TP2 How to use drama methods in service concept design
Satu Miettinen, Juha Miettinen, Antti Kares, Raisa Leinonen and Timo Sirviö Kuopio Academy of Design, Savonia University of Applied Sciences Finland P.O. BOX 98, FIN -70101 KUOPIO Email: email@example.com "DE-SME - Intelligent Furniture - Training for Design, Environment and New Materials in SMEs" Agreement n. 2009 - 2196 / 001 - 001
Theme 5.3.3. How to use dramamethods in service concept design?
Bodystorming • Prototyping method, creating, generating and modelling new service features Empathic design method • The idea in bodystorming is to act as though the service would exist, ideally in the context where it would be used. • This method gives the opportunity to test the proposed service and its interactions either inside the service design team or including the participants.
Bodystorming• Different service situations can be acted out, for example, the customer service situation at the hotel reception. Service designers create the service situation, cast the roles, practise with the professional or on their own and play the situation. The purpose is to prototype and come up with new solutions, test new interactions and make ad hoc innovations.
Theatrical methods in action Using drama to improve lobby area at Cumulus
Using storyboarding and lego figures to act out a service scenario
Bodystorming• Bodystorming can reduce the amount of time needed to study documents of user observations. People can more quickly and with less effort build a mental model of the surrounding, directly observable environment. In contrast, in traditional brainstorming, documentations of contextual factors, be they textual or pictorial, tend to be lengthy and take long to study.• The key idea in bodystorming is that the descriptions of a problem domain (i.e. design questions) given to bodystorming participants can concentrate more on the description of aspects of the problem that are not observable, e.g. psychological (e.g. user needs), social (e.g. interpersonal relationships) or interactional (e.g. turn- taking in conversations).
Collecting stories in play-back theatre• In play-back theatre spectators are asked to tell stories, usually within the frame of some leading theme and opening questions asked by the conductor. Conductor is a link between the audience and the actors. These tales can be anything from the simple everyday events to the most dramatic moments of life.The teller will watch his / her story played back by actors, who improvise with different techniques depending on what aspects of the story are seen crucial.
• Despite the importance of the narratives, the performance is to take the verbal rendition of experience and translate it into not-so-verbal drama. The person whose story is played is thus able to see new aspects of his experience and to relate to it in a more inclusive and communal way.
• First, the actors lay out the rules of the game by coming to stage and telling their own little stories connected to the theme. This works as an introduction and kind of a model to the audience: you can tell simple things in a simple way. After this conductor asks some very simple questions like “What came to your minds when you watched these stories?”.
• The actors create an image with movements and improvised speech. This session with the teachers in the social and health care department started with feelings and projections of the working week and the questions of retirement came little later.After short techniques came a moment of discussion in pairs relating the feelings about growing older and ending one’s working life.
• This was followed by longer stories told by any volunteer, who wanted to have her story displayed. The teller wasasked to choose one of the actors to represent her self. The teller can then give feedback of what she has seen: associations, thoughts, emotions, corrections
Collecting stories in drama workshops• Drama workshop is a matrix for collaborative, active doing, using a variety of methods and exercises to investigate chosen issues. It may involve warm-up games and physical exercises, discussion, improvisation and creating still images and small scenes which are observed, reflected and modified.
• In drama workshops the stories were seen in the physical embodiments and reflections done by the participants, in still images and small scenes based on the instructions like: “Relate in small groups a) the worst moment of your working life and b) the best imaginable moment and then do still images of them”. The images were first interpreted and observed by others: “What do you see in this image? Who are these people? What are they thinking?” And: “How could we change this nightmarish scene to a positive one?”
References Oulasvirta, A., Kurvinen, E. and Kankainen, T. (2003): Understanding contexts by being there: case studies in bodystorming. Pers Ubiquit Comput (2003) 7: 125–134 DOI 10.1007/s00779-003-0238-7. London: Springer-Verlag. http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/oulasvir/ scipubs/bodystorming_AO_EK_TK.pdf (2.5.2009) Iacucci, G., Kuutti, K. and Ranta, M. (2000): On the Move with a Magic Thing: Role Playing in Concept Design of Mobile Services and Devices. DIS ’00, Brooklyn, New York. http://users.tkk.fi/~giulio/ P1_jacucci.pdf (2.5.2009) Buchenau, M. and Fulton Suri, J. (2000): Experience Prototyping. San Francisco: IDEO. http://www.ideo. com/images/uploads/thinking/ publications/pdfs/FultonSuriBuchenau- Experience_PrototypingACM_8-00. pdf (20.4.2009)15
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.13.3.2012 16