- These three definitions seem to capture the trends that are taking place related to data capture, integration, analysis and visualization.
- Mapping Satellites - private radio operators, self-organized to watch the watchers, accurately tracking the launch of spy satellites by cataloging the night sky - OpenStreetMap (2004) - circumventing authority, shaping the world map is the primary objective, use gets sticky - Rapid Response - Jim Gray from Microsoft Research, Big Data pioneer who set up the Terraserver in 1997 as a SQL Server proof-of-concept project. Lost at sea triggered a review of 560,000 images from 3 satellites, covering 3,500 square miles of ocean - [email_address] - excess capacity to search for intelligent life in the cosmos - more than 3 million users for the largest distributed computing effort
Tapscott - Hierarchies of governed and governors is going away; generational push, collaboration, more real-time environment. A number of geospatial examples in this book as Tapscott had an early role in the fleet routing and navigation company Maptuit. Goldcorp , was so frustrated with the inability of its own geologists to locate any gold that it did something unheard of at the time: it offered $500,000 to anyone who could find and map the location of the company's own gold using their own data. Shirky - Revolution not with technology adoption, but with change in societal behavior -- the crowd coming together. In Cognitive Surplus, Shirky picks up the trend that people are using their free time for creative acts rather than consumptive ones, aided by tools for online collaboration. Shirky has also written about &quot;algorithmic authority,&quot; which describes the process through which unverified information is vetted for its trustworthiness through multiple sources.
- Walking Papers - service for OpenStreetMap where you define the area on the screen, print a sheet that includes a QR code and reference points that sync it back to OSM, print and draw in the field, and then scan (or take a phone photo) and it becomes a transparent overlay on the map for data entry. - Ushahidi - started as an SMS means to share violence after Kenya’s 2007 disputed elections, now a platform used in many worldwide crisis response initiatives. Includes SwiftRiver platform for data mining. - Grassroots Mapping - using kites and ballooons for low-cost ($125) aerial mapping. Made its mark documenting the BP oilspill. - KickSat.org - Kickstarter project for crowdsourced funding of interesting projects. Zac Manchester, a graduate student in Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University has designed and tested very small Sprite spacecraft to launch en-masse from a microsatellite in low-Earth orbit. It’s a test of their longevity, they send messages and can be individually sponsored. Goal is $30K, and were at $21K on Friday 10/14/11 with 49 days to go.
APPS for Democracy - Pioneering effort in 2009; idea of Vivek Kundra first U.S. CTO; $35,000 in prizes in 7 categories; 47 apps created with an estimated value of $2,300,000 NYC BIG APPS - Ongoing with 3.0 deadline in March 2012; $50,000, with 13 categories; 750 data sets, APIs from local companies Apps for Environment - no prize money, 38 applications submitted, culminating in Forum on Nov. 8 Space Apps Challenge - international in scope, humanitarian, make govt. better, utilize imagery
- Haiti - starting with a blank slate due to lack of mapping and density of damage. Global effort to update the picture. - Arab Spring - Google Trends shows the media attention of protests in the region - detecting the present and predicting the future. Real-time input and analysis seem to indicate that media attention had an impact on protests, specifically the impact of Egypt on Tunisia (causing a decline in activity). [See “Detecting Emergent Conflicts through Web Mining and Visualization,” Swedish Defence Research Agency; http://irevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/detecting-emergent-conflicts-through-web-mining-and-visualization.pdf] - New Sangdo in South Korea - LED’s in the roadway that change the lanes and signage based on traffic congestion; systems that guide you into traffic spots and handle billing based on cell phone. - Enernoc - with meters in place, real-time picture of demand and response is available. Demand response offers real-time pricing and a whole new economic energy model that reflects real cost. Will crisis maps become the new first draft of history ? PSFK - Future of Real-Time Report (http://www.psfk.com/future-of- real-time)
- Participatory sensing - Collecting details regarding related to surroundings and interests - OSM is mapping as a meritocracy that awards the best mappers and mashers
- Street Bump - Boston, Office of New Urban Mechanics, application that is being fine-tuned, with reward for the algorithm that can tell the difference between a pothole and speed bump - CitySourced - mobile civic engagement platform - Sense Networks - reality mining, analyzing aggregate anonymous location data (MIT Human Dynamics Research) - Waze - social location information that incorporates real-time info from a network of vehicles on the road. Also facilitates exchange of details on businesses and live and local events based on check-ins and ‘community-curated’ data.
- Twitter (twitterdots.posterous.com) - streaming of geolocated tweets on a map over time - Historypin - placing historical photos in a StreetView context with libraries and digital archives as partners - 3D Multi-view Stereo Project at University of Washington ( http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/furukawa/ ) - Mechanical Turk / MobileWorks / CrowdFlower - marketplace for work / accessing human intelligence globally - Screen of Steve Fosset balloon search of Sept. 2007 - Scraping sites to compile - ScraperWiki ( https://scraperwiki.com )
- Ordnance Survey - 5,000 features added daily. No adopted a freemium model, encouraging application creation with their GeoVation program, - Community Maps - Contribute your local geographic content and become part of a community map that Esri publishes and hosts online. - Android and iPhone Tracking - speculation that phone data will be used to populate maps - TomTom Map Share - 60 million navigation devices worldwide - Is a crowdsourced map the only geospatial data business model that works?
- Eye on Earth portal that takes advantage of online mapping technologies to give citizens the ability to browse imaging interfaces and drill down for neighborhood-level data about ozone levels, nitrogen dioxide, particle matter, and carbon emissions. Two-way communication with thousands of updates from citizens. GPS-equipped sensors on asthma inhalers has been deployed in Barcelona, discovered that soy bean silos that were improperly filtered were the cost of a large number of attacks. - Encyclopedia of Life - biodiversity data from a global network of institutions (museums and universities) that combines a citizen science component. Calling on a community of citizen scientists for photos and locations for species in the wild. - Old Weather - past climate records from the Royal Navy ships being compiled. Hand-written records are transcribed with first five iterations that could be compared, but now down to three as accuracy is good. Gamified by promoting those that record the most number of observations to captain of the ship. - South Korea Paparazzi - citizens roaming cities secretly videotaping fellow citizens breaking the law, deliver the evidence to government officials and collect rewards
- Where does quantity beat quality? - Patrick Meier (iRevolution Blog) - Theorizing Ushahidi: An Academic Treatise ( http://irevolution.net/2011/10/02/theorizing-ushahidi/ ) Having a real time map is almost as good as having your own helicopter . A live map provides immedi ate situational awareness, a third dimension and additional perspective on events unfolding in time and space. Moreover, creating a map catalyzes conversations between activists, raises questions about geographic patterns or new incidents, and leads to more questions regarding the status quo in a repressive environment. - Thierry Gregorius (Georeferenced Blog) - From Lego to Play-Doh: I plead guilty at the altar of Big Data ( http://georefere nced.wordpress.com/2011/10/12/big-data/ ) If you are a classic ally-trained spatial data professional like me, don’t let your well-honed perfectionism get in the way of your next ri de. Big Data is here now. Take a deep breath and accept that quantity will eventually trump quality. And when the quantities are huge, the insights can be many. In the world of Big Data, your job is not about structuring or managing data. It’s about telling stories.
Calling on Crowds
Matt Ball, Vector1 Media
Crowdsourcing is the act of sharing a job or function that was once the domain of a specific agent with distributed masses through an open call. - Wikipedia - Wikipedia Definitions
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is the harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and disseminate geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals.
- Michael Goodchild
Participatory sensing tasks everyday mobile devices to form interactive networks that enable public and professional users to gather, analyze and share local knowledge.
- Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS)
History Mapping Rapid Response DIY Distributed Capacity Amateur Satellite Observers Search for Jim Gray 1/28/07
App Contests (Finding Utility in Open Data) (Finding Utility in Open Data) http://open.nasa.gov/appschallenge/ http://www.epa.gov/appsfortheenvironment/ http://2011.nycbigapps.com/ http://www.appsfordemocracy.org/
Real-Time Energy Demand Response Arab Spring (2011) Haiti Earthquake (2010) Intelligent Transportation
Engagement (Passive to Active) (Passive to Active)
Participating: Becoming a member and agreeing to be tracked and sampled
Collecting: Aiding one-off efforts, sharing personal perspectives, photos
Mapping: Careful capture of details
Participating Sense Networks CitySourced Waze - Social Navigation Street Bump
Collecting Twitter Flickr and Picasa Historypin Mechanical Turk / MobileWorks / CrowdFlower 3D Models from Photos
Mapping OpenStreetMap / Ordnance Survey Community Maps TomTom Map Share Google and Apple / ‘Locationgate’
Authority and Community Old Weather Eye on Earth Encyclopedia of Life South Korea - Paparazzi