Satu Miettinen, Juha Miettinen, Antti Kares, Raisa Leinonen and Timo Sirviö Kuopio Academy of Design, Savonia University of Applied Sciences Finland P.O. BOX 98, FIN -70101 KUOPIO Email: email@example.com "DE-SME - Intelligent Furniture - Training for Design, Environment and New Materials in SMEs" Agreement n. 2009 - 2196 / 001 - 001
Theme 5.4.1. Prototyping process: tools and methods What is prototyping?2
Prototyping• Design Prototyping• Technology for Developing Communities• Professor Joe Mertz• Fall 2006• http://www.techbridgeworld.org/courses/TDC_F06/l ectures/L12_Prototyping.pdf
Why to Prototype?• Get feedback from users faster saves money• Experiment with alternative designs• Fix problems before design decitions• Keep the design centered on the user
Prototyping can be used• In good iterative design practices• To refine designs with formative evaluations• In good participative design• Allows for collaboration in interim stages• To keep the scope of your class projects reasonablehttp://www.techbridgeworld.org/courses/TDC_F06/lectures/L12_Prototyping .pdf
Fidelity in Prototyping• Fidelity refers to the level of detail• High fidelity? – prototypes look like the final product• Low fidelity? (Paper prototyping) – artists renditions with many details missing
Advantage of lowfi• Cheap = less time and easier to change• Quick feedback• More cycles of testing, more prototype• Widely practiced in industry, even though it sounds silly in the beginning http://hci.epfl.ch/teaching/hci/course_material/lofi- prototype/lecture5-lofi_proto-x6.pdf
Types of design prototypes• Low- and high-fidelity prototyping• Sketches• Paper prototyping• Mock-up models• Storyboarding• Web-based prototyping• Software prototyping• Video prototyping
Experience prototyping• Prototyping method, creating, generating and modelling new service feature
Experience prototyping• An experience prototype is a representation of a design, made before the final solution exists. We need prototyping for electronics, we need to think about a more total experience like designing a service or designing what happens with the chips and the people, then you need something which is more to do with storytelling, using video of how to tell a story or theatre for enactment or computer simulations. All of those become a necessary part of our prototyping vocabulary.
Experience prototyping• The rapidness of a prototype cycle between trying something out and testing it with people, trying it out with people, is what makes the relationship between design and business successful. We can make a small prototype very inexpensively, we can try it out, test it and if it’s successful perhaps we’ll move forward to the next stage.
Experience prototyping• The aim of experience prototyping is to test the feasibility of the service, the logistics, customer experience and financial impact of the service product in a cheap and quick way. An experience prototype is any kind of representation, in any kind of medium, that is designed to understand, explore or communi- cate what it might be like to engage with the product, space or system we are designing.
Virtual prototyping• To test usability based on a virtual model instead of a real prototype, it may be possible to push testing earlier into the design process, where it is easier and cheaper to correct any potential errors.
Virtual prototyping• Normally, usability testing is done in situations where both testers and users are at the same time in the same place. Users perform given tasks with the system, and testers observe their behaviour to find problems in the user interface. Often, the test situation is videotaped to help later analysing of the session.• In remote testing, the persons running a test are distanced, spatially and/or temporally, from the users of the system to be tested
Virtual prototyping• The internationalisation of markets and companies has created a need to evaluate and test products during the design process in a geographically wide area with users belonging to different cultures. Products may have several different potential user groups, or companies have product development in several places..
Virtual prototyping• The development of networks has opened possibilities for distributed activity and also for remote usability testing. It is possible, e.g., to use shared desktop applications, video conferences, questionnaires located on the Internet to collect subjective experiences of users, for example, so that performing some function automatically opens a reply screen
Virtual prototyping• Many remote testing settings rely on recording or transmitting both video and audio of the test situation. Another possibility would be to collect data automatically from actual interactions with the product.
Virtual prototyping• Users have also been trained to recognise usability problems and to report them to product developers. For example, when developing a method called as the "user-reported critical incident, developers had made a special button in the application under development and testing so that users could easily generate a problem report and send that to developers whenever problems were encountered.
Paper prototyping• This method features a paper-based simulation of an interface or system. Paper prototypes provide a valuable and cost-effective means of evaluating and iterating design options before deciding on one implementation. Interface elements such as menus, windows, dialogues and icons can be sketched on paper or created in advance using cards, pens, etc. The result is sometimes referred to as a low- fidelity prototype.
Rapid Prototyping• This method is concerned with developing different proposed concepts by evaluating software or hardware prototypes. The development of a simulation or prototype of the future system can be very helpful. It allows users to get an idea of the look and feel of the system and provide feedback on it. Thus it can be used to clarify user requirements options. Rapid prototyping is described as a computer-based method which aims to reduce the iterative development cycle. Interactive, quickly replaceable prototypes are developed in line with design feedback.
ReferencesHeinilä, J. (Ed.), Strömberg, H., Leikas, J., Ikonen, V., Iivari, N., Jokela, T., Aikio,K. P., Jounila, I., Hoonhout, J. and Leurs, N. (2005): User Centred DesignGuidelines for Methods and Tools. VTT Information Technology; University of Oulu, Dept. of Information processing science;Philips Research, Philips Applied Technologies. The Nomadic Media consortium, November 2005.http://www.vtt.fi/inf/julkaisut/ muut/2005/UCD_Guidelines.pdf (3.5.2009)Iacucci, G., Kuutti, K. and Ranta, M. (2000): On the Move with a Magic Thing: Role Playing in ConceptDesign of Mobile Services and Devices. DIS ’00, Brooklyn, New York. http://users.tkk.fi/~giulio/ P1_jacucci.pdf (2.5.2009)24
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.13.3.2012 25