ASF Uganda-project progress update and implications thereof

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Presented by Karl Stahl at the African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 20-21 July 2011

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ASF Uganda-project progress update and implications thereof

  1. 1. ASFUganda-project progress update and implications thereof Nairobi, July 20th 2011 Karl Ståhl karl.stahl@slu.se Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  2. 2. Institutions involvedASFUganda is a research consortium financed bySweden (SLU, Sida, FORMAS) and composed byscientists from the Swedish University of AgriculturalSciences (SLU), MAAIF, Makerere University, UWAand ILRI. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  3. 3. Research objective:To provide an in-depth assessment of the impact of Africanswine fever (ASF) in constraining the development of thesmallholder pig industry in Uganda. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  4. 4. Uganda PADER GULU AMURU OYAM AMURIA APAC KATAKWI NA SOROTI KA SO NG KAM PALLISA SIRONKO KALIRO O LA NA BUTALEJA KA ULI O KIBOGA ER KIBAALE SE WE KE IG TORORO AN LU JIN G A A MUBENDE AN JA TY KAMPALA MI O KASESE MPIGI IS AK W KABULA MUKONO KANUNGU RAKAI 100 0 100 200 Kilometers Key ASF distribution Districts Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  5. 5. ASF Epidemiology• Reservoir in soft ticks – Survival > three years recorded• Asymptomatic infection in warthogs and bushpigs• Two main mechanisms of transmission – Sylvatic: Ticks fed on warthogs to domestic pigs • Current quantitative importance unclear??? • The role of the bushpig??? – Domestic pig to pig cycle • particularly in urban & peri-urban areas??? • perhaps the most important mode of transmission-currently???? Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet • Where is the reservoir??? www.slu.se
  6. 6. Field activities• A longitudinal syrvey of ASF in domestic pigs in Masaka and Rakai districts• Outbreak investigations, including repetitive sampling in herds with ongoing outbreaks• A study on the role of wild pigs (with focus on bushpigs) in the epidemiology of ASF• A study on virus diversity in the different hosts• A study on ASF based on abattoir sampling. The pork abattoir in Kampala receives pigs from all districts of the country- snap-shot of the national situation Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  7. 7. = point interventions done so far Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  8. 8. Training activities• One PhD student at Vet faculty, Makerere, as part of bilateral Sida funded Makerere- SLU collaboration (2010-2014)• Two MSc students at Makerere (2010-2011)• Transfer of knowledge on pig disease surveillance and project implementation to MAAIF field staff• Three short term field studies by Swedish vet students (September-November 2010)• Three short term field studies by Swedish vet students (September-November 2011) Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  9. 9. Laboratory activities Basic laboratory diagnostic capacity for ASF has been established at the Molecular Biology Laboratory at Makerere University, and the ambition is to transfer this capacity also to the laboratory at the NADDEC in Entebbe. In the lab all samples are tested by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results can be produced within 24-48 hours Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  10. 10. Longitudinal study Masaka & RakaiResearch Implementation• Preliminary Household data collection Pig production data was collected and analyzed to start off the field research activities.• Training of Trainers Thirteen (13) Veterinary staff will train as Trainers to implement the research study Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  11. 11. Longitudinal study Masaka & RakaiResearch Implementation• Preliminary Household data collection Pig production data was collected and analyzed to start off the field research activities.• Training of Trainers Thirteen (13) Veterinary staff trained to implement the research study at Kamuzinda farm on June 10th• Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  12. 12. Longitudinal study Masaka & RakaiField activities • A questionnaire study with the participating farmers/stakeholders • Serological surveillance of 30 pigs per sub-county. This is the key activity in the project. The 30 pig sample frame is derived as follows; (2 pig farms per village each availing 3 pigs for the study x 5 villages per sub-county = 30 pigs), over-all 30 x(16+8) = 720 pigs. This activity will be repeated x 2-3 during the duration of the project •Participating farmers will receive benefits of having their pigs given two rounds of ivermectin and management skills advisory services Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  13. 13. Longitudinal study Masaka & Rakai•Field activities June-July and Sept-Oct 16 sub-counties in Masaka & 8 in Rakai, 240 pig farmers visited, data collection through questionnaires, pigs sampled Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  14. 14. Longitudinal study Masaka & Rakai•Results In a number of farms we detect ASFV nucleic acids in pigs without recent history of the disease (and in most cases without an antibody response), possibly indicating that apparently healthy domestic pigs may be reservoirs of the virus. Second sampling round just finalized- analysis pending. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  15. 15. Distribution of positive farms Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  16. 16. Distribution of positive farms Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  17. 17. Outbreak investigations ISince May 2010, >25 outbreaks have been investigated and in all but 3we have been able to confirm ASF. Results are produced within 24- 48hours after samples have been delivered to the laboratory, facilitating anearly response in case of future outbreaks. As an added value, a numberof field staff at the respective DVO offices has been exposed to diseaseinvestigation procedures. •Bundibugyo-May •Moyo- June •Lira- Aug •Gulu- Aug, Oct, Nov, Dec, Jan •Mityana- Oct, Jan, June •Mpigi- Nov •Soroti- Dec •Kalangala- Jan •Kampala, Wakiso- Jan, July •Kyanamukaka-Feb •Bukakata- Feb •Masindilantbruksuniversitet Sveriges –March •Busia- March www.slu.se
  18. 18. Outbreak investigations IIA number of outbreaks have been followed over time with detailed datacollection and repetitive samplings, to understand issues such as impact,mortality rates and importance of virus carriers. Pig No PCR Aug 30th PCR Sept 28th PCR Oct 21st 1 POS POS NEG 2 NEG POS POS 3 POS NEG POS Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  19. 19. Outbreak investigations IIIWe found a spatial relation between ASFV PCR positive healthy pigsdetected during investigations in July 2010, and herds with mortalityduring a recent outbreak in Kyanamukaka. However, it´s very difficult toshow that the ASFV positive pig was related to the outbreak. Monday, January 7th, 2011 Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se http://www.weinformers.net/
  20. 20. Outbreak investigations IIIWe found a spatial relation between ASFV PCR positive healthy pigsdetected during investigations in July 2010, and herds with mortalityduring a recent outbreak in Kyanamukaka. However, it´s very difficult toshow that the ASFV positive pig was related to the outbreak. Monday, January 7th, 2011 Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se http://www.weinformers.net/
  21. 21. Outbreak investigations IV Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  22. 22. Outbreak investigations V Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  23. 23. Wildlife activities - BushpigsBushpigs are often blamed for spreading ASF to domestic pigs, howeverthe evidence for this is so far scarce. To understand the extent ofinteraction with domestic pigs and the possibility of spread of ASF wehave initiated a study on bushpigs at the wildlife-domestic pig interface Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  24. 24. Shrek -the bushpig in the swampThe most recent successful intervention was carried out with help oflocal hunters in the swampy areas of Katonga basin in Lwabenge Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  25. 25. Shrek -the bushpig in the swampOne bushpig captured, blood sampled and provided with a GPSequipped tracking unit Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  26. 26. Shrek -the bushpig in the swampUnit sends GPS positions through GSM every 3 hours, and movementscan be monitored online Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  27. 27. Viral diversity In order to better understand relations between virus properties and clinical outcome, as well as relations between outbreaks- to trace transmission routes- a study of viral diversity of viruses detected during the project was initiated supported by the BecA hub- CSIRO partnership. So far parts of the genomes of around 40 ASFV have been sequenced using new generation sequencing (454), with analysis ongoing. In addition attempts of full genome sequencing from clinical material using a long range PCR strategy are currently being made. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  28. 28. Conclusions•ASFV very wide spread, and affects all levels of pig producers•Healthy domestic seronegative pigs may be important virus carriers, andmay serve as a long term reservoir of the virus•A confirmatory diagnosis of ASF can be achieved within 48 hours. Rapidfeedback to authorities as well as to the field important•The role of natural hosts in ASF epidemiology in Uganda still unclear Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  29. 29. Acknowledgements Sweden Uganda KenyaFunding institutions MAK ILRI•SLU •Dr Charles Masembe •Dr Richard Bishop•Sida •Dr Denis Muhangi •Dr Edward Okoth•Formas •Dr Susan Ndyanabo •Dr Rob Skilton •MUIENR staffSLU And•Dr Sofia Boqvist MAAIF•Prof Ulf Emanuelson •Dr Ademun Rose•Dr Mikael Berg •Dr Chris Rutebarika•MFS students •Martin Esau•m.fl. •Dr Lawrence Mayega •Dr Tonny Aliro •DVOs, NADDEC staff UWA •Dr Patrick Atimnedi Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se
  30. 30. And how many chicken can you transport on a Boda boda??????? Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet www.slu.se

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