Wildfires revision guide


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Wildfires revision guide

  1. 1. Wildfires Revision Help<br />
  2. 2. Distribution of Wildfires<br /> Areas where it is hot and dry.<br />A belt across the Sahel in Africa <br />California( eastern USA)<br />Parts of Australia<br />
  3. 3. Causes of Wildfires<br />Human Causes<br />Natural causes<br />Accidents children playing with matches, camp fires cigarettes<br />Broken bottles act as magnifying glass<br />Slash and burn<br />Arson <br />Sparks from train wheels , machinery military training<br />barbeques<br />Lightning<br />Spontaneous heating ( material is heated to a point that a spark is not needed)due to large amounts of plant build up.<br />Volcanic eruptions<br />Spread quickly in hot dry weather , fallen branches and leaves dry and catch fire easily especially when there are strong winds e.g. Santa Ana winds (140 km per hour).<br />South facing slopes -sun dries out the vegetation increasing risk of fires <br />Steep slopes means fires spread quickly<br />
  4. 4. Causes of wildfires in New South Wales Australia<br />Arson 37%<br />Farming 10%<br />Campfires 13%<br />Lightning 23%<br />Other 16%<br />Trains 1%<br />
  5. 5. Effects of Californian Wildfires<br />Primary effects<br />Secondary effects<br />9 people killed <br />85 injured<br />640,000 people had to evacuate <br />1,800 homes destroyed($1.6billion damage)<br />200,000 hectares of grassland destroyed<br />Water air pollution( 3 times normal level)<br />Breathing problems for people<br />Loss of jobs and income for farm workers <br />Loss of habitats for animals to survive <br />Loss of income from businesses <br />
  6. 6. Reducing the effects of wildfires<br />Prevention educate people ( Smokey Bear campaign), how to reduce the risks of sparkes from vehicles, and how to dispose of cigarettes.<br />Making homes as fire proof as possible .<br />GIS to forecast <br />Fire lines to prevent breaks<br />
  7. 7. Responses to wildfires<br />Fire fighters put out fires with water and gel<br />Fire resistant chemicals are released from aircrafts onto wildlife <br />Areas ahead of fires are sprayed to stop it spreading<br />Helicopters are fitted with large buckets filled up with water from lakes or the sea <br />Fire lines are created, without a supply of fuel the wildfire will eventually burn out<br />Backfires is set alight to remove the fuel in the direction the fire is spreading<br />
  8. 8. Will there be more wildfires in the future<br />yes<br />Due to global warming oceans have increased by 0.5C<br />Last 30 years more tropical storms with wind speeds of 200km/hr<br />Number of tropical storms has increases in last 100 years<br />no<br />We do not have evidence to support this<br />
  9. 9. Satellite technology has only been used since 1960.<br />There appears to be a natural cycle of variations in the number of hurricanes.<br />1995-2005 average wind speeds of storms increased by 15% and the length increased by 60%<br />More tropical storms reaching category 4 and 5 <br />
  10. 10. Cost of damage is increasing<br />More people are affluent ( well off) and choose to live or spend their holidays near the coast ..... The value of property has increased....... There is more infrastructure ( due to the increase in population)..... This has meant there is greater potential damage and the economic costs of hurricanes are increasing<br />
  11. 11. More wildfires to come?<br />yes<br /> By 2007 the length of wildfire season in USA had increased by 78 days<br />Average size of wildfires and total area destroyed has increased<br />Global warming <br />Increased temperatures<br />no<br />Part of a natural cycle <br />
  12. 12. Cost of damage is increasing<br />Cost of the damage of wildfires is increasing (MEDC).<br />In USA over 10 million homes have been built in wildland-urban interface. More people are more affluent and choose to live or have a second home in remote rural areas <br />