Non Point Pollution & Urban Planning Measures


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Non Point Pollution & Urban Planning Measures

  1. 1. Graduate Report – 2012-13 Sustainable Environmental Planning (CE-636) Non Point Pollution & Urban Planning Measures Submitted By Malvika Jiashal (P12UP004) Faculty Adviser Dr. J. E. M. Macwan Post Graduate Section in Urban Planning Civil Engineering Department,
  2. 2. Graduate Report – 2012-13 Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Pollution: 2.1 Difference between Point & Non Point Pollution: 3. Non Point Pollution: 3.1 Principal sources 3.1.1. 1. Urban and suburban areas 3.1.2. Agricultural operations 3.1.3. Atmospheric inputs 3.1.4. Forestry and mining operations 3.1.5. Marinas and boating activities 4. Impact of Non Point Pollution 5. Counter Measures For Non-Point Pollution 6. Case Study : Non-Point regulation in India 7. Conclusion References
  3. 3. Graduate Report – 2012-13 1. Introduction: Pollution refers to the contamination of water, land, or the air by substances that can adversely impact the environment and human health. Usually, these substances are waste materials. Pollution is “something in the wrong place at the wrong time in the wrong quantity” (Holdgate, 1979). Pollution can be classified in various categories, Non-point pollution is also a kind of pollution that is affecting the environment in a larger way. Non point pollution loads are load with their sources dispersed over wide areas. These loads flow into water bodies including river, lakes, reservoir, ponds, wetlands, ground water and the sea, and they may contain organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and agricultural fields, cleared forest and urban runoff are typical non-point sources. This graduate report attempts to be a brief summary on the cause and counter measures for Non-Point Source Pollution. It also give a short description on difference between point pollution and non-point pollution. The report includes a case studies on Non-point regulation in India. 2. Pollution: The word pollution is derived from the Latin term “polluere”, which means-“ to soil” or “defile”. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Sometimes it is not the type of material, but its concentration, that determines if it is a pollutant. For example, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements for plant growth. If they are overabundant in a body of water, they can lead to conditions that have a negative effect on people's health. Pollution is often classed as : i. Point pollution ii. Nonpoint pollution. Point Pollution: `Point pollution is pollution that comes from a single source. Point source is the emissions or waste that can be tracked back to a specific individual or company There are a few examples of Point pollution: a) Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet. b) Noise pollution from a jet engine c) Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study d) Light pollution from an intrusive street light
  4. 4. Graduate Report – 2012-13 e) Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall f) Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device Non Point Pollution: Nonpoint pollution refers to both water and air pollution from diffuse sources. Nonpoint water pollution affects a water body from sources such as polluted runoff from agricultural areas draining into a river, or wind-borne debris blowing out to sea. Nonpoint air pollution affects air quality from sources such as smokestacks or car tailpipes. Although these pollutants have originated from a point source, the long-range transport ability and multiple sources of the pollutant make it a nonpoint pollution. Nonpoint pollution can be contrasted with point pollution, where discharges occur to a body of water or into the atmosphere at a single location. Fig-1: Sources of Point and Non-point Pollution Sources: A map published by National Geographic Society,1993
  5. 5. Graduate Report – 2012-13 2.1. Difference between Point & Non Point Pollution: Sr. No. Point pollution Non-Point Pollution 1 Point pollution is pollution that comes from a single source Non-point pollution does not have one specific source,. 2 Point source is the emissions or waste that can be tracked back to a specific individual or company Non point source is most commonly credited to runoff and has harder to trace back to the source 3 If the source of the pollution is stationary or immobile then that is point source pollution. Example: domestic waste The pollution is a non point one if the origin of the pollutants is mobile or non- stationary. Examples are means of transportation such as buses, airplanes and ships. 4 Point Pollution is more readily identifiable and measurable Non Point pollutionis more difficult to identify or measuring because of the specific source. 5 Point Pollution is easier to control and regulate. Non Point pollutionis more difficult, related to monitoring and enforcement of mitigating controls, due to the heterogeneity of soil and water systems at large scales
  6. 6. Graduate Report – 2012-13 3. Non Point Pollution: Non-point pollution are those whose discharge source are dispersed over a large area . 3.1 Principal sources Nonpoint pollution, which is pollution from diffuse sources that can't be tied to a specific location. The precise location of non point source load cannot be identified as they are scattered through out the catchment area.It is generally difficult to regulate them because their discharge location cannot be clarified. They may contain pollutants  Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides from agricultural lands and residential areas;  Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production;  Sediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and forest lands, and eroding streambanks;  Salt from irrigation practices and acid drainage from abandoned mines;  Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet wastes, and faulty septic systems; The main principal sources of Non point pollution are as follows: i. Urban and suburban areas ii. Agricultural operations iii. Atmospheric inputs iv. Forestry and mining operations v. Marinas and boating activities Fig-3: principles of Non-point pollution Source: bakker, Jane. A Guide to the Housatonic River Estuary. Cromwell;The Houstanic Valley Association,1998 3.1. 1 Urban and suburban areas Urban and Suburban Areas are a main sources of nonpoint pollution due to the amount of runoff that is produced due to the large amount of paved surfaces. Paved surfaces, such as
  7. 7. Graduate Report – 2012-13 asphalt and concrete are impervious to water penetrating them. Any water that is on contact with these surfaces will run off and be absorbed by the surrounding environment. These surfaces make it easier for stormwater to carry pollutants into the surrounding soil. Construction sites located in urban and suburban areas tend to have disturbed soil that is easily eroded by precipitation like rain, snow, and hail.Additionally, discarded debris on the site can be carried away by runoff waters and enter the aquatic environment. Typically, in suburban areas, chemicals are used for lawn care. These chemicals can end up in runoff and enter the surrounding environment via storm drains in the city. Since the water in storm drains is not treated before flowing into surrounding water bodies, the chemicals enter the water directly. 3.1.2 Agricultural operations Agricultural operations account for a large percentage of all nonpoint pollution . When large tracts of land are plowed to grow crops, it exposes and loosens soil that was once buried. This makes the exposed soil more vulnerable to erosion during rainstorms. It also can increase the amount of fertilizer and pesticides carried into nearby bodies of water. 3.1.3 Atmospheric inputs Atmospheric inputs of pollution into the air can come from multiple sources. Typically, industrial facilities, like factories, discharge pollution via a smokestack. Although this is a point source of pollution, due to the distributed nature, long-range transport, and multiple sources of the pollution, it is considered a nonpoint source. Additionally, atmospheric pollution can become water pollution by being washed out of the atmosphere in the form of rain or snow. 3.1.4 Forestry and mining operations Forestry and mining operations can have significant inputs to nonpoint pollution. Forestry: Forestry operations reduce the number of trees in a given area, thus reducing the soil stability in that area as well. This action, coupled with the heavy machinery rolling over the soil increases the risk of erosion. Mining: Active mining operations are considered point of pollution, however runoff from abandoned mining operations contribute to nonpoint source pollution. In strip mining operations, the top of the mountain is removed to expose the desired ore. If this area is not properly reclaimed once the mining has finished, soil erosion can occur. Additionally, there can be chemical reactions with the air and newly exposed rock to create acidic runoff. Water that seeps out of abandoned subsurface mines can also be highly acidic. This can seep into the nearest body of water and change the pH in the aquatic environment.
  8. 8. Graduate Report – 2012-13 3.1.5. Marines and boating activities Chemicals used for boat maintenance, like paint, solvents, and oils find their way into water through runoff. Additionally, spilling fuels or leaking fuels directly into the water from boats contribute to nonpoint pollution. Nutrient and bacteria levels are increased by poorly maintained sanitary waste receptacles on the boat and pump-out stations. 4. Impact of Non Point Pollution: Influence of non-point pollution is very severe on environment and the people. Few impacts are given in the following points: 1. A major nonpoint pollutant from agricultural activities is an excess of nutrients, which can occur through applications of crop fertilizers and manure from animal production facilities. Excessive nutrients may over stimulate the growth of aquatic weeds and algae, depleting the oxygen available for a healthy aquatic community. 2. It is deteriorating water quality nationwide. The most common nonpoint source pollutants causing water-quality problems include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), siltation (soil particles), metals, and pathogens (bacteria and viruses 3. Urban runoff transports a variety of pollutants, including sediment from new development; oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from vehicles; and nutrients and pesticides from turf management and gardening. It can also carry pathogenic bacteria and viruses released from failing septic systems and inadequately treated sewage, which can result in closed beaches and shellfish beds, contaminated drinking water sources, and even severe human illness 4. Medical waste enters water through prescription drugs taken by individuals. As the senior population increases, so does the amount of prescription drugs taken by the population as a whole. Many waste water treatment plants do not have the necessary filtering systems installed to remove these waste products from sewer systems. This diffuse source of pollution contributes to the amount of NSP in waterways and consequently, soil 5. Rainwaters introduce toxins such as fuel, oil, and other contaminants found on these surfaces into water resources. An additional risk is soil erosion. Water flowing over the impervious surfaces can gather much speed, causing it to erode stream banks and shorelines. This action introduces sediment into the waters, with the potential to kill micro-organisms and filter-feeding wildlife. Removal of this food base can impact entire ecosystems
  9. 9. Graduate Report – 2012-13 6. Planning Measures For Non-Point Pollution: Non point sources cause eutrophication and disruption of ecological balance. Measures to effectively deal with these sources are therefore extremely important. 6.1. Urban and suburban areas To control nonpoint pollution, many different approaches can be undertaken in both urban and suburban areas. i. Buffer strips provide a barrier of grass in between impervious paving material like parking lots and roads, and the closest body of water. This allows the soil to absorb any pollution before it enters the local aquatic system. ii. Retention ponds can be built in drainage areas to create an aquatic buffer between runoff pollution and the aquatic environment. Runoff and storm water drain into the retention pond allowing for the contaminates to settle out and become trapped in the pond. iii. The use of porous pavement allows for rain and storm water to drain into the ground beneath the pavement, reducing the amount of runoff that drains directly into the water body. iv. Restoration methods such as constructing wetlands are also used to slow runoff as well as absorb contamination. v. Construction sites typically implement simple measures to reduce pollution and runoff. Firstly, sediment or silt fences are erected around construction sites to reduce the amount of sediment and large material draining into the nearby water body. vi. Laying grass or straw along the border of construction sites also work to reduce nonpoint source pollution. 6.2. Agricultural operations i. To control sediment and runoff, farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. ii. Conservation tillage is a concept used to reduce runoff while planting a new crop. iii. Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer; animal manure; or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition. Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients. iv. To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.
  10. 10. Graduate Report – 2012-13 6.3. Forestry operations With well planned placement of both logging trails, also called skid trails, can reduce the amount of sediment generated. By planning the trails location as far away from the logging activity as possible as well as contouring the trails with the land, it can reduce the amount of loose sediment in the runoff. Additionally, by replanting trees on the land after logging, it provides a structure for the soil to regain stability as well as replaces the logged environment. 6.4. Marines By installing shut off valves on fuel pumps at the dock, it can help reduce the amount of spillover into the water. Additionally, pump-out stations that are easily accessible to boaters in the marina can provide a clean place in which to dispose of sanitary waste without dumping it directly into the water. Finally, something as simple as having trash containers around the marina can prevent larger objects entering the water. 7. Case Study : Non-Point regulation in India: National Laws and Policies: The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 (the Act) is the primary water quality management law in India. It requires the establishment of a Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and individual State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)The main function of the CPCB is to “promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States” .The SPCBs are responsible for routine water quality monitoring and setting effluent standards but they are bound by the directions of the CPCB. The CPCB has established a national network of monitoring stations, at which samples are taken monthly, quarterly, or (in the case ofgroundwater) every six months. Quality objectives have been set according to the use to which a water resource is put. The Act does not explicitly address nonpoint source pollution, but several of its provisions could be used to control pollution from nonpoint as well as point sources. For example, it is an offense under the Act to knowingly cause or permit any “poisonous, noxious or polluting matter” on land or to enter into any stream, well, or sewer. It was recognized by the CPCB in its 2000/01 annual report that nonpoint water pollution sources were becoming increasingly prominent and were likely to include farming, mining,rural hamlets, leaks and spillovers from point pollution sources, leachates and deposition ofair- pollutants (CPCB, 2001). More recently, in its 2007 report on the Status of Ground water Quality in India—Part I, the CPCB talked of the “alarming picture” of declining ground water quality. It
  11. 11. Graduate Report – 2012-13 was observed that “all activities carried out on land have thepotential to contaminate groundwater, whether associated with urban, industrial oragricultural activities” (CPCB, 2007). Diffuse sources of groundwater pollution were listed,including the leaching of agrochemicals and animal wastes, subsurface discharges fromlatrines and septic tanks and infiltration of polluted urban run-off and sewage wheresewerage does not exist or is defunct. The Report concluded that “the only solution to diffuse sources of pollution is to integrate land use with water management” (CPCB, 2007). State Regulation With little emphasis from the CPCB and other national authorities on nonpoint source pollution as well as no clear mandates from the Act to address it, SPCBs have focused their resources on monitoring compliance with point source authorizations issued under the Act.A 2006 study of India’s environmental compliance and enforcement programmes found there was an “over emphasis” on permitting, monitoring and inspection of the activities of large industry while the “significant cumulative pollution impacts” from small and medium-sized enterprises, municipal sources, transport and agriculture are “virtually disregarded” (Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development (OECD), 2006). The same study highlighted various existing enforcement challenges faced by the SPCBs(OECD, 2006) and it seems likely that, in the absence of national initiatives, non point source pollution will remain a low priority at the state level unless and until industrial and municipal point sources of pollution are regulated effectively. Summary Water quality regulation is driven nationally, primarily through the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974, but responsibility for enforcement is vested in the individual SPCBs. Emphasis is placed on the regulation of point source discharges, and there are no laws that specifically address nonpoint sources of water pollution. Although it would appear that the central government has the power to regulate nonpoint sources under that Act and the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986, no substantive action has been taken. However, a number of policy documents and initiatives have drawn attentionto the problem over the course of several years. 8. Conclusion: Proper enforcement and other implementation measures will be necessary to achieve in nonpoint source pollution even just those reductions thus far accomplished from point sources. The level of government at which those authorities and programmes are created and implemented will necessarily be unique to each country, but should be strategic rather than
  12. 12. Graduate Report – 2012-13 patchwork to be effective. Regardless of the level of national involvement in water pollution control writ large or on nonpoint source pollution specifically, the national government likely will need to play a role in trans-boundary nonpoint pollution issues because the states or provinces cannot address those problems internally. The national government could be a more efficient level of governance at which to establish such policies. In addition, a national government should be cognizant of the political, financial, structural and scientific capacity of state or provincial governments to control nonpoint sources of pollution adequately. References 1. Keith Loague and Dennis L Corwin (2005) “Point and NonPoint Source Pollution”.published in Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. 2. Priyanka Jamwal,Atul K. Mittal,(2002) “Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi” published in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 490-499. 3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), "Nonpoint Source Pollution" published in. Washington D.C. (September 2007) 4. Susan, Adam & Jessica (March 2011), “Regulating Nonpoint Source Water Pollution in a Federal Government: Four Case Studies”, published in Water Resources Development, Vol. 27, No. 1, 53–69, 5. Yuhei Inamori , Nsoshi Fujimoto, “Non-Point Sources of Pollution” , published in Water Qualty abd standards-Vol II 6. Mark E.,Anthony & David (2006)“Vegetative FIlter Strips for Non-point Control in Agriculture,regents of university of California 8195,3-4 7. 8.