The Early Middle Ages


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The Early Middle Ages

  1. 1. Grace Pangan<br />Patrish Sevilla<br />Guian Hermosa<br />The Early Middle Ages<br />
  3. 3. Byzantine Empire<br />Capital: Constantinople<br />It was protected by three walls. The sea and stiff cliffs that surrounded it on three sides offered natural protection. Byzantine rulers further strengthened its defense by constructing a sea wall.<br />Byzantine emperors ruled as autocrats wielding absolute powers based on the belief that they ruled by divine right even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. <br />
  4. 4. Byzantine emperor was acknowledged as the head of both the Church and the state. He appointed the Patriarch who was the head of the Church of Constantinople. This was interpreted by the emperor as the basis for his supremacy over the Church and therefore his right to intervene in the affairs of the Church.<br />The emperor was both a temporal and an ecclesiastical ruler.<br />Byzantine emperor was an all- powerful ruler.<br />
  5. 5. HEY!<br />Byzantium is the name given to both the state and the culture of the Eastern Roman Empire in the middle ages. Both the state and the inhabitants always called themselves Roman, as did most of their neighbors. Western Europeans, who had their own Roman Empire called them Orientals or Greeks, and later following the example of the great French scholar DuCange, Byzantines after the former name of the Empire's capital city, Constantinople. <br />The city is for a ceremony of inauguration. Byzantium acquires two new names - New Rome and Constantinople, the city of Constantine.<br />Greek is the language of the inhabitants of Byzantium.<br />
  6. 6. REIGN OF JUSTINIAN<br />Byzantine emperor considered themselves the legitimate heirs of the Roman emperors who came before them.<br />Justinian, one of the greatest Byzantine emperors. He envisioned himself as the emperor of the Roman Empire of the past. To fulfill this dream, he set about his campaigns. He bribed the Persians so as to remain neutral while he engaged the Germanic tribes in the West.<br />
  7. 7. The greatest legacy of Rome, Roman Law, continued to govern and unite the Byzantine Empire. Justinian contributed significantly by virtue of the commission to codify the laws of Rome. This commission produced Justinian’s Code (Codex Justinianus) also known as Body of Civil Law (Corpus Juris Civilis ). It included legislation, imperial edicts, and legal opinions of Roman jurists. However, because the Byzantine emperors were autocratic rulers, laws no longer emanated from the people but from the rulers themselves. The codification of laws was still significant in providing a definitive basis of the system of justice being practiced in the Byzantine Empire.<br />
  8. 8. Other compilations were prepared, included the Digest (DigestaIustinianiAugusti), summary of the opinions of great jusrists, the Institutes, compilations of legal principles and finally, the Novels which were new legislation incorporated into the body of laws. The Byzantine Empire continued the tradition of Roman law (whittling down the of the powers of the father over his family) that promoted a standard system of justice throughout the empire.<br />Justinian was also a great builder. The infrastructure projects reflected his power and prestige. Justinian’s greatest achievement was the construction of the Hagia Sophia or the Church of Holy Wisdom.<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. An architectural wonder of medieval age.<br /> A jewel of architecture Byzantine <br />
  11. 11. SPLIT OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH<br />With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Church began to develop along slightly different paths. In the West, the Christian Church began to play a central role in the lives of the people. It asserted itself in politics as well because of the vacuum created by the collapse of central authority with the fall of the Roman Empire. In the East, the Byzantine emperors gained greater power and prestige that allowed them to assert authority over the Church of Constantinople. The Pope competed with the various Germanic rulers for dominance. Through time, the Church began to diverge.<br />
  12. 12. Byzantine churches adopted the use of Greeks as the language while the western European churches continued the tradition of the use of Latin. They also allowed their priests to marry. But perhaps the greatest factor that divided the Church then was in terms of the recognized of the Church. Pope, supreme head of the Christian Church. On the other hand, in the west, the Pope asserted his claim to be the supreme head of the Christian Church and was independent of any king or emperor. He assumed that the Patriarch in the East was subordinate him. This became one of the most vital sources of conflict between the Christian Church in the East and in the West.<br />
  13. 13. To further aggravate the conflict between the Christian Churches in the West and the East were doctrinal disputes. The most significant was the Iconoclastic Controversy, centered on the use of icons [religious image typically painted on small wooden panel used for worship]. Emperor Leo III became convinced that the use of icons perpetrated superstition and therefore began to prohibit its use. Widespread destruction of icons led to protests and even revolts. The pope in the West condemned the emperor’s iconoclasm. The Pope excommunicated the Byzantine emperor. The iconoclasts were declared heretics by the Pope and subjected to sanctions (penalty).<br />
  14. 14. The Pope and the Patriarch excommunicated each other and this marked the final split of the Christian Church into the Roman Catholic Church with Rome as its centre and the Eastern Orthodox Church with Constantinople as its centre.<br />
  15. 15. DECLINE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE<br />Byzantine Empire flourished under the impetus of the great wealth that came from the trade that flowed in and out of its borders.<br />Balkans was invaded by Slavs, Bulgars, Huns, and Avars. They were repulsed repeatedly, they also returned and harassed the Byzantines repeatedly.<br />Arab Muslims’ desire to spread their new faith, Islam, they poured out of their territories and exerted pressure on the Byzantine Empire. They launched persistent attacks on Constantinople. The Byzantine capital was spared by the conquest the invention of a new weapon known as Greek fire.<br />
  16. 16. This was responsible for the destruction of most of the ships that the Arab Muslims used to lay siege on Constantinople. The Arab Muslims overran Carthage that ended the Byzantine control over North Africa. A new group that came from Central Asia, the Seljuk Turks, came to the force in the eleventh century and challenged the Empire. In the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine army and, in the process, lost Asia Minor. Their threat to the Empire dissipated when they were eventually defeated by the Mongols. All these battles, fought to keep control over the territories of the Empire, drained its resources. In time, it collapsed under the pressure of such persistent attack.<br />
  17. 17. Sultan Arslan and his son Majik<br />
  18. 18. A Byzantine Army to 50,000 to 70,000 (Franks, Normans, Bulgarians, Turkish Armenian and Varangian fighters) men under Romanus the Byzantine Empire, crossed the Bosporous. Romanus was ruling over a nation teetering on the edge of collapse. He was facing a ruthless and efficient warrior leader, Alp Arslan commanding 40,000 mounted troops and infantry in what’s now Armenia.<br />Tension had been mounting betweem the Anatolian Muslims and the Byzantine Christians. Internal politics and incompetence was bringing down the great Byzantine Empire and as if often the antidote to internal decay is to start a war. Alp Arslan, the Seljuk leader had been making forays into Anatolia and successfully grabbing one outpost after another. In 1071, his forces invaded and grabbed two township castles, Khelat and Manzikert.<br /> BATTLE OF MANZIKERT <br />
  19. 19. However, Seljuk Turkish cavalry played a cat and mouse hit and run guerrilla engagement with the Byzantines. In face-to-face pitched battles, the Byzantines won. But Alp Arslan was able to bait the Byzantine formations into the field and then harass them with an endless stream of arrows from mounted archers; avoiding obvious grinding attrition battles; splitting up so Romanus’s formations had no sitting static target to go after; all these tactics wore down the Byzantines, already worn down by hours of standing in formation, after carrying heavy body armor and linen tunics over that.<br />The Byzantine cavalry was far outmatched by the Seljuks. The Byzantines carried heavier armor, their horses weren’t as robust, while the Turkish mounted soldiers were lightly armored, carried bows and long spears, trained for guerrilla warfare and they were familiar with fighting on that terrain.<br />
  20. 20. Finally the Byzantines made a mistake, after days of formations and swatting at disappearing Turkish cavalry, Byzantine troops were ordered back into the township walls, but only half the force went in. The left and right wings of the Byzantine army deployed back into their lines. The Seljuks were just minutes away in the hill surrounding Manzikert and through the night routed the confused and outnumbered Byzantines. The Anatolian levies that populated much of the Turkish mercenary force didn’t really have a dog in this fight other than payday, had left in droves and basically surrendered the heavy Byzantine infantry to the Turks. Romanus was captured.<br />
  21. 21. Alp Arslan was the Seljuk Turk commander who used his massive and well-disciplined cavalry to defeat the Byzantines. He had also tamed Georgia Armenia and Anatolia. When Romanus was taken prisoner, the Sultan Arslan treated him with much dignity and respect. He provided every comfort to Romanus, received land concessions from him and set him free. Arslan lived from 1030 to 1072.<br />He was killed by a prisoner on a campaign in Persia just one year after Manzikert.<br />
  22. 22. The only time Constantinople was occupied was when the 4th Crusade turned against it and conquered the capital instead of proceeding to the Holy land to engage the Muslims. In the 11th century, Emperor Alexius I requested for assistance from Pope Urban II in the form of a military contingent to defend Constantinople against the onslaught of the Turks. This signaled the beginning of the Crusades, military campaigns launched by the Catholic kingdoms of the West to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims. The 4th Crusade was supposed to have been financed by the Venetians who wanted to establish a monopoly over the trade with the East and, therefore, wanted to weaken Constantinople- commercial competitor.<br />
  23. 23. The Crusaders captured the city and ransacked it. They destroyed sacred books and carted away works of art and other treasures for themselves. It greatly weakened the Empire.<br />Heraclius succeeded in laying down a new system of defense known as the theme system that enabled the empire to withstand repeated challenges from invaders with success. It divide the empire into districts that made it more manageable to administer and provided it with a more reliable system of defense. For as long as these peasant soldiers were free to support themselves through their own lands, the Byzantine Empire was able to count on them to defend the empire with fierce loyalty.<br />
  24. 24. Unfortunately, the successors of Heraclius eventually abandoned the theme system and this paved the way for the weakening of the empire as a whole. The foundation of the theme system was land owned by free peasants.<br />The continued pressure from outside invaders disrupted trade and led to a decline in agricultural production. In the end, these incursions into the Byzantine Empire resulted in the loss of a significant bulk of its territory. The coup de grace was dealt by Ottoman Turks when the walls of Constantinople were finally breached by the use of artillery. This marked the end of the Byzantine Empire.<br />
  25. 25. LEGACY OF THE EMPIRE<br />Greek literature and philosophy played an important part in the educational system of the empire. The Greek became the lingua franca of the empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church.<br />The most significant contribution of the Empire to humanity was its role in defending and promoting Christianity especially in the East. It served as its vanguard during the time that the Islamic Empire was expanding. Serving as a buffer against the jihad launched by the Muslims to spread their religion in the West, didn’t succeed, forced the latter to go through North Africa instead to reach the West where its forward thrust was finally halted in the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel.<br />
  26. 26. The West continued to develop as Christian kingdoms strengthening its Judeo- Christian tradition. The most significant of bringing the Eastern Orthodox Christianity to eastern and southern Europe through missionaries were the brothers of Cyril and Methodius who invented an alphabet for the Slavic language known today as Cyrillic Alphabet. Facilitated the conversion of the Slavs to Christianity.<br />Byzantine art was a fusion of classical Greco- Roman style and that of the ancient Western Asian art. Typified by the use of lively colors and intricate designs. Mosaic became a common artistic style. Icons, important medium for artistic expression. Frescoes [art of painting on wet plaster] became popular especially in churches.<br />
  28. 28. EARLY MIDDLE AGES<br />
  30. 30. GROWTH OF PAPAL POWER<br />The hierarchical organizational structure of the Church meant that it was present in all levels of society, from the Pope down to the priests, serving in distant kingdoms and heavens.<br />Pope Gregory I the Great stood out as an excellent example of how a pope was able to assert his authority in matters of governance as well as expand the Church’s influence through missionary initiatives. Prior to his becoming the pope, Italy was overran by the Ostrogoths, and during Justinian’s foray to reclaim the west, it became a province of the Byzantine Empire. He began governing Rome by raising an army financed by the Church as well as repairing roads and raising revenues.<br />
  31. 31. His vision of Christendom was a “spiritual kingdom” that transcended political boundaries. He established undisputed control over the Churches in Italy, Spain, Gaul, and England. He opened the way for his successors to get involved in political matters and, in the process, transformed the Church into an institution that became increasingly worldly.<br />The establishment of the Papal States that was started by Pepin the Short when he defeated the Lombards contributed tothe growing power of the Church. The Church became more like a state with a gov’t, people, and sovereignty.<br />
  32. 32. MONASTIC MOVEMENT<br />Luxurious living among the clergy corrupted the basic and traditional values that the Church was supposed to embrace. This elicited a variety of responses from the people- most significant was the monastic Movement.<br />Men and women who wanted to purify themselves and distance themselves from the worldly Church established communities in isolated places where they vowed to live simple lives and devote themselves to a life of prayer and devotion. These communities were known as monasteries.<br />
  33. 33. Basil used to be a hermit monk; introduced the idea that one could reject worldly existence not through self- torture as was generally believed but rather through constant labor.<br />Benedict: giant in the monastic movement because he devised a set of rules to govern the monks in his community that became the standard of monastic life in Europe. Benedictine Rule, advocated the vow of property, obedience, labor, and religious devotion. Abbot, leader of the entire congregation. The existence of rules regulated the daily lives of the monks.<br />
  34. 34. STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY<br />When Charlemagne’s empire collapsed, it signaled the return of decentralization. It had an important impact on the Church for it ushered in a period where the many churches and monasteries scattered all over the area would be considered as the private property of the local lords who owned the lands on which they stood. Meant that these local lords could assert their authority over churches.<br />Most significant development was the practice of lay investiture. This was the power of the king or lords to appoint the bishops in their respective churches.<br />
  35. 35. In an attempt to reestablish its independence from the temporal rulers, the Church established the College of Cardinals. It was tasked with the responsibility of electing the next pope based on the Decree on Papal Election. The Church also expanded the use of some of its powers- excommunication. This meant that one was no longer allowed to receive the sacraments and, to a believer, this may be interpreted as an act of closing the gates of heaven for the way to salvation required receiving the sacraments (Holy Eucharist, Confession, Confirmation, Reconciliation, Holy Orders, Holy Matrimony, Baptism, and Anointing of the Sick/ Extreme Unction).<br />
  36. 36. THE EFFECTS OF THE SACRAMENT OF CONFESSION<br /> Reconciliation with God and therefore the forgiveness of sins<br />Reconciliation with the Church<br />Recovery, if it has been lost, of the state of grace<br />Remission of the eternal punishment merited by mortal sins<br />Remission, at least in part, of the temporal punishment which is the consequence of sin<br />Peace, serenity of conscience and spiritual consolation<br />An increase of spiritual strength for the struggle of Christian living.<br />
  37. 37. Excommunication was a powerful tool that the Church was able to use in order to assert its authority over temporal rulers. The Pope excommunicated Henry IV and declared that he had been deprived of his kingdom because he had “rebelled against the Church”. This put an end to the feudal obligations and loyalty of the German nobles to Henry IV- went to the extent of asking the Pope to crown a new emperor. Henry IV relented and begged for the Pope’s forgiveness. The Interdict was another power of the Church. Administration of the sacraments was forbidden.<br />
  38. 38. The Inquisition or the Church court established to hunt down heretics and put them on trial further boosted the power of the Church. A heretic is one who held incorrect beliefs according to the Church. It was used against anyone that threatened the position of the Church. It became an effective instrument in eliminating opposition.<br />Concordat of Worms was an important victory for the Church. This document recognized the Church to have the sole power to appoint bishops. This was meant to reassert the Church’s independence from political influence and control.<br />
  39. 39. It also acknowledged the bishops as spiritual leaders as well as landholders. While the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, relinquished his right to grant fiefs to bishops as well as confer political power to them. The Concordat of Worms clarified once and for all that Church was the supreme authority in spiritual matters, its ambiguity with reference to the question of where political power resided allowed the Church to continue struggle for supremacy vis-à-vis the temporal rulers during that time. Under powerful popes, the Church was able to assert its authority in political matters. Pope Innocent III was one of the pope. During his term, he was able to establish a Papal Monarchy by exercising the powers of a king not only over the Church and the Papal States but also by directly intervening in the political affairs of various kingdoms.<br />
  40. 40. The Fourth Lateran Council was another significant milestone for the Church it issued the list of the seven sacraments, only administered by the clergy. It made the clergy indispensable to salvation, thereby increasing the power of the Church significantly. The Crusades launched by Pope Urban II also augmented the power of the Church by demonstrating how it could rally the Catholic Church. The Canon Law which was the codified Christian doctrines completed in the 12th century also strengthened the Church doctrines that lessened controversies and confusion.<br />
  41. 41. The church in the Middle Ages played a vital role not only in the spiritual life of the people but in the political arena as well. It served as a beacon of hope amidst the uncertainty of the times. It served as a unifying element in the midst of competing forces in medieval society. It also became an important repository of Greco- Roman knowledge by preserving books and manuscripts and by meticulously copying such documents for prosperity.<br />
  42. 42. VIKING AGE<br />Vikings or Norsemen came from Scandinavia and they were greatly feared because of their fury. The sudden explosion of the Viking raids was the desire for plunder and booty. Viking raids have been described as quick and fierce, carrying away whatever treasures they could and leave behind a trail of destruction and death. Overpopulation attributed to the common practice of polygamy. A Viking leader who had been overthrown preferred to immigrate and pursue conquests rather than accede to an inferior position.<br />
  43. 43. The success of the Viking raids may be attributed to their warships called dragon ships- described as “technological marvels of their age.”<br />Eric the Red became the first European to set foot on Greenland while Leif Ericson became the first European to land in Newfoundland in the New World or America. The Vikings were far- ranging traders before they were pirates. By 1000CE, the Viking Age ended. Vikings adopted the culture of the Europeans and even converted to Christianity. The warming of the climate may have made farming easier and, therefore, increased food supply in the Scandinavian countries.<br />