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Weather and natural disasters trey miller


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Weather and natural disasters trey miller

  1. 1. Trey Miller Perspectives on Nature and the Environment Dr. McGinley
  2. 2. <ul><li>Explain the cause of global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the facts about natural disasters and other unusual weather patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what humans are doing to cause changes in weather patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the effects of global warming on natural phenomena </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - reviews the latest scientific findings and writes a report summarizing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Processes alone are NOT causing global warming </li></ul><ul><li>GHG’s ( Greenhouse Gasses ) emitted by humans are the only way to explain global warming </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>CO2 – Most prominent greenhouse gas contributing to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Methane – one molecule of methane causes 20 times more warming than CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxide – 300 times more powerful than CO2! </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs – 1000 times more powerful than CO2! </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1990, 20% increase in GHG’s emitted </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The effects are not waiting for some far-flung future… </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE HAPPENING NOW </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Could Just One Degree Change the World? - YouTube </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the poles </li></ul><ul><li>Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches by the end of the century </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Storm surge in Louisiana shows the effects of rising sea levels </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Ecosystems will change </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Floods and droughts will become more common </li></ul>Source: IPCC, 2007
  10. 13. <ul><li>An event is categorized as a natural disaster if it kills 10 or more people or leaves at least 100 people injured. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of natural disasters reported each year has been steadily increasing in recent decades, from 78 in 1970 to 348 in 2004. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul><ul><li>Avalanches </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency and severity of these types of disasters have remained steady in recent decades. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoons </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>These types of disasters have been increasing in frequency and severity for the past 25 years. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>People are tempting nature with rapid urbanization in flood-prone regions </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the likelihood that their towns will be affected by flash floods and coastal floods. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Scientists believe the increase in hydro-meteorological disasters is due to human-caused factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming is increasing the temperatures of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, leading to more intense storms of all types, including hurricanes. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Taiwan is the place on Earth most vulnerable to natural disasters, with 73 percent of its land and population exposed to three or more threats. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>A hurricane is an intense tropical storm. </li></ul><ul><li>Form over warm tropical oceans (sea surface temperatures are above 80 °F) </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water evaporation causes very high humidity in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to thunderstorms. </li></ul><ul><li>System of thunderstorms begin to rotate </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Energy from ocean heat also generates high winds. </li></ul><ul><li>The more heat available in the surface water, the more potential there is to generate heavy rain and high winds. </li></ul><ul><li>If wind speeds exceed 35 mph, the National Hurricane Center deems the system a tropical storm and assigns it a name. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>A hurricane has sustained wind speeds of 74 mph or greater. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Hurricane Center categorizes hurricanes according to their maximum wind speed based on the Saffir-Simpson scale: </li></ul>
  19. 22. Saffir – Simpson Hurricane Scale Category Wind Speed (mph) Storm surge (feet) 1 74 – 95 4 – 5 2 96 – 110 6 – 8 3 111 – 130 9 – 12 4 131 – 155 13 – 18 5 > 155 > 18
  20. 23. <ul><li>Hurricanes can spawn tornadoes and cause power outages in other locations </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>North Atlantic - there has been a clear increase in the frequency of tropical storms and major hurricanes. </li></ul><ul><li>This increase in frequency correlates strongly with the rise in sea surface temperature, and recent scientific studies link this temperature increase to global warming. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Several studies show a clear global trend toward increased intensity of the strongest hurricanes over the past three decades. </li></ul><ul><li>The strongest trends are in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC – “There is a human contribution to the observed trend of hurricane intensification since the 1970s.” </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>While Katrina was strengthening from a tropical storm to a category 5 hurricane, as it passed between the Florida Keys and the Gulf Coast, the surface waters were unusually warm - about 2 degrees F warmer than normal for that time of year. </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>According to the IPCC – </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in precipitation are very likely in high-latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases are likely in subtropical regions </li></ul><ul><li>Very likely that heat waves, and heavy precipitation will continue to become more frequent. </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>Sea level rise and increases in tropical storm activity will lead to damage as global warming continues. </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>Caused by an increase in particulates such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere due to human action. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles reflect sunlight back into space. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a cooling effect that could possibly mask the effects of global warming. </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Causes temperature irregularities between populated and unurbanized areas. </li></ul><ul><li>As the atmosphere seeks to balance extremes, violent weather phenomena occurs more frequently. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Pollution Super Cloud - Global Dimming </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>Earthquakes are seen as something outside of human control, but there is evidence that human activity can trigger minor events and at least one major event. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 6th, 1971 – a five megaton nuclear test bomb was fired underground in Alaska. </li></ul><ul><li>Triggered a major earthquake and a small tsunami. </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>The United States is not prepared to handle multiple catastrophic events in a short time period. </li></ul><ul><li>It can have profound influence on the entire ecosystem, including the human race and civilization. </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>Know what humans are doing to make weather and natural disasters worse. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the difference between natural geologic and hydro-meteorological disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the effects of rising sea levels </li></ul><ul><li>Define global dimming </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>