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1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 Recursive Pseudo-Exhaustive Two-Pattern Generator PRIYANSHU PANDEY1, VINOD KAPSE2 1 M.TECH IV SEM, HOD2 priyanshupandey@gmail.com Department of Electronics & Communication Gyan Ganga Institute of Technology & Sciences.Abstract implementing BIST include: 1) low cost of test, 2)Pseudo-exhaustive pattern generators for built-in better fault coverage, 3) minimal test time.self-test (BIST) provide high fault coverage of BIST pattern generator classified into one-patterndetectable combinational faults with much fewer test generator and two-pattern generator. One-patternvectors than exhaustive generation. In (n, k)-adjacent generator detects the stuck-at faults in thebit pseudo-exhaustive test sets, all 2k binary combinational circuits. The two-pattern test is used tocombinations appear to all adjacent k-bit groups of detect sequential faults such as stuck-open faults ininputs. With recursive pseudoexhaustive generation, CMOS circuits. It is to test the circuits at high speedsall (n, k)-adjacent bit pseudoexhaustive tests are and also testing for the correct temporal behavior, itgenerated for k, n and more than one modules can is known as delay testing.be pseudo-exhaustively tested in parallel. In order todetect sequential (e.g., stuck-open) faults that occur A generic pseudoexhaustive two-pattern generatorinto current CMOS circuits, two-pattern tests are generates an (n, k) - pseudoexhaustive two-patternexercised. Also, delay testing, commonly used to test for any value of k, by enabling an input signalassure correct circuit operation at clock speed P[k], 1 ≤ k ≤ n. The generic pseudoexhaustive two-requires two-pattern tests. In this paper a pattern generator can be generalized into progressivepseudoexhaustive two-pattern generator is presented, two-pattern generator that generates all (n, k)that recursively generates all two-pattern (n, k)- pseudoexhaustive two-pattern test vectors for alladjacent bit pseudoexhaustive tests for all k, n. To the values of k. This technique is called as recursivebest of our knowledge, this is the first time in the pseudo exhaustive two-pattern generation.open literature that the subject of recursivepseudoexhaustive two-pattern testing is being dealt In recursive pseudoexhaustive testing, (n, k)-PETSwith. A software-based implementation with no are generated for all k= 1,2,3,…..,n. By the utilizationhardware overhead is also presented. of an array of XOR gates and binary counter we can recursively generate all (n, k) pseudoexhaustive test Keywords: BIT (built-in-test), generic pseudoexhaustive patterns for k ≤ n in minimal time.test & recursive pseudoexhaustive test, two patterngeneration. II. Test Pattern Generation I. Introduction In this paper two pattern generators like recursiveBuilt-in self test (BIST) techniques add circuitry that pseudo exhaustive two pattern generator (RPET) areallows a chip to test itself. The added circuitry, when implemented to generate two pattern tests foractivated, takes control, drives the inputs, observes modules having different cone sizes.the outputs and reports whether the result is correct.BIST is often used on portions of the circuit thatcannot be easily tested using external testing. A. RPETFurthermore, with BIST at speed testing can be Recursive pseudoexhaustive two-pattern generator isachieved and the quality of the delivered ICs is also having the architecture similar to genericgreatly increased. BIST is a Design-for-Testability pseudoexhaustive two pattern generator. Additionally(DFT) technique, because it makes the electrical it have m = [log27] = 3-stage counter and 3- to- 7testing of a chip easier, faster, more efficient, and less decoder added to generic pseudoexhaustive two-costly. BIST is also the solution to the testing of pattern generator’s architecture. When the two-critical circuits that have no direct connections to pattern (n, n)-PET is complete, the recursiveexternal pins, such as embedded memories used pseudoexhaustive test is also complete.internally by the devices. BIST employs on-chip testgeneration and response verification. Advantages of 380 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 TABLE II OPERATION OF A 7-STAGE GENERIC COUNTER PE [7:1] Operates In each clock as… cycle increased by… 0000001 1x7 stage 0000001 counter 0000010 7x1 stage 1111111 counter 0000100 1x1 stage 1010101 counter + 3x2 stageFig. Recursive pseudo-exhaustive two-pattern generator counter1)Generic Counter 0001000 1x1 stage 1001001The input of the 7-stage generic counter are counter counter +reset (C_reset), 7 bit signal PE[7:1] and counter 2x3 stagedisable(C_clk_disable).If the signals PE[1] is counterenabled, then the generic counter operates as an 7- 0010000 1x3 stage 0010001stage binary counter. When PE [4] is enabled, then counter +the generic counter operates as two 3-bit subcounter 1x4 stageand a 1-bit subcounter from LSB. Therefore, the countergeneric counter generates all 2k-1 × (2k - 1 - 1) 0100000 1x2 stage 0100001combinations to all groups of k-1 adjacent bits. Whenthe signal C_reset is enabled, the generic counter counter +counts from the initial value. The signal 1x5 stageC_clk_disable is used to keep the counter idle. The counteroperation of the generic counter is shown in the table. 1000000 1x1 stage 1000001 counter + 1x6 stage TABLE I GENERIC (7, K)- PSEUDOEXHAUSTIVE GENERATOR counter PE [7:1] (n, k) Operates 2) Carry Generator as… The C_gen is used to give the Cin input for the adder. 0000001 (7, 7) (xxxxxxx) The inputs of C_gen module are PE[7:1] and 0000010 (7, 1) (x) (x) (x) (x) Cout[7:1]. If the signal PE[4] is enabled, the Cout[4] (x) (x) (x) is given as a Cin. Based on the signal PE[7:1] the 0000100 (7, 2) (x) (xx) (xx) value of Cin changes. (xx) 0001000 (7, 3) (x) (xxx) (xxx) 3) Control 0010000 (7, 4) (xxx) (xxxx) The control module is used to determine that a k– 0100000 (7, 5) (xx) (xxxxx) stage two-pattern test is generated at the k low-order 1000000 (7, 6) (x) (xxxxxx) bits of the generator. The input signals of the control module are reset, ACC[7:1], C[7:1], PE[7:3], and generates the signals C_clk_disable, C_reset, A_reset0 and end_k_bit_test. The control logic controls the entire architecture of the pseudoexhaustive pattern generator. The purpose of control logic is to assure that a k-stage two-pattern test is generated at the k low-order stages of the 381 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012generator. The operation of the control logic is from the counter. Cout is given to the carry gen.explained in the Fig.5. In a C-like notation, table III. when the clock signal is enabled adder performs one bit addition. The internal register is capable of storing output of the adder. The adder is reset by reset A Phase Step { int k = 2^k, A = K - 1 signal and the register is also reset by separate reset do { 1 C=0; signal. The input clock signal is disabled the adder 1 2 do { remains idle. The operation of adder is shown in 3 C++; A = Acc (A, C, K); table. 4 } while (C! = K-3); Table: operation of 1’s complement adder 5 } while (A! = K-1); 2 6 C++; 1 do {A = Acc (A, C, K); } 2 while (A! = K-1); 2 C = 0; 1 do { 2 C++; 3 3 A = 0; 4 A = Acc (A, C, K); 5 } while (A! = K-1); 6 } Int Acc (int A, C, K) TABLE III { return (A + C < K ? A + C : TWO-PATTERN TEST GENERATED BY TPG(3) (A + C) % K + 1); } Figure. Algorithm for control logic. Figure. State diagram4) 1’s Complement AdderThe inputs of adder are cin, A[7:1], C[7:1] and itsoutputs are C_out[7:1], A[7:1]. It consists of 7 fulladders, the carry output of the full adders arepropagated to the next full adders as carry input. Ifthe value of k is considered to be 3 then theaccumulator operates as two 3-stage subaccumulatorand one 1-stage accumulator. The carry output ofeach sub accumulator is given to the carry input ofnext sub accumulator. If there is any carry in the 3rdbit then it is added to the lowest order bit of the adderoutput. It performs one bit addition and output savesin internal register. For n-stage operation carry isgenerated by carry generator. The adder gets input 382 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 TableIV Output of RPET The Wallace tree has three steps: Multiply each bit of one of the arguments, by each bit of the other, yielding results. Depending on position of the multiplied bits, the wires carry different weights. Reduce the number of partial products to two by layers of full and half adders. Group the wires in two numbers, and add them with a conventional adder. Fig: Proposed Block diagram of BIST IV. OUTPUT ANALYSER BIST techniques usually combine a built-in III. Circuit Under test binary pattern generator with circuitry for compressing the corresponding responseThe output from the two pattern test generator is data produced by the circuit under test. Theapplied to the CUT. In this paper two circuits, compressed form of the response data isWallace tree multiplier and cryptographic circuit are compared with a known fault-free response.tested in parallel to increase the speed of the BIST. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A) 4 bit Wallace tree multiplier A Wallace tree multiplier is an efficient BIST plays a vital role in modern VLSI hardware implementation of a digital circuit that technology. The BIST should occupy less multiplies two binary values. The 4 bit Wallace area for compact design of digital circuit. tree multiplier is shown in fig. When compared to the results of [4], [5] the test pattern generator proposed in [3] requires fewer hardware to implement. Based on the technique used in [3] a test pattern is generated. The comparison of the hardware overhead is shown in table 383 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012Table 5: comparison of hardware overhead in gates Scheme Gate No. of gates Equivalents When n = 7 GPET 12 x n 84 RPET 15 x n + 8 x m 129 GPET [4] 16 x n 112 RPET[4] 18 x n + 8 x m 150 Fig: Waveform of the generic counter [5] 7 x n + XOR 202 gates + 3 x n +8 x m [6] 7 x n + XOR 229 gates + 3 x n +8 x m Fig: Waveform of the counter Fig: Waveform of RPET Fig: Waveform of the Adder VI. CONCLUSION A GPET and RPET based BIST is designed in this paper. Two circuits having different cone size are tested at a time using this BIST Fig: Waveform of n stage counter circuit. The proposed BIST is synthesized using Xilinx tool. VII. REFERENCES [1] Parag K. Lala, An introduction to logic circuit testing, Morgan&Claypool publishers. [2] M. Abramovici, M. Breuer, and A. Fig : Waveform of decoder Freidman, Digital Systems Testing and Testable Design. New York: Computer Science Press, 1990. [3] Ioannis Voyiatzis, Dimitris Gizopoulos and Antonis Paschalis, “Recursive Pseudo- Exhaustive Two Pattern Generation,” IEEE 384 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012trans. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)sys, vol. 18, no. 1, jan 2010. [4] J. Rajski and J. Tyszer, “Recursivepseudoexhaustive test pattern generation,”IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 42, no. 12, pp.1517–1521, Dec. 1993. [5] P. Dasgupta, S. Chattopadhyay, P. P.Chaudhuri, and I. Sengupta, “Cellularautomata-based recursive pseudo-exhaustivetest pattern generation,” IEEE Trans.Comput., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 177–185, Feb.2001.[6] R. Wadsack, “Fault modeling and logicsimulation of CMOS and nMOS integratedcircuits,” Bell Syst. Techn. J., vol. 57, pp.1449-1474, May–Jun. 1978.[7] C. Chen and S. Gupta, “BIST test patterngenerators for two-pattern testing-theory anddesign algorithms,” IEEE Trans Comput.,vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 257–269, Mar. 1996. [8] Chih-Ang Chen, “Efficient BIST TPGDesign and Test Set Compaction via InputReduction,” IEEE trans. on CADICS, vol.17, NO. 8, AUG 1998. [9] Dong Xiang, “A Reconfigurable ScanArchitecture with Weighted Scan-EnableSignals for Deterministic BIST,” IEEETrans. On CADICS, Vol. 27, No. 6, Jun2008.[10] K. Yang, K.T. Cheng, and L. C. Wang,“TranGen: A SAT-based ATPG for path-oriented transition faults,” in Proc. ASP-DAC, 2004, pp. 92–97.[11] C. Chen and S. Gupta, “BIST testpattern generators for two-pattern testing-theory and design algorithms,” IEEE Trans.Comput., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 257–269, Mar.1996. 385 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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