Towards a Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Yousif AL-Bastaki College of IT University of Bahrain 16 May 2012 1
Environment An important and vital issue Environmental pollution is one of the biggest enemy of mankind in the history of humanity Environmental pollution has become a threat to the human race – extinction Technological and industrial progress and civilization of man threatens the lives of all living things. Factories pour out every day huge amounts of waste and waste water into rivers and oceans, and makes it unfit for human consumption 2
List of Arab countries by emissions estimates Carbon emissions per person (metric tons) 2004 Country Emissions On the Arab level Algeria 5.5 and the Gulf, the Bahrain 23.9 rates of carbon Egypt 2.3 emissions are low Iraq 3 compared to 2.9 Jordan other countries, Kuwait 37.1 Lebanon 4.2 especially Latin Morocco 1.4 America and the Oman 13.6 Far East Palestine 0.2 This ratio is Qatar 79.3 expected to raise Saudi Arabia 13.6 if those countries Syria 3.8 did not take this Tunisia 2.3 matter seriously United Arab Emirates 34.1 9
List of Arab countries by emissions estimates Carbon emissions (percentage of global total, 2004) Country Emissions Algeria 0.7 Bahrain 0.1 Egypt 0.5 Iraq 0.3 Jordan 0.1 Kuwait 0.3 Lebanon 0.1 Libya 0.2 Morocco 0.1 Oman 0.1 Qatar 0.2 Saudi Arabia 1.1 Syria 0.2 Tunisia 0.1 United Arab Emirates 0.5 Yemen 0.1 10
As for the Arabian Gulf the emissions are as follows: Carbon emissions per person (metric tons) 2004 Country Emissions Bahrain 23.844 Kuwait 40.363 Oman 12.455 Qatar 69.159 Saudi Arabia 13.676United Arab Emirates 37.768 11
As for the Arabian Gulf the emissions are as follows:Carbon emissions (percentage of global total, 2004) Country Emissions Bahrain 0.1 Kuwait 0.3 Oman 0.1 Qatar 0.2 Saudi Arabia 1.1 United Arab Emirates 0.5 12
As for the Kingdom of Bahrain the emissions are as follows: Bahrain: Carbon emissions per person (metric tons) Year Emissions 2004 23.844 2003 23.663 2002 23.062 13
Bahrains carbon emissions The proportions of carbon emissions in the Kingdom of Bahrain is very large when compared to the Arab countries Bahrain occupies the fourth place at the level of Arab countries - a large percentage when compared to the space and Population Needs to take this matter seriously. 14
Our Responsibility It is our responsibility to estimate the Greenhouse Gases emissions from the information and communications technology (ICT) industries and to develop opportunities for ICT to contribute to a more efficient economy 15
Is ICT part of the problem… … or part of the solution?
ICT and environment 2 1 Using ICT to ICT and reduce Carbon Carbon emissions emissions 3 E-dumping
The Definition of Green ICT Green ICT is the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using and disposing of computers, servers and associated subsystems-such as monitors, printers, storage devices and networking and communications systems efficiently and effectively, with minimal or no impact on the environment. 22
ICT and Environment Computer technology use accounts for 2% of anthropogenic CO2 Roughly equivalent to aviation industry IT energy usage will double next 4 years However, the other 98% of global carbon emissions is crying out for solutions… … and ICT is an important one. 25
Computer Energy Use For every 12 consumers who keep power settings enabled on their monitors and PCs, CO2 emissions equivalent to removing one average automobile from the road will be avoided.
Computer Energy Use desktop PC with a 17-inch LCD monitor requires about 145 watts—110 watts for the computer and 35 watts for the monitor. If left on 24x7 for one year, this same computer will consume 1,270 kilowatt hours of electricity—that’s enough to release 1,715 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and the equivalent of driving 1,886 miles in the average car!
How much energy does ICT use? UK -example ICT uses a great deal of energy and it is rising fast. ICT equipment accounts for 10% of the UK’s electricity consumption. Non-domestic energy consumption from ICT equipment rose by 70% from 2000 – 2006 and is forecast to grow a further 40% by 2020.
How much energy does ICT use? UK -example 30% of the overall energy consumed by PCs is wasted by being left on when not in use. 1,000 PCs running 24/7 cost around £70,000 in electricity over a year. A third of employees in the UK don’t switch off their PCs when they leave the office at the end of the day, costing the UK £123 million a year in electricity. If all UK businesses shut down their computers when not in use, it would contribute 10% of the Government’s Climate Change Levy target and 40% of the energy efficiency targets set by the Carbon Trust
Did You Know? More than six million PCs were left on over Christmas 2006, consuming nearly 40 million kWh of electricity – enough to cook 30 million Turkeys. Together with the printers and other hardware this would have produced 19,000 tones of CO2, at a cost of around £8.6m?
Servers It is estimated that a medium-sized server has roughly the same annual carbon footprint as an SUV vehicle doing 15 miles per gallon, covering 15,000 km16.
Data Centers According to Forrester Research a data centre with 1000 servers will use enough electricity in a single month to power 16,800 homes for a year.
Watts used-PC versus Thin Client 150 Watts1601401201008060 15 Watts4020 0 Thin Client Conventional PC 33
kWh Per Rack20181614121086420 2000 2006 2010 34
ICT is part of the solution ICT could deliver a 15% reduction in global CO2 by 2020, delivering a cost saving in fuel, energy and the cost of carbon of over a trillion dollars. However, smart According to the use of ICT could Climate Group, the contribute a carbon footprint of reduction in the ICT sector is carbon emissions predicted to increase in other sectors by 75% by 2020. that is five times greater than the carbon emitted by the ICT sector.
Dematerialization swapping high carbon activities with low carbon alternatives such as: e-billing instead of paper billing teleconferencing instead of traveling to meetings and e-media instead of producing CDs or newspapers.
Smart motors introducing ICT to the manufacturing sector to vary the amount of energy used by production lines, rather than motors either being on or off.
Smart logistics ICT can facilitate better communication and planning, whether this is for haulage networks or customer delivery rounds. Many return journeys of vehicles carry no product and with 80% of fleets having less than 5 vehicles, better coordination, communication and cooperation is crucial to cutting carbon.
Smart buildings our buildings and how we use them could be far more efficient. From occupancy based lighting and heating solutions to automatic systems to capture sunlight or provide shade from unwanted warmth, ICT has a role to play.
Smart grids India’s power generation accounted for over half the country’s carbon footprint in 2007, but a third of this was lost in transmission making it a complete waste. Demand management and smart meters will help those supplying energy run a more efficient systems, whilst interactive real-time energy displays prompt users to consider their energy consumption.
Manufacturing PC A significant proportion of lifetime carbon emission of ICT equipment is in its manufacture. The manufacture of one PC requires about 1.7 tones of raw materials and water, and consumes over ten times the computer’s weight in fossil fuels.
Computers and the environmentproblem looking for a solution?! 1. Lead in cathode ray tube 2. Arsenic in older cathode ray tubes 3. Antimony trioxide flame retardants used 4. Brominates flame retardants used in plastic casing, cables and circuit boards 5. Selenium is also used for the average energy supply for the circuit boards 6. Cadmium is used in circuit boards and semiconductors 7. The use of chromium for corrosion protection 8. Cobalt is used in steel structure 9. Mercury used in the keys 42
E-Waste Toxicity in Landfills70605040302010 0 E-Waste in American Landfills Amount of Taxicity Attributed to E- Waste 43
Computers and the environment problem looking for a solution?! What do people do with equipment and programs and technological waste 44
Computers and the environment problem looking for a solution?! And if we believe the computer industry research firms, which says that 70% of the new PCs buyers already have computers of one kind or another Actually there are millions of computers and hundreds of millions of supplements which are stacked in garages or some where in your home. Not surprisingly, we discovery that most of the computers are useable and only requires some minor repairs. 45
Public comments A lot of useless talk in this issue They have the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific, and save us from the garbage I wish that I grind and grind these machines and paved the old ways Bin Qassim Scrapyards 46
Public comments Since I obtained my first computer 22 years ago I threw away about 15 machine and hundreds of pieces in the municipal barrel!! I do not believe there is any organization responsible for collecting old machines??? I am only one individual, what about companies which uses thousands of devices. 47
Green ICT and 2030 vision The economic vision 2030 for the Kingdom of Bahrain addressed the environmental dimension clearly In a world where new technologies and increased competition on the production to shorten the lifetime of the product, innovation contributes to the continued success of the economy However, the economic growth must not come at the expense of the environment and the safety of citizens in the long run, which requires us not spare any effort in order to protect our environment and save our cultural heritage
Green ICT and 2030 vision The basic principles of the economic vision 2030 emphasizes on the issue of procedures to protect the natural environment. The vision encourages investment on technologies to reduce carbon emissions, and reduce pollution and encourage the sourcing of more sustainable energy
Green ICT and 2030 vision From here, the interest in green technology comes to put the basic principles of economic vision - with regard to the environment - the subject of effective implementation through the development of a clear strategy to adopt green technology in the Kingdom of Bahrain over the coming years, and to achieve the main objective set out the vision 2030 Economic 50
Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Vision Goals Strategic Dimensions Strategic Axes 51
Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Vision For Kingdom of Bahrain to be the pioneer in the use green ICT, Which takes into account the public health and safety whether at the level of individuals, groups or at the level of the general environment 52
Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Objectives The actual use of green ICT applications in various fields Investment in green ICT Strengthening the role of the private sector to ensure the successful use of green ICT Scientific research in the field of green ICT 53
Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Strategic Dimensions Laws and legislation International treaties The role of public sector The role of privet sector 54
Green ICT Strategy in the Kingdom of Bahrain Strategic Axes Devices and equipment Waste Management The financial cost Rationalize consumption Encourage scientific research Awareness and education 55