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UNIT 1: HISTORY AND    STRUGGLE FOR    INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>Chapter 1: The Early History of  </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </...
Chapter 1: The Early History of    Malaysia <ul><li>Contribution of the Malay empire to the Malacca Sultanate. </li></ul><...
DEVELOPMENT OF MALACCA SULTANATE <ul><li>Strategic  Geographical  location </li></ul><ul><li>Famous  centre of trade </li>...
ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE: MALACCA SULTANATE SULTAN (KING) BENDAHARA LAKSAMANA TEMENGGUNG PENGHULU  BENDAHARI SYAHBANDAR * ...
DOWNFALL OF MALACCA SULTANATE <ul><li>Weakness in Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Disintegration among local community </...
COLONIAL ERA: PORTUGUESE IN MALACCA   <ul><li>Factors for arrival of Portuguese to East:  Gold; Gospel;Glory </li></ul><ul...
COLONIZATION ERA: DUTCH IN MALACCA   <ul><li>Reason the Dutch were interested in Malacca: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading  a...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>BRITISH IN PENANG - 1786 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved through deception by Fra...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>BRITISH IN SINGAPORE - 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved by Stamford Raffles t...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>Anglo-Dutch Treaty - 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Terms and Condition: </li></ul><...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>CHANGE FROM NON INTERVENTION TO AN INTERVENTION POLICY - 1874 </li></ul><ul>...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>BRITISH RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM 1874- 1895 </li></ul><ul><li>Residential System w...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>FEDERATED, UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES </li></ul><ul><li>Federated Malay States...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>FEDERATED, UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES </li></ul><ul><li>Unfederated Malay Stat...
COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA   <ul><li>DECENTRALIZATON </li></ul><ul><li>- Decentralization is the transfer of powe...
COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA   <ul><li>JAPANESE INVASION IN MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Reason:   </li></ul><ul><li>-...
COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA   <ul><li>HOW JAPANESE RULED MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Military Administration System ...
COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA   <ul><li>EFFECTS OF JAPANESE INVASION IN  MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Politic: </li></u...
COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA   <ul><li>EFFECTS OF JAPANESE INVASION IN  MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Social:  </li></u...
Chapter 2: The Struggle for    Independence  <ul><li>Features of the Malayan Union and the factors that brought about its ...
Malayan Union - 1945   <ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the priorities (Economic investments) of the British i...
Features of the Malayan Union Constitution   <ul><li>All 9 Malay states and strait Settlements (except Singapore) under Br...
Resistance for Malayan Union <ul><li>Why?????? </li></ul><ul><li>Method employed by Sir Harold MacMichael in obtaining the...
Struggle for nationalism <ul><li>Stages in nationalism in Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Apposition action by local Malays in va...
Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Federation of Malaya, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>-  In July 1946, a working commi...
Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Non-Malay Opposition to the Federation </li></ul><ul><li>   Bahasa Melayu –f...
Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>The Member System, 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: - To help prepare the peopl...
Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Towards Independence </li></ul><ul><li>A few by elections for Municipality Co...
Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Towards Independence </li></ul><ul><li>- In January 1956, Tunku Abdul Rahman ...
Chapter 3: The formation of    Malaysia <ul><li>Lecture outline </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that brought about the formation...
Formation of Malaysia Factors  - formation of Malaysia Understanding  for development Ethnic balance  and unity Collective...
Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Various reaction to the idea of formation of Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Sarawak </li></ul><u...
Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Process of the formation of ‘Malaysia’ </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysian Solidarity Consultative C...
<ul><li>THE END OF UNIT 1 </li></ul>10/27/11
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The Early History of Malaysia

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The Early History of Malaysia

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The Early History of Malaysia

  1. 1. UNIT 1: HISTORY AND STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>Chapter 1: The Early History of </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2: The Struggle for </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: The Formation of </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul>10/27/11
  2. 2. Chapter 1: The Early History of Malaysia <ul><li>Contribution of the Malay empire to the Malacca Sultanate. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes for the development and downfall of the Malacca Sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>British intervention in the states of Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Invasion in Malaya </li></ul>10/27/11
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT OF MALACCA SULTANATE <ul><li>Strategic Geographical location </li></ul><ul><li>Famous centre of trade </li></ul><ul><li>A Islamic studies centre </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the territories </li></ul><ul><li>A good diplomatic relationship with China </li></ul>10/27/11
  4. 4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE: MALACCA SULTANATE SULTAN (KING) BENDAHARA LAKSAMANA TEMENGGUNG PENGHULU BENDAHARI SYAHBANDAR * Each official is responsible for certain portfolio 10/27/11
  5. 5. DOWNFALL OF MALACCA SULTANATE <ul><li>Weakness in Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Disintegration among local community </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws in the Defence System </li></ul><ul><li>Trading deterioration </li></ul>10/27/11
  6. 6. COLONIAL ERA: PORTUGUESE IN MALACCA <ul><li>Factors for arrival of Portuguese to East: Gold; Gospel;Glory </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons the Portuguese were interested in Malacca: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading center: Spices, silk and etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To spread Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition among other imperialists </li></ul></ul>10/27/11
  7. 7. COLONIZATION ERA: DUTCH IN MALACCA <ul><li>Reason the Dutch were interested in Malacca: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading aspect: to compete with other colonialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The closing of the Port of Libson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish oppression in Holland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of Itinerario by Linschoten- contain details of navigation. </li></ul></ul>10/27/11
  8. 8. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>BRITISH IN PENANG - 1786 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved through deception by Francis Light </li></ul><ul><li>Why: </li></ul><ul><li>1) To monopolize spice trading in the </li></ul><ul><li>East </li></ul><ul><li>2) Trading Port </li></ul><ul><li>3) Navy Base </li></ul>10/27/11
  9. 9. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>BRITISH IN SINGAPORE - 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved by Stamford Raffles through his intervention to resolve the conflict in Johor. </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Dutch Treaty - 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>- A treaty between British and Dutch to create their settlement in the East. </li></ul>10/27/11
  10. 10. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>Anglo-Dutch Treaty - 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Terms and Condition: </li></ul><ul><li>- Territories to the north and east of the Malacca Strait were given to British </li></ul><ul><li>- Territories to the west and south came under Dutch influence </li></ul><ul><li>- Malacca was surrender to British </li></ul><ul><li>- Bengkulu and Sumatera release to Dutch. </li></ul><ul><li>Implication of the treaty </li></ul><ul><li>- The division of power: Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>- The end of the Johor empire as Johor-Riau </li></ul><ul><li>- The three main trading ports (Penang, Singapore and Malacca) under British influence. </li></ul><ul><li>- Straits Setlements in 1826 </li></ul>10/27/11
  11. 11. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>CHANGE FROM NON INTERVENTION TO AN INTERVENTION POLICY - 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>- Sucession dsipute between Malay states </li></ul><ul><li>- Conflicts among “Chinese Private Association” (Kongsi Gelap) to grab tin mine in Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>- Complaint from British merchants and investors </li></ul><ul><li>- Liberalization policy by Britain Government. </li></ul><ul><li>- The opening of Suez Canal- shorten the route between west </li></ul><ul><li>and east </li></ul><ul><li>- The Industrial Revolution in Europe in 19th century. </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to Pangkor Treaty in 1874 - Introduction of British </li></ul><ul><li>Residential System </li></ul>10/27/11
  12. 12. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>BRITISH RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM 1874- 1895 </li></ul><ul><li>Residential System was introduced in Perak (1874); Selangor (1874); Sungai Ujong (1874); Pahang (1888); Negeri Sembilan (1895) and Johor (1914). </li></ul><ul><li>Local Malays against the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of British Residential Systems in Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>- Politics : The power and authority of sultan was abolished </li></ul><ul><li>- Economy : Investment in Malaya increased; Tin mine getting developed; Urbanization in few places which lead to improper division of wealth between states and district in Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>- Social : Improve in Health system; Electric and water supply; Education and Transportation. </li></ul>10/27/11
  13. 13. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>FEDERATED, UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES </li></ul><ul><li>Federated Malay States </li></ul><ul><li>- Particpated by Perak, Selangor, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan </li></ul><ul><li>- Reason: - To set up uniform administration </li></ul><ul><li>- To create a balance economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>- To allow interstate projects to be </li></ul><ul><li>carried out </li></ul><ul><li>- To curb growing power of british </li></ul><ul><li>residents </li></ul>10/27/11
  14. 14. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>FEDERATED, UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES </li></ul><ul><li>Unfederated Malay States </li></ul><ul><li>- Particpated by Perlis, Kedah, Terengganu, Kelantan, Johore </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed in 1909 via Bangkok Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>- A british advisor is appointed to assist the </li></ul><ul><li>sultan in the administration </li></ul><ul><li>- All the states have great potential in economy </li></ul><ul><li>and trading activities. </li></ul><ul><li>- Sultan remained independent and powerful compare to the Federated Malay States. </li></ul>10/27/11
  15. 15. COLONIZATION ERA: BRITISH IN MALAYA <ul><li>DECENTRALIZATON </li></ul><ul><li>- Decentralization is the transfer of power </li></ul><ul><li>from Resident Generals and British </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors to the British High Comissioner. </li></ul><ul><li>- High Comissioner was also the governor </li></ul><ul><li>of Straits Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>- The purpose is to improve administration </li></ul><ul><li>of all the states. </li></ul>10/27/11
  16. 16. COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA <ul><li>JAPANESE INVASION IN MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese population increased </li></ul><ul><li>- Landscape structure </li></ul><ul><li>- Industrialization plan by Meiji </li></ul><ul><li>- Militarism spirit </li></ul><ul><li>- Earliest success of Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>- The World War II </li></ul><ul><li>- Nationalism spirit </li></ul>10/27/11
  17. 17. COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA <ul><li>HOW JAPANESE RULED MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Military Administration System </li></ul><ul><li>State Adiministration - formed “New Malaya” </li></ul><ul><li>Economy - industrialization - introduced new currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Social - “Niponggo” - Japanese language </li></ul>10/27/11
  18. 18. COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA <ul><li>EFFECTS OF JAPANESE INVASION IN MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Politic: </li></ul><ul><li>- Recognise and accept the sultan position. </li></ul><ul><li>- More local malays were trained in </li></ul><ul><li>administration, which lead to awakening of Nationalism spirit among local malays. </li></ul><ul><li>Economy: </li></ul><ul><li>- Rubber and tin mine were undeveloped. </li></ul><ul><li>- Inflation rate increased due to the wide </li></ul><ul><li>distribution of new Japanese currency without </li></ul><ul><li>any collateral value. </li></ul>10/27/11
  19. 19. COLONIZATION ERA: JAPANESE IN MALAYA <ul><li>EFFECTS OF JAPANESE INVASION IN MALAYA </li></ul><ul><li>Social: </li></ul><ul><li>- internal migration due to the lack of food </li></ul><ul><li>supply. </li></ul><ul><li>- There were poor healthcare. </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese treated chinese community in a cruel </li></ul><ul><li>manner which lead to formation of Malayan </li></ul><ul><li>People Anti Japanese Army (MPAJA) by them. </li></ul><ul><li>- Male labours were forced to work in the ‘Death </li></ul><ul><li>Railway Track’ (Thailand-Burma). </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction of Japanese language- “Niponggo” </li></ul>10/27/11
  20. 20. Chapter 2: The Struggle for Independence <ul><li>Features of the Malayan Union and the factors that brought about its dissolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of the various organisations and individuals who were involved in the struggle for our nation’s independence </li></ul><ul><li>The role Malayan Union in awakening the spirit of nationalism </li></ul>10/27/11
  21. 21. Malayan Union - 1945 <ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the priorities (Economic investments) of the British in Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>To combine all the province (Straits Settlements/Federated and Unfederated Malay States) -increase the administrative efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare the local Malays to form their own government. </li></ul>10/27/11
  22. 22. Features of the Malayan Union Constitution <ul><li>All 9 Malay states and strait Settlements (except Singapore) under British governor. </li></ul><ul><li>The sultan position remain in the field of religious only and overall power will be reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Local government will be managed by ‘Majlis Mesyuarat’ under the central administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship - will be equal to all races. </li></ul>10/27/11
  23. 23. Resistance for Malayan Union <ul><li>Why?????? </li></ul><ul><li>Method employed by Sir Harold MacMichael in obtaining the consent of the Malay rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>The power and sovereignty of Malay Sultans was affected. </li></ul><ul><li>The equal citizenship for all races would dispose Malay’s special rights and privileges. </li></ul>10/27/11
  24. 24. Struggle for nationalism <ul><li>Stages in nationalism in Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Apposition action by local Malays in various states in Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>Malay Nationalism: </li></ul><ul><li>- Religion based level (1906-1926) </li></ul><ul><li>- Socialism and Economy level (1926- 1938) </li></ul><ul><li>- Political level (1938 onwards) </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese nationalism in Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Indian nationalism in Malaya </li></ul>10/27/11
  25. 25. Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Federation of Malaya, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>- In July 1946, a working committee comprising representatives from the British Government, the Sultans and UMNO was set up to prepare new proposals. </li></ul><ul><li>- The working committee reached agreement by July 1947 and its proposal for a Federation of Malaya were put into effect on 1 February 1948. </li></ul>10/27/11
  26. 26. Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Non-Malay Opposition to the Federation </li></ul><ul><li> Bahasa Melayu –formal language of the </li></ul><ul><li>country </li></ul><ul><li> The responsibility for Public Relation – </li></ul><ul><li>British and Malaya equally involved. </li></ul><ul><li> The word ‘nationality’ should use as </li></ul><ul><li>name for nationality. </li></ul><ul><li> National flag- should have different </li></ul><ul><li>colours, which shows Malay nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>10/27/11
  27. 27. Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>The Member System, 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: - To help prepare the people of Malaya for the time when they would be responsible for the running of their own country. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be six unofficial:Three Malays; one European, one Chinese and one Ceylonese. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of them would be placed in charge of one of the following government departments- Education; Agriculture and Forestry; Health; Works and Housing; Home Affairs; Lands, Mines and Communications. </li></ul>10/27/11
  28. 28. Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Towards Independence </li></ul><ul><li>A few by elections for Municipality Council were arranged especially in Georgetown (1951) and Kuala Lumpur (1952). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1953, UMNO, MCA and MIC joined together- Alliance Party and suggested to British government to have Federal election. Then, on 27th July 1955, Malaya had the first election. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of this election was- Alliance won 51 seats from 52 seats. The other 1 seat won by PAS. This had lead local people in Malaya to think about how to rule their own country. </li></ul>10/27/11
  29. 29. Steps towards Independence of Malaya <ul><li>Towards Independence </li></ul><ul><li>- In January 1956, Tunku Abdul Rahman and his members have a trip to London to discuss about Independence for Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>- Through the discussion, ‘Reid Commission’ was formed which lead by Lord Read. </li></ul><ul><li>- Upon discussion, Malaya was given the independence on 31 August 1957. </li></ul>10/27/11
  30. 30. Chapter 3: The formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Lecture outline </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that brought about the formation of Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Various reactions to the idea of the formation of Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the reasons that led to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia </li></ul>10/27/11
  31. 31. Formation of Malaysia Factors - formation of Malaysia Understanding for development Ethnic balance and unity Collective fight against communism Economic Cooperation United International relations Independence through unification 10/27/11
  32. 32. Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Various reaction to the idea of formation of Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Sarawak </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Philipines </li></ul>10/27/11
  33. 33. Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Process of the formation of ‘Malaysia’ </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysian Solidarity Consultative Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Cobbold Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Government Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Referendum in Singapore </li></ul>10/27/11
  34. 34. <ul><li>THE END OF UNIT 1 </li></ul>10/27/11

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