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  • 1. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 1 Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) March 2011 Loren Karl Schwappach Supervising Professor: Pamela Hoffman Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering Colorado Technical University Colorado Springs, COAbstract: The objective of this project is to solve a problem and engineer a solution using appropriaterequirements and specifications that satisfy the design problem. For this paper a Digital ElectroluminescentJacket was engineered and constructed to act as an attention gathering device for school events and activities.The Jacket was designed using electroluminescent wire, an LED display and an LED matrix. The complete designprocess from the development o requirement specifications to test plan, options selected, design alternativesapproached, project milestones, and final evaluation of the solution are talked about in this paper.I. INTRODUCTION Digital apparel has also been showcased in events such as Super Bowl XLV, the 2008 Olympic Games, and the movieT HIScapstone project is based on the design process used for engineering the solution to a problem. The problem Tron Legacy. With only a limited number of designers and new breakthroughs in technology happening every day,this paper looks to solve is the attraction and recruitment of digital apparel is becoming an attractive venture.individuals both young and old into fields of science andengineering. Specifically focusing on a solution that candemonstrate the creativity and imagination involved inengineering and design. To this end a DigitalElectroluminescent Jacket (code named DEJ) was developedto pull in crowds at school conferences and events. Thispaper will examine the reasoning, theory, and design processused in the engineering of this solution the DEJ!II. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Digital apparel is clothing enhanced with digital [1]components IE. timers, clocks, light emitting diodes (LED),transistors, ICs, switches, etc. that allow the apparel to dothings such as illumination, device controlling, etc. Whileresearching Digital apparel on the World Wide Web I couldfind less than a handful of designers. One of the mostnoteworthy designers discovered was Janet Cooke Hansen[1]. Janet is the President and Chief Fashion Engineer ofEnlighted Designs, Inc. ( Janet foundedEnlightened Designs to fulfill a dream as a light-up clothingdesigner. Janet has a Ph.D. in Applied Mechanics and [4]Engineering Sciences/Bioengineering from UC San Diego [2].She has created digital apparel for performers like Superbus,N.A.S.A., Christina Aguilera, M.I.A., Bow Wow, Pink, Incubus,Daft Punk, and Korn, R Kelly [3]. Her designs have sold fromhundreds to several thousands of dollars. Some of Janet’sdesigns to include a scarf and motorcycle jacket are shown inthis report [4] and [5].
  • 2. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 2 6. Presentation finalized:  14 March 2011 7. IEEE Report finalized:  18 March 2011 VII. SPECIFICATIONS The design specifications for the digital jacket are covered in four categories: [5]  Functional Requirements  Interface Requirements  Performance RequirementsIII. PURPOSE  Qualification Requirements The purpose of this project is to develop a jacket that canbe used to demonstrate to people that the fields of electricaland computer engineering are not limited to computers andchip design. The jacket shall also demonstrate a design that A. Functional Requirementsshows how engineering can often require artistic and highly In order to appropriately solve the problem of designingimaginative individuals and find wide application within a jacket to draw attention that incorporatesnumerous industries including the often overlooked fashion electroluminescence, messages, and LEDs the followingindustry. functional requirements were selected for the design of the DEJ.IV. PROPOSAL The proposal for this project was to create a digital jacketthat fulfills the project purpose by being capable of brightillumination using electroluminescent wiring and severalhundred flashing LED lights in programmable patterns. Thedigital jacket shall also be capable of displaying customizablemessages.V. CUSTOMER The digital jacket was designed with the intention to be Table 1: Functional Requirementsused by companies, schools, and businesses as an attentiongathering device used by schools, recruiters, sales personnel,and others to draw in students and customers. B. Interface Requirements Interface requirements specify the things needed to allow parts to intercommunicate. These requirements follow.VI. MILESTONES The milestones for the development of the digital jacketincluded: 1. Requirement specifications document prepared by:  24 January 2011 2. Schedule and Budget document prepared by:  24 January 2011 3. Test Plan and Detailed Test Procedures prepared by:  24 January 2011 4. Tests completed by:  4 March 2011 5. Product finalized by: Table 2: Interface Requirements  9 March 2011
  • 3. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 3C. Performance Requirements IX. DESIGN CONCEPTS In order for the jacket to be mobile it will need to The following show some design Visio rendered conceptsperform using mobile power source, therefore: during the initial and late design process stages used in the creation of the digital electroluminescent jacket: A. Stage 1: 1st Visio Draft Below illustrates the first concept of the DEJ.Table 3: Performance RequirementsD. Qualification Requirements To qualify as a solution that can be worn and utilized inthe most effective manner the following Qualifications:Table 4: Qualification RequirementsVIII. DESIGN BENEFITS The specifications for this project were designed toincorporate the following benefits: st Figure 1: 1 Draft of the Digital Jacket (Back) 1. Extra Large Leather Jacket Using a XL leather Jacket allows the jacket maximumcustomizability and audience use and just looks cool. 2. Electroluminescent Wire Electroluminescent wire (EL-Wire) is cheap, affordable,bright, uses little current (Highly Efficient) and is capable of360 degree illumination. 3. LED Message Display LED message displays look sharp, clean, and can be usedfor promoting various activities. Figure 2: 1st Draft of the Digital Jacket (Front) 4. Large LED Matrix B. Stage 2: 2nd Visio Draft enhance w/explanations The LED matrix shall allow the user to create large,bright, artistic images. Below illustrates the second concept of the DEJ. Now adding a sound sensitive switch to the jacket.
  • 4. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 4 Figure 5: 3rd Draft of the Digital Jacket (Front) Figure 3: 2nd Draft of the Digital Jacket (Front) Figure 6: 3rd Draft of the Digital Jacket (Back) D. Stage 4: Final Visio Draft for Future Prototype Figure 4: 2nd Draft of the Digital Jacket (Back) Below is a draft of the current prototyped DEJ V2 model expected to be completed by next quarter.C. Stage 3: 3rd Visio Draft without LED Matrix After the destruction of the first Peggy 2 le board thedesign had to be modified again. The concept was changedas illustrated here:
  • 5. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 5Figure 7: 4th Draft of the Digital Jacket – Next P-type (Front) The programmable LED message board tested to ensure it can be programmed with at least four personalized messages. 4. Item D (Programmable LED Matrix): The programmable LED control board tested to ensure it could control a matrix of LED lights. 5. Item E (Wear & Safety): The DEJ interior tested to ensure the device is safe to wear for periods of up to 60 minutes. The results of this testing are covered later in this report.Figure 8: 4th Draft of the Digital Jacket – Next P-type (Back) XI. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS The design constraints that limited this project included:X. TESTING PROCEDURES The following show the testing considerations used in the  Limited Budget: This project was designed and builtdesign of the digital jacket: on a budget of $500.  Limited Time: This project had to be completedA. Scope of Testing within four to five weeks after ordering parts in In-Scope testing of the Jacket would involve testing of order to be ready for presentation.the DEJ’s illumination (whether or not it illuminates) toinclude every incorporated LED and electroluminescent wire,  Limited Knowledge: When this project was startedtesting of the programmable LED display panel, testing of the there was a limited amount of knowledge availableprogrammable LED controller board, testing of the sound about how to use/combine electroluminescent wireactivated portable battery unit, and testing of the additional with leather apparel. However, Enlighted Designsportable battery units. Inc was incredibly helpful and aided in providing tons Out-of-scope level testing would include testing of the of helpful information about wiring digital apparelDEJ material durability, and testing of the LED controller and electroluminescent wire. It also took quite aboard circuit components. The LED controller board while to get the process/technique of solderingcomponents will be obtained from outside sources and had be assumed functional.B. Items Tested Items tested included: XII. BEGINNING RESEARCH Before the decision to use electroluminescent wire I had 1. Item A (Portable Power Supplies): to do research on how it worked and how I could utilize it on a mobile battery powered jacket. This section introduces that All portable power supplies tested to ensure that they research.are safe and are generating the correct output power. A. Electroluminescent Wire: 2. Item B (Electroluminescent Wire): Electroluminescent wire is made by taking a thin copper All DEJ electroluminescent wires tested to see if they can wire (core) and coating it in phosphor. A fine copper spiralilluminate (power on/off). wire thread is then wound around the phosphor coating. An example of the actual wire is shown below. 3. Item C (Programmable LED Message Display):
  • 6. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 6 transformers secondary winding. The Transformer steps up the voltage by the ratio of transformer windings. [8][6] The wire contains a resistance and capacitance (about1nF per foot) and draws approximately 1A for every 800 ft. ofwire (about 1.25mA per foot) [7]. Electroluminescent wirerequires an alternating current voltage of 90 – 120 Volts atapproximately 600-2000Hz [7]. The wire experiences peakefficiency at 100 VAC at about 1000 Hertz. Figure 9 below isan actual strand of the 2.2mm electroluminescent wire used [9]in the design of the digital jacket. XIII. POWER SCHEMATIC Below (Figure 10) is a power diagram showing how each component of the digital jacket would be connected for appropriate power. Figure 9: Red 2.2mm Electroluminescent Wire used in DEJ.B. Inverters: Electroluminescent wires require high voltage highfrequency power. Since the DEJ would have to run onbatteries the jacket would require use of an inverter.Inverters input Direct Current (DC) voltage (generally 12 VDC)and convert it to an Alternating Current (AC) voltage(generally 110 VAC or 220 VAC at 50/60 Hertz). An exampleof an inverter device is an Uninterruptable Power Supply(UPS). A UPS uses batteries and an inverter to supply ACpower if/when the commercial grid becomes unavailable.The main elements of an inverter include an Oscillator and aTransformer. The Oscillator coverts input Direct Current (DC)into an oscillating current. This current is then fed to a power
  • 7. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 7 5. 2.2mm wire at $0.98/ft 6. 2.3mm wire at $1.25/ft B. Inverter / Battery Packs: Since electroluminescent wire requires an alternating current power source the DEJ would require an inverter to convert the DC into AC. Furthermore, electroluminescent wire works most efficiently at a high voltage, high frequency of 100 VAC at 1000 Hertz. Standard inverters usually are designed to produce power at 120 or 240 VAC at 50 or 60 Hertz. Either an inverter would have to be developed or I would need to find a mass manufactured inverter that produced the required output and could be easily purchased. Luckily most of the sites that sell electroluminescent wire also sell inverters designed to work optimally with the electroluminescent wire. Once again the cheapest seller was A four channel constant light and flash battery powered inverter capable of powering 19 to 27 feet of electroluminescent wire and a three channel sound activated battery powered inverter capable of powering 7 ft. of electroluminescent wire was chosen, The sound activated battery pack looked like a perfect solution for adding a cool Figure 10: Power Diagram for planning DEJ component effect that would draw additional awe of the DEJ’s target connections. audience,XIV. COMPONENTS USEDA. Electroluminescent Wire: To construct the Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ)the project would require approximately 22 feet of wire.After comparing many sources and reading several postsabout the issue I found the cheapest seller ofelectroluminescent wire at At $0.99per foot of 2.2mm wire the price was unbeatable. The maindecision made was whether to purchase the 2.2mm EL-Wireversus the 5mm wire. In the end the 2.2mm wire was chosendue to its price and because several sites recommended it forits improved elasticity versus the stiff 5mm wire. The [10]following are some of the many sources reviewed in thedecision making process.Electroluminescent Wire & EL Inverter Suppliers: 1. Offers 2.2mm $0.99/ft 2. 2.2mm wire at $1.20/ft 3. 2.3 mm wire at $1.75/ft 4. 2.2mm wire at $1.75/ft [11]
  • 8. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 8C. Peggy 2 le Display Board: Several LED drivers and LED display boards werereviewed in order to solve the problem of adding an LEDmatrix display to the electroluminescent jacket. The finalchoose came down to number of LEDs that could be drivenand programmability of the board. The best solution seemedto be a board developed by Theyoffered two great boards the Peggy 2 and the Peggy 2 le (littleedition). Both the Peggy 2 and Peggy 2 le feature a matrix of25 by 25 (625 total) light emitting diodes (LEDs), supportArduino like programming via USB or serial cable, and housean ATmega328P pre-programmed microcontroller. Bothboards require a 5 VDC power source. In the end I decided togo with the Peggy 2 le board since it cost less than the Peggy2 and because it was a forth of the Peggy 2 board’s size. Ipicture of the board purchased along with the instructionsand a soldering iron used are shown in Figure 11. [12] Image [13] is a snapshot of the Peggy 2 le found on the second page of the Peggy 2 le construction guide. Figure 11: Peggy 2 LE board. Besides choosing the board for its great technicalsupport, instruction and user’s manual and ATmega328Pmicrocontroller the board also had a large user group withseveral open source code site available for codeexperimentation. One of the coolest open source programs Ifound for the board was PeggyDraw2 open source processingapplication for developing simple 1 bit LED animations on thePeggy 2 le matrix.
  • 9. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 9 [14] Image [15] is a snapshot of the Peggy 2 le detailed lower left corner of the board.[13] Image [14] is a snapshot of the Peggy 2 le parts list found on the fifth page of the Peggy 2 le construction guide. [15] Image [16] is a snapshot of the Peggy 2 le detailed lower right corner of the board.
  • 10. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 10 Figure 12: DEJ LED message board. To program the board I had to install a VM ware machine and Windows XP (I have Windows 7 installed), and mess with the programs dev ice drivers. Luckily my experience in CS 340 and IT 200 were able to assist and I had the antique Badge Writing Software up and running. I used the software to program six messages and two custom pictures I drew using[16] the 384x12 pixel limitation. The software and messages/images programmed are Image [17] is a snapshot of the Peggy 2 le circuit shown by Figure 13. I decided to use Velcro all over the frontschematic, however it is nearly impossible to read on this of the jacket to allow as much versatility as possible and allowreport. The referenced link provides a large crisp resolution the LED board to be attached on either side of the front.of the schematic. Figure 13: DEJ LED message board Badge Software.[17] E. Final Components:D. LED Display Board: The final components to the Digital Electroluminescent Several LED display boards were reviewed before finally Jacket (DEJ) were a small MP3 player (donated but worthsettling for a large programmable red model B1248U mini approximately $20). Since it was a clip on MP3 player (FigureLED display capable of storing six 125 character messages and 14) and already used a small USB rechargeable battery pack it2 384x12 pixel BMP images for $33 USD. Figure 12 below. fit perfectly into the design and allowed a component to ensure demonstration of the sound reactive electroluminescent wire.
  • 11. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 11 XV. DESIGN TRADEOFFS When looking at the components and design considerations for the electroluminescent jacket the following design tradeoffs were considered: 1. Leather Jackets are expensive and usually contain a large layer of insulation which is problematic and Figure 14: Small MP3 Player must be removed. Since the Jacket was intended to be utilized for CTU 2. Numerous LED displays are available however fewevents and activities I used a freeware program known as were large enough to meet design objectives andAudacity Sound Editor to program several CTU specificmessages playable via the MP3 player. the easy USB programmability of the LED Display made it my #1 Option. I found the best LED display/price at 3. Numerous suppliers of EL-Wire & Inverters were reviewed; ( had the lowest prices. Other methods of illumination, EL-panels, LEDs, etc. were looked into as well. Phillips has developed an amazing product (search Lumalive) which shall have a drastic change on fashion industry but the product was unavailable for individual purchase and is still in R&D. 4. There are several large LED matrix designs that could have been used and for this project. In the end the Peggy2LE was chosen. XVI. CONSTRUCTION The construction phase of the Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) was extremely involved. The majority of time Figure 15: Audacity Sound Editing Software. was spent trying to sew/work with a reflective metallic material. This was abandoned and replaced by aluminum Lastly I was able to purchase a small portable speaker for tape from Home Depot after spending an entire weekend5$ (which I attached to the jacket using Velcro). trying to sew with the horrible material. Preparation also included removing the insulating material from the leather (leather can get very cold). Figure 16: Small portable MP3 player from Phillips. To add some final touch-ups to the jacket a smallmultimeter was purchased from Home Depot for $5 USD. Asmall weather thermometer/compass/clock combo waspurchased from Wal-Mart for $3 USD, and small mailboxletter cutouts were purchased from Wal-Mart for $2 USD.
  • 12. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 12Figure 17: Thin tinsel like reflective fabric originally intended (each 3’ sections) were connected to the primary batteryto be sewn upon the Electroluminescent jacket. pack/inverter which could support up to 19-27 ft. of EL-wire. A taped mock-up of the jacket was completed a week The construction was completed by week 10 and isprior to the sewing to aid in the design and conceptualization shown by Figures 20 and 21.of the DEJ. The mock-up is shown by Figure 18 below. Figure 18: Taped mock-up of DEJ. Figure 20: Wiring EL-Wire to Jacket. By the eighth week of the project the electroluminescentwire was ready to be glued (via a hot glue gun) to the jacket.The electroluminescent wire was sized for each section (with XVII. TESTINGfour extra inches on each side left in anticipation of sirestripping problems (the thin thread like wire surrounding the All components were tested in accordance with the testphosphor core tended to get cut about one in three tries plan as will be shown. Additionally current readings of thewhile working with the wire). The wire is then soldered to EL-Wire were obtained and surprisingly the EL-Wire drawscommon 22 gauge speaker wire (one wire to the two thin very little current (<1A).copper strands and on wire to the phosphor coated copper The Pattern tested failed however, due to solderingcore). The connection point was then covered with heat problems during setup of the Peggy2 LE board. Ashrink and heated to avoid having exposed terminals. replacement was ordered but the board could not be A picture of the beginning of this process is shown by completed in time for this presentation. So the Peggy2LE wasFigure 19. left from the final design, and 7ft. Of red EL-Wire was reallocated to be used at the back of the Jacket. A. Entrance Testing: Test A: Power Test This test used a multi-meter and batteries to test the output and safety of each portable power unit. Test B: Illumination Test This test used a dark room and all portable power units to verify appropriate illumination of the LEDs and electroluminescent wire. Figure 19: Wiring EL-Wire to Jacket. Test C: Message Test This test verified the operation of the LED message board The sizes of electroluminescent wire used can be seen in by outputting four personalized messages.the power schematic (Figure 10) of this report. The lower leftand right arm using red EL-wire (each 10” sections) and the Test D: Pattern Testmiddle left and right L-sections using white EL-wire wire This test verified the proper function and programmingconnected to the sound activated battery pack / inverter. of the LED programmable control board by displaying a seriesThe left/right upper arm red EL-wire (each 2’ sections), back of aesthetically pleasing images.centered red EL-wire swirl (7’ section), and front red EL-wire
  • 13. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 13B. Functional Testing:  Prerequisite Test Conditions: Pass the Functional testing of the DEJ repeated the Entrance Tests Illumination Testwhile the DEJ was worn by the user. Functional testing also  Associated Requirements: 1, 2, 7, 8included safety testing of the DEJ through the inspection of  Test Method: Visual Inspectionwiring.  Test Scenario: This DEJ programmable LED control board will be programmed to display a series of aesthetically pleasing images.C. Task Oriented Testing:  Test Passing Criteria: The DEJ displays the  Task A (Passed) programmed images.  Test Case Title: Power Test  Test Failure Criteria: The DEJ does not display  Prerequisite Test Conditions: N/A the programmed images.  Associated Requirements: 8  Test Method: Multi-meter Verification  Test Scenario: The DEJ power units will be XVIII. TROUBLESHOOTING tested with a multi-meter for correct output After completing all tests and successfully wearing the power using new batteries by turning the power DEJ for more than an hour the Jacket the main battery pack units on. would not power on / illuminate primary EL-Wire.  Test Passing Criteria: The DEJ power units were Battery packs were tested first without EL-Wire quick able to create an expected voltage/current connects connected (They were fine). Next each quick level. connect was powered separately (This isolate the problem to  Test Failure Criteria: The DEJ power units were the main front right EL-Wire which was shorting out due to unable to create an expected voltage/current two touching metal contacts. level.’ The metal contacts were re-soldered and connecting 22 gauge speaker wire was lengthened to reduce stress. All  Task B (Passed) other connections were then rechecked for strength and  Test Case Title: Illumination Test stress relief and optimized where appropriate.  Prerequisite Test Conditions: Pass the Power Test  Associated Requirements: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8  Test Method: Visual Inspection XIX. LESSONS LEARNED  Test Scenario: The DEJ LEDs and Electroluminescent wires will be illuminated 1. EL-Wire is hard to work with but works excellent for (turned on). digital apparel design.  Test Passing Criteria: All DEJ LEDs and Electroluminescent wires illuminate. 2. The design needed a much thicker 5mm or larger EL-  Test Failure Criteria: All DEJ LEDs and Wire for more effective light dispersion. Electroluminescent wires do not illuminate. 3. Al-tape was ineffective at enhancing luminescence, may pursue a more light absorbing material in next prototype  Task C (Passed) or dismiss this approach altogether.  Test Case Title: Message Test  Prerequisite Test Conditions: Pass the 4. You need to be extremely careful when soldering Illumination Test equipment.  Associated Requirements: 3, 6, 8  Test Method: Visual Inspection  Test Scenario: The DEJ LED display will be tested XX. EVALUATION AND APPROVAL by programming and powering on the display A. Test Method and verifying that four independent messages are displayed. A evaluation test was completed by putting on the DEJ  Test Passing Criteria: The DEJ displays the and taking a late night walk with a co-engineering student programmed messages. down a neighborhood street.  Test Failure Criteria: The DEJ does not display one or more of the programmed messages.  Task D (Failed)  Test Case Title: Pattern Test
  • 14. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 14B. Results wire is working at high frequencies of 600 to 2000 Hertz (1kHz is standard) so careful consideration of the amount of Received positive feedback results within first two wire used, battery placement, and connections is critical. Theminutes, first by a group of high school teenagers who asked largest current draw for the DEJ was at the back and drewwhere the DEJ was obtained and said it was the coolest thing approximately 6mA of current. Even at 1000 Hz, this wouldthey had ever seen and second by numerous cars which be slightly painful (Although voluntary muscle control shouldstopped to tell me of their amazement. be maintained). Image [19] below is a good chart that shows the bodily effects as a result of current exposure at various frequencies.C. Additional Remarks Also received great praise from engineering peers andmy daughters 2nd grade class at CSCS whom several vowedto become an engineer.D. Was the Peggy 2Le Really Needed? With all the positive feedback I received I’m not positivethat the Peggy2 le was really required to meet my objective.The Jacket worked great as a versatile attention gatheringdevice without it.XXI. ECONOMICSA. Project Cost Roll Up 22 feet of Red EL-Wire ($22USD @ 6 feet of White EL-Wire ($6USD @ [19] Primary Battery Pack / Inverter ($9USD @ XXIII. CONCLUSIONS Leather Jacket (Donated but estimated, 100-150$USD) While I was unable to meet all of my original product Large USB Programmable LED Display (30$USD @ specifications (due to the soldering mishap on the first Peggy 2 le board purchased), the Digital Electroluminescent Jacket display-card-strap.html) (DEJ) succeeded in accomplishing my top objective (acting as Peggy 2 LE LED Display Board Kit w/ 625 LEDs ($166USD a cool attention gathering device). The design process was @ complicated and several lessons were learned about time and e) resource management/economics during the length of this MP 3 Player (Donated but estimated $10-$20USD) course. Lots of knowledge was gained throughout the design Portable Speaker ($5USD - Wal-Mart) process including things like effectively using a soldering iron, Misc. Construction Materials (Hot-Glue, Al-Tape, 22 working with complicated materials (like devilish fabric) and Gauge Wire), ($20USD - Wal-Mart) electroluminescent wiring. Plans for a second design are Total $258 USD, $92 USD (Without Peggy 2le boards) already ongoing and an expected prototype version 2 will hopefully be ready for display by the end of next quarter at CTU.XXII. SAFETY CONCERNS Although electroluminescent wire draws only a smallamount of current (1.25 mA/ft of wire) it can still becomedangerous to work with and safety should always be the #1concern. Possible heart fibrillation and death can occur whenexposed to 100 mA of 60 Hz AC. [18] Severe pain anddifficulty breathing can occur when exposed to more than 23mA of current at 60 Hz or 94mA at 10 kHz (The higher thefrequency the more current it takes). [18] Electroluminescent
  • 15. EE472 Adv. Digital Design - Digital Electroluminescent Jacket (DEJ) 15 REFERENCES[1] Janet Cooke Hansen. [Online image] Available 00.jpg, March 17, 2011.[2][3][4] LED Biker Jacket. [Online image] Available, March 17, 2011.[5] EL-Wire Neck. [Online image] neckdarkx600.jpg, March 17, 2011.[6] EL-Wire Neck. [Online image], March 17, 2011.[7][8] s/63708.aspx[9] Image of Simple Inverter without Charge, Circuit Diagram. [Online image] s/63708.aspx?image=137897, 2011.[10] 4 Channel Constant light & Flash 19-27 ft. [Online image], 2011.[11] Sound Activated Battery Pack. [Online image], 2011.[12] PeggyDraw2. [Online image], 2011.[13] PeggyDraw2 le [Online Image] ggy2LE_232.pdf, 2011.[14] PeggyDraw2 le parts list [Online Image] ggy2LE_232.pdf, 2011.[15] PeggyDraw2 le lower left of board [Online Image] ggy2LE_232.pdf, 2011.[16] PeggyDraw2 le lower right of board [Online Image] ggy2LE_232.pdf, 2011.[17] PeggyDraw2 le schematic [Online Image] chem.pdf, 2011.[18][19] Bodily Effects to current at various frequencies [Online Image], 2011.