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The cooperation between the United Sates and Japanon our respective Defense Exchanges with other countries to improve the international security environment By Col. Tadashi TABUCHI, Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Visiting Fellow, Henry L. Stimson Center 13th November, 2007 As a disclaimer, the contents of this briefing are my personal opinions and are not representative ideas or positions of the Japanese government or the Japan Ministry of Defense.
JGSDF Chief of Staff Tsutomu Mori visited Vietnam in 2007
The cooperation between the United Sates and Japanon our respective Defense Exchanges with other countries to improve the international security environment1. Defense Exchanges of Japan2. Defense Exchanges of the U.S.3. Necessity of the Cooperation between the U.S. and Japan4. Measures to Cooperate between the U.S. and Japan
1. Defense Exchanges of Japan(1) Overview a. Traditional Concepts During the Cold War the U.S.-Japan bilateral exchanges Japan-Russia After the Cold War the U.S.-Japan Confidence-building bilateral exchanges National Defense Program Guidelines (2004) One of the major roles to be played by defense capability “Proactive efforts, on its own initiative, to improve the international security environment” JMOD has been trying to redouble its effort to improve the security environment by deepening and widening defense exchanges.
Counterparts of Defense Exchanges of Japan Republic of Korea, Russia, China, Australia, U.K., India, Southeast Asian countries, ARF, European countries, NATO, etc. Exchanges between senior defense officials Regular consultation between staff Bilateral Exchanges between units Student exchanges Research exchanges Multilateral Security dialogue Joint exercises Types of Present Defense Exchanges of Japan
1) In recent years, Japan’s defense exchanges, considering changes ininternational situations and other changes, have come to place a greateremphasis on establishing and strengthening cooperative relations withthe global community.2) It also has expanded defense exchanges that go beyond Japan’sneighboring countries.3) Furthermore, Japan’s defense exchanges have come to place greaterimportance on practical exchanges, making them more action-basedexchanges.Multilateral Search and Rescue JMOD hosted multilateral forums Cobra Gold Exercise Exercises on disaster relief operations
b. New ConceptsBasic Policy for Defense Exchanges (April 2007) Aims of defense exchanges Confidence-building JMOD hosted multilateral forums Dealing with security issues. on disaster relief operations Directions of defense exchanges hereafter 1) Conduct defense exchanges for direct contribution to strengthen international cooperation - Dialogue for sharing awareness of security issues and cooperation on defense policy, - Bilateral and multilateral exercises connected with international peace cooperation activities of JSDF 2) Utilize a variety of defense-exchange means - Mutual visits of troops and sending officers to exercises as observers, - Sponsoring and participating in seminars, - Offering knowledge and skills of the JSDF on disaster relief activities One of the consideration for conducting defense exchanges The cooperation with the U.S. as necessary in the case of promoting defense exchanges of Japan and under taking account of the U.S. policy
(2) Sections in Charge of Defense Exchanges Japan Ministry of Defense The U.S.-Japan Defense Exchanges Bilateral Exchanges Internal International Policy Division U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation Division Bureaus (in Bureau of Defense Policy) Joint Defense Exchange Section Defense Planning SectionStaff Office (in Defense Plans and Policy Department) Ground Defense Exchange SectionStaff Office (Defense Policy and Programs Department） Maritime Defense Planning SectionStaff Office (in Operation and Plans Department) Air Defense Planning SectionStaff Office (Defense Planning and Policy Department)
2. Defense Exchanges of the U.S.(1) Overview 1) Defense cooperation 2) Confidence building measures Cooperation between the U.S. Building relations of mutual confidence and allies and friendly nations. with maybe China, Russia, etc.The U.S.-Philippines The U.S.-Japan The U.S.-China The U.S.-Russia 3) Security assistance Support to the foreign countries to improve its security environment. The U.S.-Vietnam
(2) Sections in Charge of Defense Exchanges 1) Defense cooperation 2) Confidence building measures the sections in the Joint Chief of Staff office that have regional portfolio, and each Office of Chief of Staff are in charge of comprehensive defense exchanges 3) Security assistance Defense Security Cooperation Agency in OSD
1) Defense cooperation 2) Confidence building measures More global engagement beyond Japan’s neighboring countries Japan-Pakistan Japan-India Joint exercises, multilateral seminars on disaster relief operations Cobra Gold Exercise 3) Security assistance ：Defense Exchanges of the U.S. ：Defense Exchanges of Japan Image of Defense Exchanges of the U.S. and Defense Exchanges of Japan
3. Necessity of the Cooperation between the U.S. and Japan (1) Mutual Understanding on Respective Basic Concepts for Defense ExchangesWhen Japan first began to intensify its efforts in defense exchanges after the end of the Cold War, some U.S. defense officials became suspicious that Japan might have begun to neglect the U.S.-Japan bilateral relations. Japan-Russia Reviewing the U.S.-Japan security relationshipGuidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation (1997) Both Governments recognize the importance and significance of defense exchanges and will promote such activities and cooperate as necessary. 2+2 Meeting Basic Policy for Defense Exchanges (2007) The U.S. and Japan to cooperate and understand each other on the respective concepts of defense exchanges.
(2) Creating Synergy on Defense Exchanges Mongolia Republic of Koreathe Philippines India Thailand the U.S. JAPAN U.S.-Japan Alliance, with the U.S.-Japan security relationship at its Malaysia Australia core, is the linchpin of American security policy Singapore Indonesia in the Asia-Pacific regionThe U.S.-Japan Alliance: Getting Asia Right through 2020 (Armitage-Nye Report II)The U.S.-Japan Alliance can and should remain at the core of the United States’ Asia strategy. And, the key to the success of this strategy is for the alliance to continue to evolve from an exclusive alliance based on common threats toward a more open, inclusive alliance based on common interests and values.
(3) Resolving Problems related Our Respective Defense Exchangeswith Other Countries Japan rejected The U.S. deployed these units the Australian military to Japan for training for several months.students’ training in Japan under Japanese Law. The U.S. couldn’t receive PLA officers NIDS planned to send who were studying in NIDS NO a delegation of students under U.S. regulations. to the U.S. NO The U.S. Marine Corps received military students NIDS received military form the Australian Defense Force students from China PLA. in aviation units. 1) We have to cooperate with each other in order to understand, and have to list these problems. 2) If possible, we have to resolve these problems between the U.S. and Japan which occurred in our respective defense exchanges with other countries.
4. Measures to Cooperate between the U.S. and Japan(1) Purpose of the Cooperation The purpose of the cooperation on our respective defense exchanges between the U.S. and Japan, which share the fundamental values such as freedom and democracy, is to improve the international security environment and solidify peace and stability of the international community and the region.
(2) Setting up Consultation mechanism discuss cooperation in Defense ExchangesExisting Consultations- The U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee (2+2 Meeting)- High-level exchanges of defense officials- Regular consultations between defense authorities 2+2 MeetingWe need to set up new consultations on defense exchanges between the respective bodies in charge of defense exchanges in the U.S. and Japan. We have to eliminate the negative effects of bureaucratic sectionalism, and these consultations must include sections in charge of the U.S.-Japan bilateral exchanges.Contents of Consultations - to mutually understand the respective concepts of defense exchanges - to share the fruits of defense exchanges conducted thus far - to share ideas on defense exchanges hereafter, and establish the procedures for cooperation in order to strategically promote our respective defense exchanges. - to mutually understand, list and resolve problems between the U.S. and Japan which occurred in our respective defense exchanges
The Joint Statement of the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee, “Alliance Transformation: Advancing the U.S.-Japan Security and Defense Cooperation” (May 2007) highlighted some common strategic objectives, for instance,1)further encouraging China to conduct itself as a responsible international stakeholder, improve transparency in its military affairs, and maintain consistency between its stated policies and actions, 2)further strengthen trilateral cooperation among the U.S., Japan and Australia in the region and around the world, including in the areas of security and defense, 3)continuing to build upon partnership with India.1) China - Researchers of the U.S. and Japan are vigorously researching how to promote defense exchanges with China.2) Australia - Japan and Australia released the Japan-Australia Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation (March 2007). The U.S.-Japan-Australia - the first trilateral meeting of defense chiefs between the U.S., Japan and Australia was held at the occasion of the sixth Asia Security Conference (June 2007).3) India - the U.S., Japan and India conducted the first trilateral joint maritime exercise (April 2007). The U.S.-Japan-IndiaWe should promote such kinds of defense exchanges through proactive consultations.
(3) Areas of Concrete Cooperationa. Promote Bilateral Exchanges the U.S. Navy ship Peleliu, which included foreign military doctors and NGOs, visited Vietnam and other countries to support medical treatment efforts. the Asia-Pacific region JSDF doctors also took part in this activity. has diversity Such diversity will influence our respective defense exchanges to inform each other So if there are some areas of cooperation of the situations on wide variety of defense exchanges of the U.S. of respective such as activity of Peleliu, defense exchanges Japan should proactively take part in these.
b. Promote Multilateral Exchanges Mongolia Republic of Korea the Philippines India Thailand the U.S. JAPAN Indonesia Pakistan Earthquake Earthquake Malaysia Australia Singapore IndonesiaThe U.S. should lead allies and friendly nations as a hub of securityarrangements in the Asia-Pacific region, Japan has hosted seminars on and promote more multilateral disaster relief operations exchanges such as the Asia-Pacific Chief of Defense Conference. In future, Japan should expand such kind of seminars which related to operations. Japan has same advantage to promote defense exchanges with Southeast Asia, because this area is a priority region in Japanese ODA. So, Japan should use this Chief of Defense Conference in Japan advantage to promote multilateral exchanges.
c. Promote Track 2s It is not easy to conduct frank discussions with military officers of communist countries such as China, Vietnam, Laos and so on Track Two conferences, in official exchanges.which are hosted by the private sector and which participants part from their official position of their respective governments and discuss individual positions. So when we discuss with these countries on the common security concern of the U.S. and Japan, we should also apply Track Two approaches. Encouraging the peaceful resolution of issues concerning the Taiwan Strait through dialogue, Track Two conferences may also be effective.
d. Promote Bilateral and Multilateral Exercises Bilateral and Multilateral International Peace Cooperation Exercises Activities of JSDF IraqMultilateral Search and Rescue Exercises The Indian Ocean Golan Heights We should cooperate and promote Cobra Gold Exercise such defense exchanges furthermore. I think if Japan hopes to promote bilateral and multilateral exercises further, Japan needs to resolve the issue of exercising the right of collective self-defense Trilateral Joint Maritime Exercise so that Japan can do so (the U.S.-Japan-India) like other foreign military forces.
Conclusion General Vo Nguyen Giap said,“Vietnam hopes to promote defense exchanges with foreign countries.” Let the U.S. and Japan cooperate with each other on our respective defense exchanges with other countries to improve the international security environment.
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