Green IT at theUniversity of Bahrain Initiatives, Readiness and Capability Maturity Level By Jaflah Al-Ammary College of IT University of Bahrain
Research Objectives1- Investigative the current situation regarding Green IT at the University of Bahrain by identifying the following: a- The Green IT initiatives b- The Green IT Readiness c- The Green IT Capability Maturity level2- Develop a Green IT adoption model for University of Bahrain
Introduction In a world of continuity innovation and highly dependency on new technology, Information Technology (IT) is considered as an essential component in most of the organizations. The increasing use of IT equipment and their short life span have caused two major problems: Energy consumption and E-Waste. The total life cycle of IT products and data centers power usage make the energy of IT significantly high. The growing of E-Waste poses serious health and environmental hazard because electronic products contain toxic materials (Hanne, 2011).
Introduction Nowadays Green IT concerns have grown beyond being just a trend, as most of the organization needs to achieve considerable reductions of carbon emissions and cost savings (Widjaja, et al., 2011). The time is coming for industries, agencies and individuals to consider Green IT seriously and spread awareness across the world. Therefore, Green IT appears to be the right element to connect both cooperate innovation and environment (Widjaja, et al., 2011).
Introduction• Many initiatives have been taken by governments and IT industries in many developed countries to promote Green IT practices.• Taking advantage from existing initiatives will offer economical, environmental and social benefits to the developing countries (Hanne, 2011).
IntroductionUniversity of Bahrain believe that environmental orgreen initiatives are the key to ensure theachievement of the goal of advancingenvironmental sustainability.Other benefits University of Bahrain can obtain byadopting Green IT include:• Gaining a competitive advantage by differentiating themselves as a Green-certify organization• Improving their efficiency and potentially lowering operating costs• Providing a cleaner and healthier work environment
Introduction• University of Bahrain has some green initiatives like their intensive researches in • Alternative fuels • Clean energy • Wind engineering • Bio- Fuel• In addition, there are some Green IT initiatives in place aims to reduce the energy consumption and carbon emissions.
Introduction It is encouraging that University of Bahrain has green initiatives in place but it is not surprising that taking the next step and introducing green technology, is lagging behind. In fact like other non-profit organizations, University of Bahrain think that those initiatives are more expensive to implement (at least in the short term) and therefore are reluctant to do so particularly in tight financial circumstances.
Introduction University of Bahrain like other organizations need to act now, as for a large organization in the developed countries it can take up to 18 months to green the IT department and data centre. Therefore, there is a need for coordinated efforts between the University of Bahrain, government, and industry to bring an overall solution to environmental issues related to the use of IT.
Indicators for Green ITInitiatives at University of Bahrain
Green IT initiatives• Info-Tech (2007) have identified 11 technology and initiatives as indicators of green IT. These include:• Equipment recycling,• Server consolidation and virtualization• Print optimization• Rightsizing IT equipment• Budget allocation for Green IT projects• Carbon offsetting• Data center • Liquid cooling for IT equipment, • DC powered IT equipment, • Data centre airflow management, • Optimizing data centre energy efficiency • Airside/waterside economizer
The Connection Research RMIT Green IT Framework
The Connection Research RMIT Green IT Framework• This Framework is used by many organizations to categorize many aspects of Green ICT.• It takes a holistic view of Green ICT and sustainability, across the enterprise, and then drills into individual technologies and business best Practices.• It contains four vertical components, or “pillars”, each of which is broken further into specific areas of Green ICT; and five horizontal components, or “actions” which describe separate approaches to the verticals (Philipson, 2010)
Equipment lifecycleRecycle and reuse The fate of the devices of members of CIT 70% 66% 60% 50% 40% 30% 24% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Covert them into Keep them in Trash them Sell them art storage% of staff 66% 0% 10% 24%
Equipment lifecycle DisposalAt the University of Bahrain equipments like PCs,printers, data show and etc., needs to be physicallydisposed of. The following are different ways ofelectronic equipment disposal:- Selling them to the UOB members or students- Donate them to some of the none-profit organizations and societies- Selling then as spare parts- Selling them via tenders to some E-agents
End-user computing Desktop Number of devices used by CIT membersIpad2-similar devices 5 Chargers 135 Old phone 73 Smart phone 93 Laptop 62 Desktop computer 46 Laser Printer 13 Deskjet Printer 37 CRT 0 LCD 42 LED 10
End-user computing Mobile computing Mobile Computing at CIT (students and staff) 65% 35% 20% 15% 12% 10%WEB SITE BLACK WEB CT MOODLE IPAD IPHONE BORD
End-user computing Departmental computing Electronic devices at the CIT No. of Faxes Laser Deskjet No. of serversNo. of PCs in LABs 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
End-user computing Printing and energy consumption• Most of the CIT members are printing in both sides of the paper.• Centralization of the printing (printing centers) this will reduce the energy consumption of at least 33 printers from each department and at least 924 printers from the colleges
ICT as a Low Carbon Enabler Outsourcing and clod computingMost of the copiers and the heavy duty printersare outsourced at the University of BahrainMost of the students and some academic staff atthe CIT and College of Business are using CloudComputing in their learning and teaching process(Dropbox, Google doc and calendar, WIKI, Ever-note and so on)
Green IT Readiness measures how well acompany has and can integrate green into their IT and utilize it (Molla, Cooper, & Pittayachawan, 2009). • Attitude and awareness • Policy • Practice • Technology • Governance
Green IT Readiness• Green IT Attitude is “an organization’s IT human infrastructure’s emotion towards climate change and eco-sustainability”• Green IT Policy “encompasses the frameworks an organization puts in place to apply environmental criteria in its IT related activities”• Green IT Practice “pertains to the actual application and realization of eco-sustainability considerations in IT infrastructure sourcing, operation and disposal”
Green IT ReadinessGreen IT Technology “refers to technologies andinformation systems for(a) reducing the energy consumption of powering and cooling corporate IT assets (such as data centers)(b) optimizing the energy efficiency of the IT technical Infrastructure(c) reducing IT induced greenhouse gas emissions(d) supplanting carbon emitting business practices(e) analyzing a business’s total environmental footprint”Green IT Governance is “the operating model that defines the administration of Green IT initiatives and is closely related to the policy construct”
CIT members awareness toward Green IT I’m very concerned about reducing IT’s power consumption in UOB UOB has investigated ways to reduce IT’s power consumption in its departmentsUOB has a policy that states staff should turn off computers when they are not in use UOB/ IT college has executed Green IT initiatives I turn off my computer when I’m not using it I prefer to print on both side of paper Dis-agreeI believe that tackling the carbon emission of IT systems should be Neutral a core part of a green business strategy Agree IT professionals should be concerned with controlling the power consumption I believe that IT professionals can play significant roles in helping tackle business’s carbon emission I have purposely attempted to attend a seminar or workshop on Green ITI am willing to learn/ gather more information about Green IT issue I read news and articles about Green IT issue 0 10 20 30 40 50
The most appropriate disposal methods for the obsolete electronic devices Other 2%Exclusion 10%RECYCLE 64% REUSE 32% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
How the ICT members are leavingtheir PCs after the working hours Chart TitleStandby Mode Sleep ModeShutdon others (leave it opend) 4% 14% 14% 68%
How often the academic staff at college of IT are asking for PC maintenance 32% 28% 18% 10% 8%Never Asked Every Mouth Every Every Year More than Semester one year
Green ICT CapabilityMaturity level for University of Bahrain
Green ICT Capability Maturity Model source (Connection Research, 2010)Connection Research determines the maturity levels throughthe administration of a survey which asks questions abouteach aspect of Green ICT, as identified in the Framework.Questions are asked about actions (attitude, policy, practice,technology, metrics), for each of the four pillars.Each question is constructed to rate that factor on a CMMscale from 0 to 5, then all relevant questions in each of thefour pillars are aggregated and weighted to deliver a score(out of 100) for that pillar.
Green ICT Capability Maturity Model source (Connection Research, 2010)
Green IT Adoption Model for University of Bahrain
Model of adopting Green IT at UOB Green IT ReadinessTechnologicalcontext Behavior Drivers of Intention to Green IT Green IT adopt Green IT adoptionOrganizationalcontextEnvironmentalContext
Green IT DriversThe green IT drivers (Molla, 2008) • Regulatory drivers • Ethical drivers • Economical drivers
Overview of drivers of green IS initiatives (Source (Islam, 2012))
Green IT DriversDrivers for uptake of Green IT (Mazenier, 2007):Reduce power consumption - Lower costsLower carbon emissions and environmental impact (e.g. recycling)Improved systems performance and utilization
Model of adoptingGreen IT Readiness Green IT at UOBTechnologicalcontext Behavior Intention to Drivers of Green Green IT adopt Green IT IT adoptionOrganizationalcontext Regulatory/legislationsEnvironmental Ethical motivesContext Economics opportunities Stakeholders pressureAttitude PoliciesPracticesTechnicalGovernance