Chapter 11 morale and motivation


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  • HRM Developed by N. Zaidi
  • HRM Developed by N. Zaidi 14
  • Chapter 11 morale and motivation

    1. 1. Human Resource Management Morale and Motivation Published by
    2. 2. MORALE <ul><li>Defines as a state of mind, a mood, a mental condition/framework . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Tips morale boost up <ul><li>1. Supervisors greet employees with a handshake in the morning. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Supervisors write personal notes such as &quot;Thank you&quot; or &quot;Happy Birthday&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Members of employee groups meet regularly with management representatives to promote understanding and carry out activities of mutual interest. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Tips for morale boost up <ul><li>4. Employees are personally congratulated by supervisors when they exceed their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Supervisors personally introduce new hires to each employee. </li></ul><ul><li> 6. Part-time employees are invited to all social events. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Tips for morale boost up <ul><li>7. The CEO periodically has &quot;brown bag&quot; luncheon discussions with employees at which time their concerns are addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Employees are allowed to use telephone calls/emails. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Letters of commendation are sent to employees for performance above and beyond normal expectations. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Tips for morale boost up <ul><li>10. Soft drinks, coffee, and/or snacks are provided for staff at departmental meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Flexible working hours are permitted during slow work times. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Morale-building meetings are held at which management informs employees of the firm's success. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Tips for morale boost up <ul><li>14. An activities committee has been established to plan social events, and new employees are introduced to a member of this committee. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Receptions are given for every employee who retires. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Positive comments on an employee by a customer result in the employee receiving a silver pin. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Definition of Motivation Motivation – the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior In narrow sense, motivation is a process of satisfying the wants and needs of the employees and inducing, encouraging and helping the employees to perform their assigned jobs more enthusiastically for the effective achievement of the organizational goals. In broad sense, motivation is a process of directing or channeling the behaviors of the employees toward task performance.
    9. 9. Importance of Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is essential because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly motivated workers are more productive than apathetic employees </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological
    11. 11. <ul><li>People must, in a hierarchical order, satisfy five needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological needs for basic survival and biological function.: Food, water, air and shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security needs for a safe physical and emotional environment.: Safe physical and emotional environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation/Belongingness needs for love and affection.: Friendship, love and a feeling of belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem needs for positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others. Feelings of achievement and self worth through recognition, respect and prestige from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization needs for realizing one’s potential for personal growth and development.: Self-fulfillment and achievement </li></ul></ul>The Need Hierarchy Approach (Maslow)
    12. 12. Motivational Theories X and Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs </li></ul></ul>Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Y
    13. 13. McGregor’s Theories X and Y
    14. 14. Theories Applied to Needs Hierarchy Safety and Security Physiological Love (Social) Esteem SA Theory Y – a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs Theory X – a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs
    15. 15. MOTIVATIONAL DRIVES <ul><li>David C. McClelland of Harvard University developed the following four motivational drives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Achievement motivational drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Affiliation motivational drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 . Competence motivational drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Power motivational drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement motivational drive: Some employees in the organization may have achievement motivational drive. The employees, who have such drive, try to overcome the challenges and to achieve the goals/objectives. To these employees, achievement of goals/objectives is important for its own sake, not because some benefits or rewards are associated with this achievement of goals/objectives. These employees will work harder and longer period if they perceive that they would receive personal credits for their effective performances. </li></ul>
    16. 16. MOTIVATIONAL DRIVES <ul><li>Affiliation motivational drive: Some employees have affiliation motivational drives. They want to relate themselves with others in the organization. These people become satisfied by getting associated with their fellows and friends and they should be given job freedom as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Competence motivational drive: Some employees have competence motivational drive. They want to perform high quality work and they want to improve/develop their skills in the work place. </li></ul><ul><li>Power motivational drive: In an organization, some employees have power motivational drives. They want to influence other people and the organization as a whole. They want to participate in decision making, problem solving, and policy making process with the management of the organization that are related to their interest. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction <ul><li>Company policy and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe Benefit? </li></ul>Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
    18. 18. Motivation – Hygiene Combinations (Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
    19. 19. Ways to Motivate People <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Task assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards contingent on good performance </li></ul><ul><li>Valued rewards available </li></ul>Motivation & Performance <ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation × Ability = Performance (M × A = P) </li></ul></ul></ul>