Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
By: Kareem Waleed Hamimy6th Year Medical StudentKasr Al Ainy - Cairo University
A short introduction   Malaria     Why?     What?     How?     Who?     Where? Pathogenesis Clinical picture
Why Malaria ? One of the most common infectious  diseases & an enormous public-health  problem. Each year, it causes dis...
What is Malaria ? Malaria is a vector-borne infectious  disease caused by protozoan parasites  of the genus plasmodium. ...
How?
Who? Malaria is a disease which  can be transmitted to  people of all ages, bitten  by a vector Young children and  preg...
Where?
Malarial Pathogenesis   Hepatic phase     Sporozoites infect hepatocytes, multiplying      asexually & asymptomatically ...
Malarial Pathogenesis   Erythrocytic phase     Within the red blood cells the parasites     multiply further, again asex...
Malarial Pathogenesis   PfEMP1     Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte      membrane protein 1     Adhesion (protective) ...
Pathogenesis of clinical picture   Prodromal symptoms (influenza like)     Hepatic phase where the parasite asexually   ...
Pathogenesis of clinical picture   Anemia     Febrile paroxysmal hemolysis     Immune & Non Immune hemolysis     Incre...
Pathogenesis of clinical picture   Spleen     Splenomegaly      ○ Edema of the pulp      ○ RES hyperplasia      ○ Increa...
Pathogenesis of clinical picture   Due to adherence factor of falciparum     blocking of venules of organs lead to    a ...
Pathogenesis of clinical picture   CVS     Anemia leads to      ○ Hypotension      ○ Tachycardia      ○ Muffled heart so...
Malarial             Infections                          HighSecondary    Clinical     Grade Infection             Picture...
Any Questions ?
Malarial pathogenesis
Malarial pathogenesis
Malarial pathogenesis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Malarial pathogenesis

5,111 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Malarial pathogenesis

  1. 1. By: Kareem Waleed Hamimy6th Year Medical StudentKasr Al Ainy - Cairo University
  2. 2. A short introduction Malaria  Why?  What?  How?  Who?  Where? Pathogenesis Clinical picture
  3. 3. Why Malaria ? One of the most common infectious diseases & an enormous public-health problem. Each year, it causes disease in approximately 650 million people & kills 1-3 million, most of them young children in Africa. At least one death every 30 seconds.
  4. 4. What is Malaria ? Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.
  5. 5. How?
  6. 6. Who? Malaria is a disease which can be transmitted to people of all ages, bitten by a vector Young children and pregnant women in high transmission areas are at a large risk.
  7. 7. Where?
  8. 8. Malarial Pathogenesis Hepatic phase  Sporozoites infect hepatocytes, multiplying asexually & asymptomatically for a period of 6–15 days.  Then they differentiate into merozoites  rupture the hepatocytes  escape to blood stream undetected (wrapping itself in the cell membrane of the infected host liver cell).
  9. 9. Malarial Pathogenesis Erythrocytic phase  Within the red blood cells the parasites multiply further, again asexually, periodically breaking out of their hosts to invade fresh red blood cells. p.vivax and p.ovale  do not immediately develop into merozoites  They develop first to Hypnozoites (dormant form) for 6-12 month leading to long incubation and late relapses
  10. 10. Malarial Pathogenesis PfEMP1  Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1  Adhesion (protective) protein produced by p.falciparum expressed on surface of RBCs causing it to stick to the walls slowing its lysis in spleen.  Block endothelial venules cerebral & placental malaria.  Extreme diversity  not a good immune targets.
  11. 11. Pathogenesis of clinical picture Prodromal symptoms (influenza like)  Hepatic phase where the parasite asexually and asymtomatically multiply. Malarial paroxysms  Decreased osmotic fragility  rupture of RBCs  Release of metabolites & toxins  Release of cytokines such as TNF and interleukin-1 from macrophages, resulting in chills and high grade fever.
  12. 12. Pathogenesis of clinical picture Anemia  Febrile paroxysmal hemolysis  Immune & Non Immune hemolysis  Increased splenic clearance  Dyserythropoeisis in BM  Drug induced hemolysis Bone marrow  Iron sequestration  Dyserythropoeisis  Dysthrombopoeisis
  13. 13. Pathogenesis of clinical picture Spleen  Splenomegaly ○ Edema of the pulp ○ RES hyperplasia ○ Increased phagocytic function ○ New guinea “Tropical splenomegaly syndrome” Liver  Hepatomegaly (hepatic phase)  Malarial pigments  greyish black  Falciparum  malarial hepatitis
  14. 14. Pathogenesis of clinical picture Due to adherence factor of falciparum  blocking of venules of organs lead to a lot of manifestations as  Cerebral malaria (severe headache, drowsiness, confusion, coma)  Placental malaria (premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation iURD)  Dysenteric malaria (abdominal pain, vomiting, GIT bleeding )
  15. 15. Pathogenesis of clinical picture CVS  Anemia leads to ○ Hypotension ○ Tachycardia ○ Muffled heart sounds Kidney  Immune complexes  Nephrotic syndrome ○ Albuminuria ○ Edema ○ hypertension
  16. 16. Malarial Infections HighSecondary Clinical Grade Infection Picture Fever Anti Malarial Drugs
  17. 17. Any Questions ?

×