Challenges in assessing impacts in dairy farming and dairy processing


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Presented by Grace Cheserek at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

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Challenges in assessing impacts in dairy farming and dairy processing

  1. 1. Challenges in assessing impacts inChallenges in assessing impacts in dairy farming and dairy processingdairy farming and dairy processing Grace Cheserek (PhD) Environmental Impact Assessment (NEMA) CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction Environment- includes the physical factors of the surroundings of human beings including land, water, atmosphere, climate, sound, odour, taste, the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics and includes both the natural and the built environment;
  3. 3. Environmnetal Impact AssessmentEnvironmnetal Impact Assessment EIA- a systematic examination conducted to determine whether or not a policy, program, activity or project will have any adverse impacts on the environment. EIA Process involves:  Screening - decide whether the development project requires an EIA process or not.
  4. 4. Cont…Cont… Presentation of the legal framework; Scoping- identification of mitigation measures; Development of Environment Management Plan (EMP); Generation and presentation of EIA report to National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) - for examination and issuance of license for proposed project OR REJECTION
  5. 5. Identifying ImpactsIdentifying Impacts Water quality problem- high ground water nitrate concentration due to manure and fertilizer applied to land for silage and corn production Excess nitrate on drinking water- cause blue baby syndrome esp. infants. In adults more than 10mg/L may cause chronic anemia and gastric disease
  6. 6. Cont…Cont… Organic milk products- water removed from the milk can contain considerable amounts of organic milk products and minerals. Waste water- Cleaning of plant results in caustic wastewater. Methods of reducing the total volume of wastewater released. Recovering dissolved material and greater recycling of water.
  7. 7. Cont….Cont…. The organic components of the wastewater from dairy processing operations can be classified as: proteins, lactose and fat. These will affect the environment in different ways depending on their biodegradability and solubility.
  8. 8. Cont…Cont… River Oxygen Levels and BOD Measures - the amount of oxygen that are consumed by bacteria are the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). BOD5 is measured as the amount of oxygen that is consumed by bacteria in decomposing the waste over a 5 day period at 20 C20 C. Solid waste from animals and fodder- these to be converted to Humus for producing more fodder.
  9. 9. Cont…Cont… Sewage Fungus- Low molecular weight organic compounds promote the growth of certain filamentous slimes in waterways common bacterial species in this category is Sphaerotilus natans Colour and Turbidity -Wastewaters that are highly coloured are likely to alter the colour of a receiving water. Dairy factory wastes contains little soluble colour, although after various forms of treatment true colour may result.
  10. 10. Cont…Cont… Temperature- usual to require that wastewater discharges will not alter the natural temperature of a waterway by more than 1-2 degrees. Gaseous Emissions- Boiler stacks result in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Methane may be emitted from anaerobic waste treatment systems and nitrous oxide (N2O) is emitted from the soil at wastewater irrigation sites. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are very important greenhouse gases, and it is likely that the consequences of these emissions will need to be considered
  11. 11. ChallengesChallenges Environmental awareness and its conservation- awareness and capacity building for community dairy farmers and processors Policy- inadequate policy on sustainable dairy farming  Initial costs for constructing biogas infrastructure; zero grazing, water quality monitoring etc
  12. 12. East African perspectiveEast African perspective Eco- farming- manure goes to farm and producing biogas Managing waste Reduction in the generation of waste. Reuse of waste materials/by-products. Recycling of waste materials. Sustainable poverty reduction cycle – CBO are giving families dairy for forest management
  13. 13. PhotosPhotos
  14. 14. ConclusionConclusion Dairy projects should embrace environmental assessment for sustainability Its possible! We can achieve it! The farmers are ready!