting targetsDashboardsSharePoint updatesOrchestrating eventsEtc., etc.
  44. 44. Last exercise: Trying out brainstormingat your tables□ In what ways mightteam success berecognized andrewarded?**Do not consider directmonetarycompensation1. Follow Osborn’sfour rules forbrainstorming (slide41)2. Group prizes for:□ The most ideas□ The wildest idea□ The funniest idea44
  45. 45. In whatways mightteamsuccess berecognizedandrewarded?*
  46. 46. In whatways mightteamsuccess berecognizedandrewarded?*
  47. 47. Outcomes – Paths to Personal MasteryLearning Outcome UnitsUnderstanding teamsWhy use teams?Types of teamsHow teamwork developsTeam sizeRoles people play in teamsExerciseLeading teamsTeam kickoffsDealing with five team dysfunctionsTrust and trustworthinessExerciseWorking with teamsEstablishing normsGetting people to participateCreative thinkingExercise - Rewarding teams47
  48. 48. Other References□ Belbin, R. Meredith. 1981. Management teams: whythey succeed or fail. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.□ Osborn, Alex Faickney. 1953. Applied Imagination:Principles and Procedures of Creative Thinking.Scribner.□ Von Oech, Roger. 1990. A Whack on the Side of theHead. New York: Warner Books.48