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  1. 1. Case3.2 Done by: Maryam AL-Qhatany.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Malaria 1Definition of malaria. 2Types of parasite causes malaria . 3Life cycle of different malaria parasite+ Pathogenesis 4Symptoms and sign of malaria. 5Investigation of malaria . 6 Differential diagnosis 7 treatment and prevention of malaria . diagnosis
  3. 3. Introduction Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Previously extremely widespread, the malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America
  4. 4. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, (called Plasmodium), which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes , that infect red blood cells in the human body.
  5. 5. Causes Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites(female Anopheles mosquito).
  6. 6. Plasmodium ovale (P.o). Plasmodium malariae (P.m). Plasmodium vivax (P.v.). Plasmodium falciparum (P.f).
  7. 7. This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the tropical West African region Symptoms: fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills incubation period:
  8. 8. This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the other types and is known to have less than 1 percent infections in the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms: high fever and chills. incubation period:
  9. 9. It has the widest distribution around the globe. Approximately 60% of infections in India are caused by P.v. Although it seldom causes death or other serious problems, it can still cause major illness Symptoms: fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills. Flulike symptoms. incubation period:
  10. 10. (P.f). The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the most lethal parasite that causes most infections and deaths related to malaria Symptoms: incubation period: fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, aching muscles, enlarged spleen, sore back, joint pain, vomiting, nausea, fever, headache.
  11. 11. + Pathogenesis
  12. 12. Pathogenesis numerous known and unknown waste substances, such as red cell membrane products, hemozoin pigment, and other toxic factors headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, tiredness, aching joints and muscles, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression, and central nervous system manifestations . activate macrophages and endothelial cells to secrete cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ and other factor.
  13. 13. hemolytic anemia destruction of red blood cell Clot (blood in stools) adhesion of red blood cell on wall of blood vessel
  14. 14. Chills Fever early stages Sweats Headache Fatigue Nausea vomiting
  15. 15. Other common symptoms: Dry cough Muscle and/or back pain.
  16. 16. Jaundice Hepatomegaly Fever Hemolytic Anaemia
  17. 17. Diagnosis
  18. 18. Dr. ask the patient number of questions concerning: •Current symptoms. •Medical conditions. •Family medical history. •Current medications. •Recent travel history.
  19. 19. Laboratory diagnosis identification of malaria parasite or its antigens/products in the blood of the patient.
  20. 20. Microscopy Most Malaria parasites are recognizable by their physical features and by the appearance of the red blood cells.
  21. 21. Other tests: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serology Immunologic tests
  22. 22. •The flu (influenza). •Common cold . •Meningitis. •Typhoid fever. •Dengue fever. •Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in blood) •Hepatitis. •Viral gastroenteritis . •Yellow fever (disease typically transmitted by mosquitoes).
  23. 23. Treatment And prevention
  24. 24. treatment: IF Early Delay cure severe serious effects of malaria can be prevented fatal disease
  25. 25. The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on: •The type (species) of the infecting parasite. •The severity of malaria symptoms . •The patient's age . •Any other illnesses or conditions. •Pregnancy. •Drug allergies. •Other medications taken by the patient.
  26. 26. Medications •Chloroquine •Mefloquine . •Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine . • Quinine sulfate. •Doxycycline. • Hydroxychloroquine.
  27. 27. Complications Splenomegaly (Enlarged spleen). Cerebral malaria
  28. 28. Prevention :
  29. 29. Protecting yourself against mosquito bites
  30. 30. Taking antimalarial medicines
  31. 31. young children and pregnant women avoid traveling to areas where malaria is common
  32. 32. Conclusion you should see the doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to high-risk malaria region.
  33. 33. References *Microorganism book * * * osis%20of%20Malaria.html * * * * malaria/06_complications_of_malaria.html#1