To contribute to the long term development of Indonesia by producing a strategy for the implementation of a regional (ASEAN) Open Sky policy in 2015 (planned date).
Accommodate ASEAN Open Sky policy in national aviation law;
Prepare the national aviation industry for regional competition;
Assess the benefits of ASEAN Open Sky policy for Indonesia (macro level);
Road map for the development and implementation of the ASEAN Open Sky Policy in Indonesia in 2015 (planned date).
The road map will include steps to be taken by the “implementers”, including the government, carriers and airport operators.
Description of Activity Components
Figure 1 : Interdependence of the tasks
Conclusions & Recommendations
Aviation & Competition Law
The 2009 Aviation Law requires:
Limited amendment to ensure consistency with ASEAN multilaterals
More detailed amendment in relation to the economic licensing of air carriers where appropriate secondary legislation and policies should be developed
General reform of the 1999 law should follow the adoption in 2010 of the comprehensive ASEAN Regional Guidelines on Competition Policy.
Guidelines for aviation cases should be developed.
Demand Forecasts & Open Skies Benefit (2025)
Impact of Open Skies to Indonesia in 2025:
16.3m additional annual passengers
35,495 annual aircraft movements
291,000 annual tonnes of air cargo
2010 2025 AAGR Indonesia Domestic Passengers (mn) 87 255 7.5% Indonesia International Passengers (mn) 19 67 8.9% Indonesia Domestic Aircraft Movements (000) 781 1,848 5.9% Indonesia International Aircraft Movements (000) 127 390 7.8% Indonesia Domestic Air Cargo (tons 000) 480 2,070 10.2% Indonesia International Air Cargo (tons 000) 286 1,380 11.1% Jakarta Domestic Passengers (mn) 32 107 8.4% Jakarta International Passengers (mn) 10 37 9.5% Jakarta Domestic Aircraft Movements (000) 247 679 7.0% Jakarta International Aircraft Movements (000) 62 202 8.2%
Most Indonesian carriers consider profitable growth will come from domestic expansion.
Seek to delay international route access and capacity expansion until domestic growth has matured.
Most Indonesian airlines would prefer gradual introduction of an Open Sky Agreement across Indonesia to ASEAN markets.
Gradual removal of capacity and frequency constraints currently applying on a bilateral basis, to concentrate on securing domestic growth in the short to medium term.
The most urgent need for new capacity is at Jakarta, Surabaya and Bali airports.
It is easier to “sweat” terminal facilities than airfield facilities.
Surface access is likely to be a major issue at all airports due to a lack of adequate rail and road access.
Land use Master Plans should be developed based on the shortfalls in requirements highlighted in this presentation.
DGCA should formulate and recommend a defined policy based on international best practice for safety and security.
Implementation of Open Sky:
No need for route structure changes
Overall traffic increase:
New ATM system in Jakarta ACC
Update of Ujung Pandang ACC
Additional Air Traffic Controllers needed
Monitor and evaluate the ATM performance
Economic & Social Impact
Benefits from implementation of ASEAN Open Skies likely to significantly outweigh the costs, in terms of capital costs and any lost profits for Indonesian carriers.
Net flow of costs and benefits to Indonesian users is positive. NPV of IDR 21.9 trillion and BCR of 5.4.
Majority of benefits will accrue to Jakarta and to a lesser extent Indonesia’s other larger airports (these airports experience the largest impacts in terms of demand growth).
Need for better understanding of linkage between air service development and economic growth, informed by more in depth analysis to support policy development.
Benefits could be even greater in regional economic development terms, by extending the scope of Open Skies to include more gateways and to achieve greater synergy with the strategy for development focussed on six Economic Corridors.
To support modernisation of the Indonesian economy and assist with the aim of Indonesia raising its economic status globally, strong case for a more liberal approach to be taken towards the development of air services with other world regions.
Immediate Action Plan - (1)
Work should start on the Law this year: requirement for proposals, consultation , finalisation and the legislative process. Plan to complete the process within 18 months to two years.
Airlines need to be aware of the change to policy that the ASEAN Open Sky Agreement will bring - an important step-change that needs to be factored into strategic planning.
Meet ICAO compliance requirements - a number of carriers need to work with international organisations to be removed from blacklists.
Develop distribution model for direct/web selling (Call centre, online payments, mobile phone payment)
Immediate Action Plan - (2)
Replace JAATS (Jakarta’s ATC-system)
Introduce Flexible Use of Airspace
Introduce Air Traffic Flow Management
Recruit and train sufficient number of staff
Establish sufficient regulations (e.g for the use of ADS-B)
Improve Quality Assurance of Aeronautical data
Medium / Long-Term Plan – Aviation Law
The 2009 Aviation Law requires some review and revision to create a more flexible regulatory system.
Much does not require changing: but economic regulation section must be readdressed.
More detailed regulation should be removed to secondary legislation and policy.
There is ample time to do this before 2015 if the exercise starts soon.
National competition law is broadly adequate but guidelines for its applicability to aviation need to be developed.
Medium / Long-Term Plan - Airlines
Airline consolidation through relaxation of ownership & control regulations
Airline Alliance and code share development with local, ASEAN and Global carriers
Fleet procurement to increase the average size of aircraft operating at congested airports and acquire suitable aircraft for hub-bypass development (regional aircraft?)
Increase efficiency of operation and maximise product differentiation vs.. competition
Medium / Long-Term Plan - Airspace
Implement PBN (Performance Based Navigation ( according to ICAO APAC region short term )
Implement User Preferred Routing
Consider WAM-(Wide Area Multilateration) for TMA and Enroute
Phase out of HF (High Frequency) (replaced by CPDLC and improved VHF)
Implement PBN (Performance Based Navigation ( according to ICAO APAC region medium term )
Phase out of conventional radar (replaced by ADS-B and WAM)
Incorporation of ASEAN Open Skies Policy into Indonesian Law
The study considers:
Whether the 2009 Aviation Law and the 1999 Competition Law are appropriate to accommodate the ASEAN Open Skies Policy that will take effect fully by 2015;
Whether national aviation law and competition law are consistent with the provisions of the ASEAN multilateral agreements that will implement ASEAN Open Skies;
Whether current law may place the Indonesian air transportation industry at a disadvantage compared with its international competitors under the planned ASEAN Open Skies regime.
ASEAN Open Skies Policy does not create a fully liberalised market for air services between ASEAN states.
Comparisons with other regional open skies regimes of limited assistance as they are not the same.
Current Aviation Law reflects the Government of Indonesia’s inclination to intervene in the market to seek to secure certain broader national transportation objectives.
Whilst some very limited government intervention can be legitimate, it otherwise prevents a liberalised market working.
The Aviation Law, as primary legislation, should establish only principles, leaving the detail to secondary legislation and policy which can respond to developments over time.
Experience in more liberal markets than ASEAN Open Skies, e.g. European single aviation market (where regulation, other than Competition Law, affords carriers little protection), has been very positive for consumers and generally positive for all stakeholders.
Note: the review has been conducted without sight of any applicable Ministerial Regulations or Government Regulations.
Proposals Aviation Law
The 2009 Aviation Law should be amended in relation to economic licensing of air carriers:
to establish general principles that will endure rather than impose a blue print on the industry which will not be appropriate in the future
regulation needs to develop flexibly and primary legislation is too inflexible an instrument (takes too long to change and allows Minister and regulator too little discretion); detailed regulation needs to be left to secondary legislation and policies and procedures published by the Minister and the aviation regulator
Secondary legislation and regulatory policies and procedures can be more readily adjusted in line with developing market and industry conditions (but still line with principles of primary legislation)
to rebalance the present emphasis away from size and high capital investment (which will stifle Indonesian carriers’ ability to compete internationally) towards prudent financial fitness regulation.
Proposals Competition Law
Competition law in Indonesia established in 1999
Designed to address anti-competitive and monopolistic practices of concern to the aviation industry;
Some general shortcomings in substance and procedure which require reform;
Commission for Supervision of Business Competition (KPPU): becoming more experienced; aware of a potential need to intervene and that aviation has special economic characteristics;
Opportunity should be taken to develop guidelines in respect of aviation in readiness for aviation related cases.
Reform of the 1999 law may well follow - it should follow the adoption in 2010 of the comprehensive ASEAN Regional Guidelines on Competition Policy.
Uses for the Demand Forecast
Informs the Airports study: understanding future airport infrastructure requirements.
Informs the Airspace study: understanding future airspace infrastructure requirements.
Informs the airlines paper: understanding the size of the market and the impact on airlines.
Informs the socio economic study: understanding and quantifying the benefits of Open Skies.
Indonesia in ASEAN Source: World Bank most recent statistics Country Population (millions) GDP Real Growth (2010) Indonesia 245.6 $540.3bn Singapore 4.7 $182.2bn Thailand 67.8 $263.8bn Malaysia 27.5 $193.1bn Cambodia 14.8 $10.5bn Brunei 0.4 $11.5bn Laos 6.3 $5.9bn Vietnam 87.3 $97.2bn Myanmar 50.0 Not reported Philippines 92.0 $161.2bn
Top 10 Countries by GDP Growth Source: Citigroup Rank Country Average Annual GDP Growth 1 Nigeria 8.5% 2 India 8.0% 3 Iraq 7.7% 4 Bangladesh 7.5% 5 Vietnam 7.5% 6 Philippines 7.3% 7 Mongolia 6.9% 8 Indonesia 6.8% 9 Sri Lanka 6.6% 10 Egypt 6.4%
Major Asian Airports: Passenger Traffic Trends Millions 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 AAGR 2005-2010 2010 vs. 2009 JAKARTA 28.3 29.0 30.9 32.5 37.3 44.0 9.2% 17.8% SINGAPORE 32.4 33.4 35.2 37.7 37.2 42.0 5.3% 13% KUALA LUMPUR 23.3 23.7 26.1 27.6 29.7 34.1 7.9% 14.8% BANGKOK 39.0 41.0 44.3 43.6 40.5 42.8 1.9% 5.6% DELHI 15.1 19.1 23.1 23.2 25.2 28.5 13.6% 13% BEIJING 41.0 48.7 53.6 55.9 65.4 73.9 12.5% 13% HONG KONG 40.3 43.3 46.3 47.9 45.6 50.4 4.6% 10.6%
Indonesia – Shift in Propensity to Fly
Base Forecast – Total Passengers
Base Case Forecast – Aircraft Movements
Base Case – Benefit of Open Skies (Passengers)
Passenger Forecast for Indonesia
Aircraft Movements Forecast for Indonesia
Open Skies Impact - Passengers
Open Skies Impact - Movements
Air Cargo Demand Forecast
Twelve study airports combined:
International air freight: growth of over four and a half times from 286,000 tonnes in 2009 to around 1.38m tonnes in 2025
Domestic air freight: growth of almost four and a half times from 480,000 tonnes in 2009 to 2.07m tonnes in 2025.
This growth predicated on strong GDP growth and increased foreign direct investment into Indonesia.
International and domestic air mail traffic: growth at much slower rate - less air mail transported with increasing use of electronic means of communication.
Additional international air freight traffic attributed to implementation of Open Skies around 291,000 tonnes per year by 2025.
Impact on Airlines
Determine potential impacts - positive and negative - on major Indonesian airlines :
Lion Air, (including Wings Air)
Indonesia Air Asia
Merpati Nusantara Airlines
SWOT analysis produced for each carrier.
Identify airlines most likely to maximise the opportunity from implementation of the ASEAN Open Skies Policy.
Introduction to Indonesian Airline Industry
Comprises scheduled passenger, scheduled cargo and non-scheduled airlines: providing capacity to meet strong demand for domestic & international passenger and air cargo services.
Airlines already operate in a very liberal domestic and international market environment.
16 scheduled passenger airlines: 7 likely to be impacted by the ASEAN Open Skies Agreement: subject to detailed study.
The 7 scheduled airlines include 3 airlines already heavily involved in provision of international and domestic air services, namely Garuda Indonesia; Lion Air and Indonesia Air Asia.
Garuda Indonesia + Indonesia AirAsia = 78% of international scheduled passengers carried by all Indonesian airlines in 2010.
The other 4 airlines, Sriwijaya Air, Batavia, Wings Air and Merpati strongly focused on the domestic passenger market - international passengers < 5% of each airline’s total passengers in 2010.
3 scheduled cargo airlines: small aircraft fleets and available capacity. Air freight services already liberalised within ASEAN (agreement has not been ratified by the Indonesian government).
The non-scheduled airlines mainly perform niche operations: not impacted by the ASEAN Open Skies Agreement.
Characteristics of Successful Airlines in Liberalised Environments (1)
Appetite for international expansion appears limited in a number of airlines, corporate culture and adopted business model impact on airline growth potential
Young and appropriate fleets.
Some airlines are acquiring modern regional aircraft for new route opportunities, some are standardising/simplifying their fleet structures, some are focusing on single aircraft type, some still have complex fleet structures
High aircraft utilisation.
To achieve lower total seat costs and crew efficiencies
Maximising the use of the capital equipment, a number of carriers remain concerned of Indonesian airports reducing aircraft turn-round times
Characteristics of Successful Airlines in Liberalised Environments (2)
High load factors.
Load factors of some Indonesian carriers on international services are much lower than on domestic services, new entrant carriers with low cost model achieving higher load factors
New entrant carriers better placed to achieve lower cost base, use of regional subsidiaries being used by some carriers to improve cost base
Distribution and yield management controls.
Indonesian market hasn’t fully embraced the low cost model of direct sell distribution: use of credit cards, mobile phone payment. Some carriers are still without internet selling capability
Traffic Performance of Major Airlines (2010) Source: DGCA 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Lion Air Garuda Sriwijaya Air Batavia Air Indonesia AirAsia Merpati Wings Air Passengers (millions) Domestic International
Unique geographical situation, growing population and continued economic prosperity will increase propensity to fly.
Proof - rapid growth in domestic air travel.
Passenger growth on international routes is from a much lower base.
The load factors achieved by Indonesian airlines on international services generally lower than for domestic services.
Some Indonesian airlines are rapidly increasing their fleet sizes.
With the exception of Indonesia AirAsia, most new seat capacity is currently being deployed into domestic markets.
In the period from March to November 2010 the aggregate fleet size of the seven largest Indonesian airlines increased by 20%.
Some carriers are either ordering or signing letters of intent to acquire smaller regional aircraft which could be deployed on new ‘thinner’ intra-ASEAN markets.
Indonesian Carriers & ASEAN
Services to ASEAN countries account for 4.6% of total seat capacity offered by Indonesian airlines (March 2011)
Indonesia AirAsia has largest commitment to ASEAN market: 53.5% of total ASEAN seat capacity offered by Indonesian carriers and 54.7% of total capacity offered by airline.
Seat capacity to international destinations outside ASEAN represents 2.9% of total seat capacity offered by Indonesian carriers.
The ASEAN Challenge (1)
Most bilateral Air Service Agreements between Indonesia and ASEAN member states have capacity and frequency limitations applied through Confidential Memorandum of Understandings (CMOU).
All but one of the airlines interviewed regarded limits as necessary to protect Indonesian carriers from capacity and frequency increases by the larger (and more successful) ASEAN hub-carriers, particularly Singapore Airlines.
Indonesia to Singapore and, to a lesser extent, Indonesia to Kuala Lumpur city pairs are the most capacity constrained; airlines of both sides operating close to the maximum permitted by the CMOU.
The Jakarta to Singapore route is the city pair most likely to see immediate capacity growth once the Open Skies agreement is implemented.
The ASEAN Challenge (2)
Singapore Airlines and Thai Airways operate aircraft of much larger average size than Indonesian carriers - their operations are primarily long- and medium-haul.
Indonesian airlines already find it difficult to compete against carriers such as Singapore Airlines – viewed as the airline most likely to benefit from Open Skies - by enabling it to feed more international passengers over its hub.
Existing connecting passenger traffic currently using domestic services offered by Indonesian airlines will be impacted as more international capacity is added, passengers will transfer from indirect routings over Jakarta to direct routings to other Indonesian cities
The nature of the Indonesian marketplace and airport infrastructure are constraints to obtaining maximum benefits from Open Skies.
Combination of currency restrictions, limited use of credit cards by the consumer and extended credit facilities offered by the travel trade will impact on the speed of development of web (on-line) sales.
Airport capacity, particularly at Soekarno-Hatta, Jakarta, is very constrained.
The restricted opening hours of most other Indonesian international airports impacts negatively on airline schedule development and operating efficiency.
Most Indonesian carriers consider that the opportunity for profitable growth will come from domestic expansion
Seek to delay international route access and capacity expansion until their domestic growth has matured.
Most Indonesian airlines would like to see a gradual introduction of an Open Sky agreement across Indonesia to ASEAN markets, with a gradual removal of capacity and frequency constraints currently applying on a bilateral basis, so they can concentrate on domestic growth in the short to medium term.
Impact on Airports
Determine the future terminal and airfield requirements based on the 2025 traffic forecasts for 7 airports.
Assess the safety and security procedures at the airports and their compliance with current ICAO requirements.
The following airports were studied:
Jakarta Soekarno Hatta
Denpasar Bali Ngurah Rai
Medan Polonia/Kuala Namu
Manado Sam Ratulangi
Makassar Sultan Hasanuddin
Data Gathering (1)
A site visit was made to 6 of the 7 study airports.
Medan was not visited – the current airport is closing and will be replaced by a new facility scheduled to open in 2012/13
Data provided by IndII, AP1, AP2 and DGCA
Internet based research was used to augment the available data
Where information was unavailable international standards were used as appropriate
Data Gathering (2) & Development Plans
Jakarta – Development planned but no details given.
Surabaya – Increased provision of check-in but no timescale provided.
Bali – Development plans were made available but no timescale provided.
Makassar – Airport operator stated that plan was to double terminal capacity by 2015.
Medan – Press releases suggest the airport will be opened at the end of 2012 but to date plagued by construction issues.
Balikpapan – Development plans made available. No timescale given.
Manado – Development planned for 2013 but no details given.
Data Gathering (3) & Missing Data
Not all data was readily available, including:
The split of arriving passengers by Indonesian national/foreign national.
Security throughput data was unavailable. No standardised method of measuring flow rates
Assessing Terminal Facility Requirements
Data was combined with the Mott MacDonald forecasts to evaluate terminal facility requirements using an algorithmic spreadsheet.
For check-in a range of facility requirements was established that represented 30-50% of passengers not using conventional check-in desks for check-in procedures in 2025.
It was assumed that the remainder of passengers would use Online Check-in/Kiosks and Bag Drops.
Terminal Facility Shortfall by Airport in 2025 * Planned development included in analysis ** Details of current facilities not available, hence unable to calculate 2025 shortfall Jakarta Surabaya Bali Makassar Medan Balikpapan Manado HBS Screening Lanes 7-18 7-10 7-9 * 4-7 * - ** 0-1 * 0 * Check-in Desks 34-68 0 * 0 * 0 * - ** 0 * 0 * Outbound Passport Control 58 4 7 * 3 * - ** 0 * 0 * Security Search Lanes – Domestic 5-10 2-4 0 * 5-6 * - ** 0 * 0 * Security Search Lanes – International 5-8 0 0 * - ** 0 * 0 * Gate Rooms – Domestic 10 Code C 15 Code C 1 Code E 4 Code C * 11 Code C * - ** 6 Code C * 0 * Gate Rooms – International 8 Code C 2 Code E 6 Code C * 0 * - ** 0 * 0 * Inbound Immigration Desks 35-83 1-9 23-43 * 5-9 * - ** 3-4 * 0 * Reclaim Belts – Domestic 8 Code C 6 Code E 9 Code C 2 Code C * 2 Code E * 4 Code C * - ** 0 * 0 * Reclaim Belts - International 8 Code E 1 Code C 2 Code C * 0 - ** 0 * 0 *
Terminal Facility Requirements: Key points
The majority of development is required at Jakarta
Zero development required at Manado
Larger space requirement will be in relation to Gate Rooms and Reclaim Belt provision
Assessment of Airfield Facility Requirements
Main focus on runway and taxiway capacity and stand requirements.
There are more than just the physical attributes to consider including airspace and ATC procedures.
Airfield Facility Shortfall by Airport in 2025 * Planned development included in analysis ** Details of facilities not available, hence unable to calculate 2025 shortfall Jakarta Surabaya Bali Makassar Medan Balikpapan Manado Runway Capacity – Movements per Hour 61-63 * 9-11 * 4-6 * 10-12 0 * 0 * 0 * Runway Code Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Taxiway Capacity Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Taxiway Code Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Adequate * Aircraft Stands – Code E 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 * Aircraft Stands – Code C 147 * 56 * 34 * 34 * 11 * 18 * 0 *
Airfield Facility Requirements: Key points
The majority of development is required at Jakarta.
Zero development required at Manado.
Generally, the most significant development will be provision of new stands.
For Jakarta it will be provision of 1 or 2 new runways and associated infrastructure.
Safety and Security Issues
Observed levels of security are not compliant with international best practice. Particular concern with hold bag screening process and passenger screening process
Only one of the airports visited could produce an airside operations manual
Lack of action to mitigate bird hazards
Inadequate provision of facilities to ensure segregation of arriving and departing passengers
Costs Directly Attributable to ASEAN Open Skies (£’000s) * Details of facilities not available, hence unable to calculate 2025 shortfall or costs attributable to ASEAN Open Skies. Costs derived using UK costs without contingency Terminal Facilities Airfield Facilities Jakarta Surabaya Bali Makassar Medan Balikpapan Manado Check-in Desks 2,035 0 0 0 - * 0 0 Outbound Passport Control 22.5 6.25 10 3.75 - * 0 0 Security Lanes - International 1,400 0 0 700 - * 0 0 Gate Rooms – International 4,585 1,310 1,310 0 - * 0 0 Inbound Immigration Desks 1,620 708.75 1,316.25 708.75 - * 303.75 0 Reclaim Belts - International 4,500 750 750 0 - * 0 0 TOTAL COSTS (£M) £14.2M £2.8M £3.4M £1.4M - * £0.3M £0.0M Jakarta Surabaya Bali Makassar Medan Balikpapan Manado Taxilane 4,488 1,870 1,870 748 374 1,122 0 Aircraft Stands 7,128 2,970 2,970 1,188 594 1,782 0 TOTAL COSTS (£M) £11.6M £4.8M £4.8M £1.9M £1.0M £2.9M £0.0M
The most pressing need for new capacity is at Jakarta, Surabaya and Bali
It is easier to “sweat” terminal facilities than airfield facilities
Surface access is likely to be a major issue at all airports due to a lack of adequate rail and road access
Land use Master Plans should be developed in light of the shortfalls in requirements highlighted by this report
The DGCA should formulate and recommend a defined policy based on international best practice for safety and security
Impact on Airspace
Conventional ATS-routes –
following ground installations
About 15 RNAV (Area Navigation) routes used for international traffic
Routes consist of waypoints based on either satellite positions or DME installations
Conventional SID/STAR-design –
In- and outbound traffic to airports
No Flexible use of Airspace (FUA) –
Collaborated decision making regarding the use of airspace between military and civilian users
Congested areas (Java)
Current Situation – Airspace Management and Organisation
Future Demand RED = International traffic BLUE = Domestic traffic Source : JICA 2008 forecast 2025.
Overflying traffic will double
International traffic +31,7%
Open skies will add 5,5%
Jakarta will exceed capacity in
peak hrs already 2015
City pair Jakarta – Surabaya
will almost double
Key Findings and Proposed Solutions (1)
Open sky implementation
No need for route structure changes
Overall traffic increase
New ATM system in Jakarta ACC
Update of Ujung Pandang ACC
Additional Air Traffic Controllers needed
Monitor and evaluate the ATM performance
Key Findings and Proposed Solutions (2)
Air Traffic Flow Management – ATFM
Flexible Use of Airspace – FUA
Traffic Synchronisation – TS
Collaboration between stakeholders:
Organisational changes of ATM – Law No.1/2009
Many projects are running in parallel
Shortage of staff
Operational Air Traffic Controllers
Economic and Social Appraisal
To provide a structured socio-economic assessment using recognised transport appraisal techniques comprising:
GDP and employment impacts nationally and at the provincial level.
Cost Benefit Analysis – impacts on users (journey time savings, air fare savings), producer benefits (airlines and airports), government set against any capital or other costs of implementation.
Connectivity Impacts – improved connections for business.
Qualitative Impacts – tourism, effects on investment, improved provincial links, effects on quality of life, e.g. lifeline routes.
To undertake the assessment used:
The demand forecasts.
Expected impacts on Airlines.
Information on Airport and ATM costs.
Published data on the Indonesian economy, including tourism.
Discussions with key stakeholders in March 2010.
Accuracy of assessment is ultimately reliant on the quality and availability of underlying data.
Significant issues in relation to the collection of data, particularly in relation to:
No detailed data has been available on numbers of employees on site at the 12 airports;
Information on passenger purpose of travel and values of time;
Detailed airline and airport financial data;
Provincial level multiplier information and more specialist information on the international economy.
In all cases we have used reasoned assumptions to fill gaps.
Whilst broad messages are correct, impacts must be seen as orders of magnitude and directions of effect rather than precise estimates.
Uses a generally accepted framework for economic impact assessment.
Quantifiable GDP and employment impacts categorised as:
Direct: generated by activity at airports or in immediate vicinity and directly related to provision of air services;
Indirect: supported by the supply chain to direct activities;
Induced: supported by expenditure of earnings from direct and indirect.
Fourth category known as catalytic or wider impacts:
Focuses on the impact on issues such as trade, investment, technology transfer, productivity and tourism. Relates to the impact on users rather than the industry itself;
Generally held to be unquantifiable in terms of GDP and employment. Considered through socio-economic cost benefit analysis and qualitative analysis.
Definitions of Impact
Baseline impact in 2010 of 243,000 jobs and IDR 33.7 trillion.
Jakarta by far the largest generator of jobs and GDP.
Much of the indirect (supply chain) impact is assumed to arise in the vicinity of Jakarta.
Current Impacts Source: York Aviation. Direct Province National Total inc Indirect & Induced Total inc Indirect & Induced Employment GDP Employment GDP Employment GDP Jakarta 77,000 13,710 165,000 29,500 165,000 29,500 Bali 11,000 310 18,000 500 18,000 700 Surabaya 8,000 290 13,000 500 14,000 600 Medan 5,000 220 9,000 400 9,000 500 Makassar 6,000 180 10,000 300 10,000 400 Balikpapan 3,000 370 5,000 600 7,000 800 Manado 2,000 50 3,000 100 3,000 100 Yogykarta 2,000 50 3,000 100 4,000 100 Batam 3,000 220 4,000 300 5,000 500 Banjarmasin 2,000 40 2,000 100 3,000 100 Tarakan 1,000 110 2,000 200 2,000 200 Jayapura 2,000 120 3,000 200 4,000 300 Total 122,000 15,700 237,000 32,600 243,000 33,700
By 2025, the total impacts have increased to around 505,000 jobs and 117.7 trillion Rupiah of GDP.
An additional 29,000 jobs and 6.3 trillion Rupiah of GDP compared to without Open Skies.
Total Impacts – Open Skies Effect
Primary impact is in and around Jakarta. However, there are significant gains elsewhere, particularly in Bali and East Java.
Employment Impacts – Open Skies Effect by Province Province Direct Own Indirect & Induced Other Indirect & Induced Total Jakarta 10,600 10,100 500 21,200 Bali 2,100 1,200 0 3,300 East Java 1,100 600 0 1,700 North Sumatra 700 400 0 1,000 South Sulawesi 500 100 0 600 East Kalimantan 300 200 0 500 North Sulawesi 100 0 0 100 Yogyakarta 100 100 0 200 Riau 100 0 0 100 South Kalimantan 0 0 0 100 Papua 200 100 0 300
The second element of our quantified assessment of the impact of ASEAN Open Skies on Indonesia focuses on an assessment of the impact of the changes on socio-economic welfare.
Designed to give a broader view of the costs and benefits to society as whole from the liberalisation of air services rather than focusing specifically the impacts on the level of economic activity.
Focuses on quantifying and then monetising the impact of ASEAN Open Skies on a range of different groups in the economy and society. These groups are:
Passengers (Users): journey times and air fares;
Airports (Producers): operating surplus and investment costs;
Airlines (Producers): operating surplus and investment costs;
The Government of Indonesia: tax revenue.
Cost Benefit Analysis (1)
Variety of assumptions made to make the assessment.
Key issue was impact on Indonesian airlines. Concerns exist as to whether Indonesian airlines will be ready to take advantage of the opportunities offered by Open Skies in 2015.
Assumed that Indonesian airlines will only capture 25% of Open Skies growth.
This leads to a significant loss in ASEAN market share from around 39% in 2010 to around 33% in 2025. This does not result in an absolute loss of passenger demand across Indonesian airlines as a whole, although there may be individual winners and losers in terms of benefiting from growth.
Cost Benefit Analysis (2)
Benefits to Indonesian users are significant. Primary source is air fare savings.
Total benefits of around IDR 7.3 trillion in 2025 for Indonesian users.
Discounted benefits for the period of around IDR 26.9 trillion.
Costs to Indonesian users primarily relate to airline investment costs.
Discounted costs to 2025 of around IDR 5.0 trillion to Indonesian Users .
Cost Benefit Analysis - Results Benefits – Indonesian Users Costs – Indonesian Users
Net flow of costs and benefits to Indonesian users is positive. NPV of IDR 21.9 trillion and BCR of 5.4.
Results for All Users are also important. Benefits and costs to non-Indonesian users are not a direct benefit to Indonesia but they do reflect Indonesia’s attractiveness as a place to invest, do business and visit
Cost Benefit Analysis - Results
Cost Benefit Analysis - Results Summary of Discounted Costs and Benefits (IDR Billions) Indonesian Users All Users Benefits Journey Time Savings 1,133 2,220 Air Fare Savings 18,426 31,671 Airport Surplus 1,286 1,286 Airline Surplus 1,177 10,473 Government Revenue 4,903 4,903 Total Benefits 26,925 50,553 Costs Airport Infrastructure -219 -219 ATM Costs -10 -10 Airline Equipment Costs -4,747 -18,557 Total Costs -4,976 -18,786 NPV 21,949 31,767 BCR 5.4 2.7
Benefits to passengers are assumed to accrue to individual airports. Airline and airport benefits tend to Head Offices in Jakarta and Government revenue to Jakarta as the seat of Government.
The primary beneficiary of Open Skies is Jakarta but again there are significant benefits elsewhere.
Cost Benefit Analysis - Results Location of Discounted Benefits by Airport (IDR Billions) Passenger Benefits Producer Benefits Government Revenue Total Jakarta 10,505 2,463 4,903 17,871 Bali 2,994 0 0 2,994 Surabaya 2,430 0 0 2,430 Medan 2,158 0 0 2,158 Makassar 412 0 0 412 Balikpapan 165 0 0 165 Manado 114 0 0 114 Yogykarta 395 0 0 395 Batam 81 0 0 81 Banjarmasin 92 0 0 92 Tarakan 112 0 0 112 Jayapura 101 0 0 101 Total Present Value 19,559 2,463 4,903 26,925
Currently, the economy is focused more towards primary (extraction of raw materials) and secondary (manufacturing) economic activities, rather than higher added value tertiary (service) activities.
Partly a reflection of the Country’s strength in terms of its natural resources. The country has significant oil and gas reserves, which make a significant contribution towards Indonesia’s GDP, and a range of other resources such as Palm Oil, Thermal Coal, Cocoa and Tin.
Focus is very much on servicing the countries very large domestic markets.
Achieving a step change in economic performance is likely to require an increasing emphasis on high value added activities and those in the ‘knowledge economy’. These are likely to include sectors with a significantly greater need for air transport access, such as:
Banking and financial services;
Management and professional services;
Research and Development;
Oil and Gas;
Mining and Quarrying.
Wider Impacts – the Role of ASEAN Partners
ASEAN is clearly and important international partner, particularly for FDI.
Singapore is a particularly important partner.
However, in terms of trade particularly, other parts of the world are important (notably Other Asia).
ASEAN Open Skies is therefore helpful but should be only a first step.
Wider Impacts – Tourism (1)
Biggest markets are within ASEAN, Singapore and Malaysia, but others generate limited demand.
Limited numbers from Europe and North America may reflect lack of direct connections.
Target markets within the tourism development strategy will reinforce this pattern – only Philippines from other ASEAN (i.e. not Singapore and Malaysia) is a target.
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism has identified that air seat capacity is relevant to the promotion of tourism and the attraction of additional visitor numbers. However, this is at an aggregate national level and not linked to priority areas for tourism development
Bali is the biggest attraction now and will continue to be a focus for the future. The strategy identifies an objective to see a diversification of tourism destinations, with an emphasis on reducing the disparities in tourism between Western and Eastern Indonesia
Developing air service access is identified as a priority. International experience would suggest direct access will assist in this, particularly in terms of dispersing the tourism product
Therefore, it would seem reasonable that while ASEAN Open Skies can only be helpful in developing tourism but ultimately the main markets for the future are further afield
Wider Impacts – Tourism (2)
Indonesia has recently drawn up an Economic Transformation Plan. The aim is to improve economic performance and to see Indonesia move up the ranking of world economies by size from 17 th in 2010 to 12 th in 2025 and 7 th or 8 th in the longer term.
There are three fundamental planks to this economic transformation strategy:
reassessing historical engines of growth;
strategically resolving the lack of infrastructure;
realigning policy to focus on economic strengths.
At the core of this strategy is the prioritisation of development to six strategic corridors, with a focus in eighteen key sectors or economic areas integrated into these strategic corridors.
Ultimately, this strategy would see Indonesia become a globally competitive knowledge based economy at the forefront of innovation and with a skilled labour force.
Wider Impacts: Economic Transformation Plan
ASEAN Open Skies will tend to cement the link with Singapore and its importance as an investment partner. It is also likely to cement the importance of ASEAN partners overall as sources of inward investment, building on their existing 44% share.
To that extent, Open Skies can be seen as an important step towards attaining cohesiveness in the region. However, on its own, ASEAN Open Skies may not be sufficient to overcome obstacles to attracting more inward investment globally.
In terms of trade, Other Asian countries are more important trading partners than the countries within ASEAN. This further suggests that ASEAN Open Skies needs to be seen as a first step to opening up improved air service access throughout Asia.
So, whilst ASEAN Open Skies will contribute to the modernisation of the Indonesian economy, the limitation to the ASEAN region alone may constrain the impact it will have, as will the restriction on the proposed opening up to only five main airports from 2015.
Wider Impacts: Economic Transformation Plan
Wider Impacts – Connectivity
Jakarta and the other large airports are the primary providers of both business focused connectivity now and in the future.
However, the smaller airports experience much greater gains.
Open Skies is a chance to connect directly to global centres in ASEAN much more effectively or for the first time.
The core driver of many of the wider, unquantifiable impacts of air services is the extent to which changes in air services enable improvements in connectivity.
Our analysis suggests that the benefits from the implementation of ASEAN Open Skies are likely to significantly outweigh the costs, both in terms of capital costs and in terms of any lost profits for Indonesian airlines. Our assessment of quantified impacts suggests that the majority of benefits will accrue to Jakarta and to a lesser extent Indonesia’s other larger airports. This is unsurprising considering that these airports experience the largest impacts in terms of demand growth.
However, there is a need for greater understanding of the linkage between air service development and economic growth, informed by more in depth analysis to support the development of policy. We believe that the benefits could be even greater than those arising from the current Open Skies proposal, particularly in regional economic development terms, from extending the scope of Open Skies to include more gateways and to achieve greater synergy with the strategy for development focussed on six Economic Corridors.
Furthermore, in order to support the modernisation of the Indonesian economy and to assist with the aim of seeing Indonesia raise its economic status globally, there is a strong case for a more liberal approach to be taken towards the development of air services with other world regions.