Malaysia Religion and Language


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Malaysia is a country located east Asia, Malaysia is a multi-ethnic culture whereby three different races are living in , therefore in this slide me and my friends we would like to share with you some information about malaysia religion and language which we observed during our study as we are international students who currently persuing their degree in malaysia!!! actually malaysia is a great country in which you will learn a lot of different festivals, cultures , languages, holidays and so on......enjoy it guys and have great idea about malaysia religion and languages base on three different races......

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Malaysia Religion and Language

  1. 1. Saleh Ali Saleh Al- Gahdari AD110233 Mahamat Annour Beyne AP100005 Mohamud Ahmed AP100023 : Elmugheera Abdelhadi C0620637 1
  2. 2. CONTINENT 1.Malaysia religion and language 1.1. Introduction 2. Malays religion 2.1. Islamic religion 3. Malays language 3.1. Bahasa malayu 4. Malaysian Chinese religion 4.1 Buddhism religion 5. Malaysian Chinese language 5.1 Mandarin language 6. Malaysian Indian religion 6.1 Hinduism religion 7. Malaysia Indian language 7.1 Tamil language 8. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. MALASIA Religion and language 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Malaysia is a multi-religious society and Islam is the official religion enshrined in the Malaysian constitution. With its multi-racial society however you find that there are several other major religions practiced including Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism and various tribal religions. Malay is the official language but English is widely spoken in most parts of the country. Also common . 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  Malaysia has a population of just over 27 million. As of the last Population and Housing Census, 60.4 percent of the population practices Islam; 19.2 percent Buddhism; 9.1 percent Christianity; 6.3 percent Hinduism; and 2.6 percent traditional Chinese religions. 5
  7. 7. MALAYS Islamic religion :  Islam is the predominant religion of the country and is recognised as the state's official religion.  It is practised by about 60 per cent of Malaysians.  Islam is thought to have been brought to Malaysia around the 13th century by Arab and Indian traders.  In the early 15th century the Malacca sultanate , commonly considered the first independent state in the peninsula, was founded. 7
  8. 8. MALAYS Islamic religion  Islam came to Malaysia with the Arab and Indian traders from South India and was not of the more orthodox Islamic tradition of Arabia. Islam was adopted peacefully by the coastal trading ports people of Malaysia and Indonesia, absorbing rather than conquering existing beliefs.  As in many Muslim countries, Islam in Malaysia has seen a significant revival over the past 10 years or so. It is wise for visitors to be appropriately discreet in dress and behaviour, particularly on the more strictly Muslim east coast of the peninsula. 8
  9. 9. MALAYS Islamic religion:  Malay ceremonies and beliefs still exhibit pre- Islamic traditions, but most Malays are ardent Muslims and to suggest otherwise to a Malay would cause great offence. With the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, the calls to introduce Islamic law and purify the practices of Islam have increased, but while the Government is keen to espouse Muslim ideals, it is wary of religious extremism. 9
  10. 10. MALAYS  Malacca led to the spread of Islam throughout the Malay population.  Although most people in Malaya were Muslim by the 15th century, the tolerant form of Islam brought by the Sufi meant that many traditional practices were incorporated into Islamic traditions.  The official code of Islam in Malaysia is Sunni , and the practice of any other form of Islam is heavily restricted. 10
  11. 11. MALAYS Malay men traditional dress Malay women traditional dress 11
  12. 12. MALAYS  Sunni Islam: The Sunni Islam of the Shafi'I school of thought is the official, and legal form in Malaysia.  Mosques are an ordinary scene throughout the country and adhan (call to prayer) from minarets are heard five times a day. 12
  13. 13. MALAYS MUSLIMS FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  There are two main holidays in Islam, Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha.  Eid Al-Fitr The most important of these is Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri), which is the Malay translation of Eid al-Fitri .  It is generally a festival honoured by the Muslims worldwide marking the end of Ramadan, the fasting month. 13
  14. 14. MALAYS MUSLIMS FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Eid Al-Adha :.In addition to Hari Raya Puasa, they also celebrate Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, the translation of Eid ul-Adha). 14
  15. 15. MALAYS MUSLIMS FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Maulidur Rasul (Birthday of the Prophet): Maulidur Rasul ("Prophet’s birthday") refers to the birthday of Prophet Mohamed [peace be upon him ("pbuh")], the last of the prophets sent to mankind, according to the Muslim holy book of Al-Quran.  The Islamic or Muslim calendar (also called the "Hijri" calendar) is based on the lunar system of 354 days unlike the western (Gregorian) calendar which is based on the solar system of 365 days.  And so the date of the Maulidur Rasul changes every year under the Gregorian calendar 15
  16. 16. MALAYS MUSLIMS FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Maulidur Rasul (Birthday of the Prophet): The celebration will renew and strengthen the faith and kinship of the Muslims in their religion, and to foster greater friendship ("ukhwah") with everyone whether Muslims or non-Muslims. 16
  17. 17. MALAYS  ABOUT MOSQUES AND SURAUS: mosque is known as "masjid" in Malay. A smaller version of the mosque, generally known as "musollah" in Arabic, and normally found further away from the mosque and at little communes, is known as "surau" in Malay.  The mosques and suraus are where the daily five-times-a- day congregational prayers of the Muslims are held.  The main difference between a mosque and a surau is that the compulsory afternoon Friday congregational prayers of Muslims can only be held at the mosque. 17
  18. 18. MALAYS  About mosque and suraus : So in Malaysia, suraus are not permitted to do the Friday afternoon congregational prayers unless they are upgraded and have received special authorization by the government authorities.  Mosques and suraus are not just places of prayer. They are also places where religious aspects of customs and traditions are carried out, such as the important akad nikah (marriage contract) ceremony for Muslim or Malay weddings. 18
  20. 20. MALAYS FAMOUS MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA  Zahir Mosque: is Kedah's state mosque. It is located in the heart of Alor Star, the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia.  The mosque was built in 1912, a contributory effort of YTM Tunku Mahmud Ibni Almarhum Sultan Tajuddin Mukarram ShaH. 20
  21. 21. MALAYS FAMOUS MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA  Masjid Jamek: is one of the oldest mosques in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak River and was designed by Arthur Benison Hubback.  The Sultan of Selangor officially opened the mosque in 1909, two years after construction was completed.  The mosque was built on the first Malay burial ground in the city. 21
  22. 22. MALAYS FAMOUS MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA  Masjid Jamek: 22
  23. 23. MALAYS FAMOUS MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA  Masjid Negara: The National Mosque of Malaysia is located in Kuala Lumpur. It has a capacity of 15,000 people and is situated among 13 acres (53,000 m2 ) of beautiful gardens. 23
  24. 24. MALAYS FAMOUS MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA  Putra Mosque:The Putra Mosque, or Masjid Putra in Malay language, is the principal mosque of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Construction of the mosque began in 1997 and was completed two years later.  It is located next to Perdana Putra which houses the Malaysian Prime Minister's office and man-made Putrajaya Lake. In front of the mosque is a large square with flagpoles flying Malaysian states' flags. 24
  25. 25. MALAYS LANGUAGE 25
  26. 26. MALAYS Language :The official language of Malaysia is known as Bahasa Malaysia. It is a standardised form of the Malay language.  Malay is an Austronesia language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand. The total number of speakers of Standard Malay is about 18 million. There are also about 170 million people who speak Indonesian, which is a form of Malay. 26
  27. 27. MALAYS Origen : There are many hypotheses as to where the Malay language originated. One of these is that it came from Sumatra island.  The oldest inscriptions in Malay, date from the end of the 7th century AD, were found on Bangka Island off the south-eastern coast of Sumatra (the Kedukan Bukit Inscription) and in Palembang in southern Sumatra. 27
  28. 28. MALAYS  In Malaysia, the 1957 Article 152 of the Federation adopted Johor (Malacca) Malay as the official language (Bahasa Malaysia). The name "Malaysia", in both language and country, emphasized that the nation consisted of more than just ethnic Malays. In 1986 the official name was changed to Bahasa Melayu, but in 2007 it was changed back. 28
  29. 29. MALAYS  Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of slang. 29
  30. 30. MALAYS  Writing system: Malay is normally written using the Latin script (Rumi), although an Arabic alphabet called Jawi also exists.  Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using Pallava, Kawi and Rencong script and these are still in use today by the champa Malay in Vietnam and Cambodia. 30
  31. 31. MALAYSIAN CHINESE Religion and language 31
  32. 32. MALAYSIAN CHINESE religion 32
  33. 33. CHINESE  Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia, after Islam, with 19.2% of Malaysia's population being Buddhist although some estimates put that figure up to 21.6% when combined with Chinese religions.  Buddhism in Malaysia is mainly practised by the ethnic Malaysian Chinese. 33
  34. 34. CHINESE  History: The founder of Buddhism in this world was Buddha Shakyamuni who lived and taught in India some two and a half thousand years ago. Since then millions of people around the world have followed the pure spiritual path he revealed.  Buddhism: was introduced to the Malays and also to the people of the Malay Archipelago as early as 200 BCE. 34
  35. 35. CHINESE BUDDHIST FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Vesak: Buddha's Birthday is known as Vesak and is one of the major festivals of the year. It is celebrated on the first full moon day in May, it is actually observation of the birth, enlightenment and death (parinirvana) of the historical Buddha. 35
  36. 36. CHINESE Buddhists in Malaysia celebrate Buddha's birthday 36
  37. 37. CHINESE BUDDHIST FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Qing Ming festival: which means clear and bright in Chinese, falls on April Chinese calendar .  It is both the fifth term in the traditional lunar calendar and a festival to hold memorial ceremony for the dead.  It is a time to express one's grief for his lost relatives.  People often go to sweep and weed graves with whole family and take a walk in the countryside as well. 37
  38. 38. QING MING FESTIVAL: 38
  39. 39. CHINESE BUDDHIST FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS  Dragon Boat Festival: Celebrated on the 5th day of the fifth month of the Chinese Lunar Calendar. This festival commemorates a great patriot and poet in China named Qu Yuan. A righteous man who protested against the evils of corruption. 39
  40. 40. CHINESE BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN MALAYSIA  Buddhist Maha Vihara, Brickfields: is a Buddhist site founded by the Sinhalese community based in the areas surrounding Kuala Lumpur to provide a place of worship in the Budhist tradition.  The Buddhist Maha Vihara’s growth and flourish over the past 50 years is attributed to the guidance and efforts of Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda whose vision is to enable a Malaysian Buddhist community to practice their beliefs in a caring and sufficient environment. 40
  42. 42. CHINESE BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN MALAYSIA  Kek Lok Si Temple: The sprawling Buddhist temple of Kek Lok Si climbs up a hillside near the village of Air Itam, now really a suburb of Georgetown.  The temple was begun in 1890 and, from all appearances, construction really hasn't ever stopped.  The temple is supposedly the largest in Malaysia. 42
  43. 43. 43
  45. 45. CHINESE  Mandarin language: a variety of Mandarin Chinese (官話) spoken in Malaysia by ethnic Chinese in Malaysia.  The majority of ethnic Chinese people living in Malaysia came from China during the Ming and Qing dynasties, between the 15th and early 20th centuries.  Most Han Chinese speak one of the many Chinese dialects, which include Mandarin, Cantonese, and Hokkien. Although the dialects are very similar, the speakers of one Chinese dialect cannot understand the speakers of another. 45
  46. 46. CHINESE  Mandarin language: Malaysian Mandarin speakers seldom translate local terms or names to Mandarin when they speak. They would prefer to say Malay place name in its original Malay pronounciation, for instance, even though the street name "Jalan Bukit Kepong" is written as 惹兰武吉甲洞 (rělán wǔjí jiǎdòng) in local Chinese printed media, the local Chinese almost never use "rělán wǔjí jiǎdòng" in daily conversations. 46
  48. 48. MALAYSIAN INDIAN Religion 48
  49. 49. INDIAN  Hinduism: Hinduism is a minority religion in Malaysia. An estimated 6.3% of the total population of Malaysia are ethnic Indians, of whom 76% are practicing Hinduism.  Most of the ethnic Indians are Tamils from the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. 49
  50. 50. INDIAN  Hinduism in Malaysia is in general similar to the Hinduism in India, although certain aspects are amplified while others are played down. Lord Muruga, the quintessential Tamil deity, is perhaps the most popular Hindu gods in Malaysia, with Ganesha, Shiva and Amman also worshipped in large numbers. 50
  51. 51. INDIAN  The Shaivite branch of Hinduism is predominant in Malaysia, although Vaishnavism also has an important representation especially with the recent revival of the Hare Krishna movement in the country.  Village deities, folk beliefs and animal sacrifice are also important features of Hinduism in Malaysia. 51
  52. 52. INDIAN  Despite the increase in mainstream, Vedantic Hindu practices, the lesser deities such as Madurai Veeran, Sangili Karuppan and other village deities are widely worshipped in Malaysia.  Animal sacrifices are practices in temples dedicated to these lesser deities as they are generally prohibited in temples dedicated to the Vedantic gods. 52
  53. 53. INDIAN Hindu Festivals in Malaysia:  Hindu festivals like Thaipusam and Deepavali are observed in a large scale across the country, and are public holidays in Malaysia. Thaipusam, dedicated to Lord Muruga, is celebrated every year in January or February in hilltop temples and draw large crowds of the faithful.  The most famous celebrations are held in Batu Caves in Kuala Lumpur, drawing an estimated one million people annually as well as tens of thousands of tourists from all over the world. Thannir Malai in Penang is also very popular for its Thaipusam celebrations. 53
  54. 54. INDIAN  Hindu Festivals in Malaysia:  Thaipusam: Celebrated by Hindus on the tenth month of the Hindus calendar. It is believed on this day the stars, Pusan and Brihaspati are united into one.  It is a celebration of the birthday of Lord Subramaniam, also known as Lord Muruga, the youngest son of Lord Shiva. Before this day, Hindus usually prepare themselves by fasting, dieting on certain food and maintaining self- discipline. 54
  55. 55. INDIAN  Hindu Festivals in Malaysia:  Thaipusam: A huge procession of penitents in an atmosphere electric with drumming and chanting.  Skewers fastened metal hooks, spikes on their body including tongues, cheeks and nipples defying all sense of pain. A fire walking ceremony is also demonstrated in some temples. 55
  56. 56. INDIAN  Hindu Festivals in Malaysia:  Thaipusam celebration: The crowds at all venues are huge, especially in Batu Caves. 56
  57. 57. INDIAN  Hindu Festivals in Malaysia:  Deepavali: Diwali falls on the one new moon night between mid-October and mid-November. This year it was on 26th October 2011. Diwali is celebrated for five days according to the lunisolar Hindu Calendar.  It begins in late Ashvin (between September and October) and ends in early Kartika (between October and November). 57
  58. 58. INDIAN  Hindu Festivals in Malaysia: Deepavali celebration: 58
  59. 59. INDIAN Hinduism  There have been Hindu influences in Malaysia since the dawn of history, but the Hinduism of the Hindu period in Malaysian history has title connection with the Hinduism practiced in the country today. Brahmanical Hinduism which flourished at the courts of petty Malaysian states before the coming of Islam in the 15th century was an aristocratic used to bolster the authority of the ruling class, which was carried across the Indian Ocean by early Hindu traders. Relics and remains from this period have also been found, principally in Kedah. 59
  61. 61. INDIAN  Malaysian Indians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from southern India during the British colonization of Malaya. Prior to British colonization, Tamils had been conspicuous in the archipelago much earlier, especially since the period of the powerful South India kingdom of the Cholas in the 11th century. By that time, Tamils were among the most important trading peoples of maritime Asia. 61
  62. 62. INDIAN Tamil language:  Tamil Malaysian or Malaysian Tamil refer to the Malaysians of Tamil ethnic origin from India and Sri Lanka in Malaysia.  They make up over 70% of the Indian Malaysian population group in Malaysia.  Although bulk of the migration happened during the British colonial period there were established Tamil communities spanning a millennia 62
  63. 63. INDIAN  Origin:Prior to British colonization, Tamils had been conspicuous in the archipelago much earlier, especially since the period of the powerful South India kingdom of the Cholas in the 11th century.  By that time, Tamils were among the trading peoples of maritime Asia. Although bulk of these immigrants to South East Asia had assimilated with the majority Malay ethnic group some communities such as the Tamil Muslims and the Malacca Chittys are remnants of these earlier migration history. 63
  64. 64. CONCLUSION  One of the unique features of Malaysia is its multi- racial population which practises various religions such as Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism and Christianity. Each ethnic group has its own beliefs. Under the Federal Constitution, Islam is the official religion of Malaysia but there is freedom of worship. The Malay Language is the national language of the country. However, the people are free to use their mother tongue and other languages. English as the second language is widely used in business. 64
  65. 65. 65