Done by: Maryam AL-Qhatany.
2.3Case
Learning Objectives
1Definition of malaria.
2Types of parasite causes malaria .
3Life cycle of different malaria parasite+...
Introduction
Approximately 300 million
people worldwide are affected
by malaria and between 1 and
1.5 million people die f...
Malaria
is an infectious disease caused by a
parasite, (called Plasmodium), which
is transmitted via the bites of
infected...
Causes
Malaria is caused by a type of
microscopic parasite that's
transmitted most commonly by
mosquito bites(female
Anoph...
Plasmodium vivax (P.v.).
Plasmodium ovale (P.o).
Plasmodium malariae (P.m).
Plasmodium falciparum (P.f).
incubation period:
Symptoms:
This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is
mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria an...
incubation period:
Symptoms:
This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the
other types and is known to have less than ...
incubation period:
Symptoms:
It has the widest distribution around the globe.
Approximately 60% of infections in India are...
incubation
period:
Symptoms:
(P.f).
The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the
most lethal parasite that causes most inf...
Pathogenesis
+
Pathogenesis
numerous known
and unknown waste
substances, such as
red cell membrane
products, hemozoin
pigment, and other
...
destruction of red blood
cell
hemolytic anemia
adhesion of red blood cell on wall of
blood vessel
Clot
(blood in stools)
FeverChills
Headache Sweats
Nausea
Fatigue vomiting
early stages
Other common symptoms:
Dry cough
Muscle and/or back pain.
Jaundice
Hepatomegaly
Fever
Hemolytic Anaemia
Diagnosis
Dr. ask the patient number of
questions concerning:
•Current symptoms.
•Medical conditions.
•Family medical history.
•Curr...
Laboratory
diagnosis identification of
malaria parasite or
its antigens/products
in the blood of the
patient.
Microscopy
Malaria parasites are recognizable by
their physical features and by the
appearance of the red blood cells.
Most
Other tests:
Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR).
Serology
Immunologic tests
•The flu (influenza).
•Common cold .
•Meningitis.
•Typhoid fever.
•Dengue fever.
•Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in bloo...
Treatment
And
prevention
treatment:
IF
Early cure
serious effects of
malaria can be
prevented
Delay severe
fatal
disease
The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on:
•The type (species) of the infecting parasite.
•The severity of...
Medications
•Chloroquine
•Mefloquine .
•Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine .
• Quinine sulfate.
•Doxycycline.
• Hydroxychloroquine.
Splenomegaly
(Enlarged spleen).
Complications
Cerebralmalaria
Prevention :
Protecting
yourself
against
mosquito
bites
Taking antimalarial
medicines
young children
and pregnant
women avoid
traveling to
areas where
malaria is
common
Conclusion
you should see the doctor
if you experience a high
fever while living in or
after traveling to high-risk
malari...
References
*http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/malaria-symptoms
*http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/221134-differential...
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
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Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01

  1. 1. Done by: Maryam AL-Qhatany. 2.3Case
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1Definition of malaria. 2Types of parasite causes malaria . 3Life cycle of different malaria parasite+ Pathogenesis 4Symptoms and sign of malaria. 5Investigation of malaria . 6 Differential diagnosis 7 treatment and prevention of malaria . diagnosis Malaria
  3. 3. Introduction Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Previously extremely widespread, the malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America
  4. 4. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, (called Plasmodium), which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes , that infect red blood cells in the human body.
  5. 5. Causes Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites(female Anopheles mosquito).
  6. 6. Plasmodium vivax (P.v.). Plasmodium ovale (P.o). Plasmodium malariae (P.m). Plasmodium falciparum (P.f).
  7. 7. incubation period: Symptoms: This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the tropical West African region fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills
  8. 8. incubation period: Symptoms: This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the other types and is known to have less than 1 percent infections in the Indian subcontinent. high fever and chills.
  9. 9. incubation period: Symptoms: It has the widest distribution around the globe. Approximately 60% of infections in India are caused by P.v. Although it seldom causes death or other serious problems, it can still cause major illness fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills. Flu- like symptoms.
  10. 10. incubation period: Symptoms: (P.f). The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the most lethal parasite that causes most infections and deaths related to malaria fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, aching muscles, enlarged spleen, sore back, joint pain, vomiting, nausea, fever, headache.
  11. 11. Pathogenesis +
  12. 12. Pathogenesis numerous known and unknown waste substances, such as red cell membrane products, hemozoin pigment, and other toxic factors activate macrophages and endothelial cells to secrete cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ and other factor. headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, tiredness, aching joints and muscles, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression, and central nervous system manifestations .
  13. 13. destruction of red blood cell hemolytic anemia adhesion of red blood cell on wall of blood vessel Clot (blood in stools)
  14. 14. FeverChills Headache Sweats Nausea Fatigue vomiting early stages
  15. 15. Other common symptoms: Dry cough Muscle and/or back pain.
  16. 16. Jaundice Hepatomegaly Fever Hemolytic Anaemia
  17. 17. Diagnosis
  18. 18. Dr. ask the patient number of questions concerning: •Current symptoms. •Medical conditions. •Family medical history. •Current medications. •Recent travel history.
  19. 19. Laboratory diagnosis identification of malaria parasite or its antigens/products in the blood of the patient.
  20. 20. Microscopy Malaria parasites are recognizable by their physical features and by the appearance of the red blood cells. Most
  21. 21. Other tests: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serology Immunologic tests
  22. 22. •The flu (influenza). •Common cold . •Meningitis. •Typhoid fever. •Dengue fever. •Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in blood) •Hepatitis. •Viral gastroenteritis . •Yellow fever (disease typically transmitted by mosquitoes).
  23. 23. Treatment And prevention
  24. 24. treatment: IF Early cure serious effects of malaria can be prevented Delay severe fatal disease
  25. 25. The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on: •The type (species) of the infecting parasite. •The severity of malaria symptoms . •The patient's age . •Any other illnesses or conditions. •Pregnancy. •Drug allergies. •Other medications taken by the patient.
  26. 26. Medications •Chloroquine •Mefloquine . •Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine . • Quinine sulfate. •Doxycycline. • Hydroxychloroquine.
  27. 27. Splenomegaly (Enlarged spleen). Complications Cerebralmalaria
  28. 28. Prevention :
  29. 29. Protecting yourself against mosquito bites
  30. 30. Taking antimalarial medicines
  31. 31. young children and pregnant women avoid traveling to areas where malaria is common
  32. 32. Conclusion you should see the doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to high-risk malaria region.
  33. 33. References *http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/malaria-symptoms *http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/221134-differential *http://www.parn.org.pk/index_files/Laboratory%20Diagn osis%20of%20Malaria.html *http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-diagnosis.html *http://www.onlymyhealth.com/what-types-malaria- 1302068689 *http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/malaria/pages/lifecycle.aspx *http://www.vitalhealthzone.com/health/conditions/m/ malaria/06_complications_of_malaria.html#1 *Microorganism book

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