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  1. 1.    A report is the formal writing up of a project or a research investigation A report has clearly defined sections presented in a standard format, which are used to tell the reader what you did, why and how you did it and what you found Reports differ from essays because they require an objective writing style which conveys information clearly and concisely
  2. 2.  1. Define the report purpose.  2. Analyze the intended audience.  3. Determine what data is needed to solve the problem or make a decision.
  4. 4. collected by the researcher to solve a specific problem.  researchers have more control over its accuracy, completeness, objectivity, and relevance. Three (3) main methods of primary data collection: 1. Survey 2. Observation 3. Experimentation 
  5. 5. PUBLISHED: - internet resources - journal, magazines, and newspaper articles - books - brochures and pamphlets - technical reports UNPUBLISHED: - company records (reports and communications) - legal documents ( e.g. court records) - personal files (e.g. expense records) - Medical records
  6. 6. 1.Authority 2.Accuracy and Reliability 3.Purpose / Objectivity 4.Coverage 5.Currency
  7. 7.  1. What was the purpose of the study?  2. How was the data collected?  3. How was the data analyzed?  4. How consistent is the  data with that from  other studies.  5. How old is the data
  8. 8. SURVEY - data collection method that gathers information through questionnaires, telephone or email inquiries, or interviews. QUESTIONNAIRE – a written instrument with questions to obtain information from recipients and is considered the most frequently used method in business research.
  9. 9. Ask only for information that is not easily available elsewhere.  Have a purpose for each question.  Use precise wording so that no question can possibly be misunderstood.  Use neutrally worded questions and deal with only one topic per question.  Ensure that the response choices are both exhaustive and mutually exclusive.  Be careful about asking sensitive questions, such as information about age, salary, or morals.  Pilot-test your questionnaire on a few people to check that all questions function as intended. 
  10. 10.    Arrange the questions in some logical order. Arrange the alternatives for each questions in some logical order – such as numerical, chronological, or alphabetical. Give the questionnaire a descriptive title, provide whatever directions are necessary, and include instructions for returning the questionnaire.
  11. 11.   Use an easy-to-answer format. To increase the likelihood that your target audience will cooperate and take your study seriously, ensure that your questionnaire has a professional appearance: use simple and attractive format and proofread carefully.
  12. 12. 1.When information can be provided easily and quickly. 2.When the target audience is homogeneous. 3.When sufficient time is available.
  13. 13. Convert your raw data ( notes, copies of journal articles, Completed questionnaires, recordings of interviews, and web links) into information – meaning facts, statistics, and conclusions – that will help the reader of your report make decision.
  14. 14.   Constructing Tables Table – is an orderly arrangement of data into columns and rows. It represents the most basic form of statistical analysis and is useful for showing a large amount of numerical data in a small space. With a table you can show numerical data in a more efficient and interesting way than with narrative text. Preparing Charts
  15. 15.  It is one of the most challenging and arguably the most important of the business communication.  PROCESS IN WRITING A REPORT: 1. Planning 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Proofreading
  16. 16.  Microsoft Word  PowerPoint  Excel
  17. 17. 1. TIME –organize your report by time only when it is important for the reader to know the sequence of events. 2. LOCATION – appropriate for simple informational reports, may be the most efficient way to present the data by discussing topics according to their geographical location.
  18. 18. 3. IMPORTANCE – for the busy reader, the most efficient organizational plan may be to have the most important topic first, followed in order by topics of decreasing importance. 4. Criteria – for most logical organization, for most analytical and recommendations reports. By focusing on the criteria, you help the reader to the same conclusion you reached.
  19. 19. EXAMPLE: FINDING: 65% of employees use Facebook during company time. CONCLUSION: Employees are wasting time at work. RECOMMENDATION: We should establish a social media policy.
  20. 20.   Choose direct plan for most business reports (conclusions and recommendation first) Indirect style – when your audience may be resistant to your conclusions and recommendations or when the topic is so complex that the reader needs detailed explanations to understand your conclusions.
  21. 21. OUTLINE – is a useful step to help you plan which points are to be covered, in what order they will be covered and how the topics relate to the rest of the report. HEADING – help your reader and give your report unity and coherence. It breaks the long report and refocus the reader’s attention.
  22. 22.  TALKING HEADING – identify not only the topic but also the major conclusion.  GENERIC HEADING – identify only the topic without giving the conclusion.
  23. 23. Your final report is the only way your audience know how much time or effort you dedicated to the project. Drafting the body: - Introduction - The findings - Summary / Conclusions and Recommendations
  24. 24.    INTRODUCTION – sets the stage for understanding the findings. FINDINGS – major contribution of the report and make up the largest section. It discuss and interpret relevant primary and secondary data you gathered. SUMMARY/CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS – length of the summary depends on the length and complexity of the report.
  25. 25.       Title Page Cover Letter / Memo Executive Summary Table of Contents Appendix References
  26. 26.      Tone Pronouns Verb Tense Emphasis and Subordination Coherence
  27. 27.  Reasons: 1. To avoid accusations of plagiarism. 2. To give credit to the originator of information. 3. To demonstrate the validity of our work with credible sources. 4. To instruct readers where to find additional information.
  28. 28. Revising Producing Proofreading Distributing
  29. 29. Organization Style and Tone Readability Content Clarity Conciseness
  30. 30. Design Elements Production Work Computer Resources Audience Expectations
  31. 31. Type of Report Prefatory Elements Type of Company Textual Elements Needs of Audience Supplementary Elements Length of Report
  32. 32. Proposal Cover Title Fly Title Page Table of Contents List of Illustrations Request for Proposal Executive Summary Transmittal Document
  33. 33. Introduction Body Closing
  34. 34. Appendixes Bibliography Index
  35. 35. Inconsistencies Errors and Omissions Missing Components
  36. 36. Physical Electronic Web-Based
  37. 37.  People write progress reports to keep interested parties informed about what has been done on a project and about what remains to be done. As a result the tone should be serious and respectful. Even though progress reports are often in the form of a memo, the writer should be careful to write formal, standard prose. Progress reports represent not only the writer's work but the writer's organizational and communication skills. Progress reports can be structured in several ways. The following suggested pattern helps the writer cover essential material.
  38. 38.      If the progress report is a memo, it should contain the following standard elements: • Date: Date the memo is sent • To: Name and position of the reader • From: Name and position of the writer • Subject: A clear phrase that focuses the reader's attention on the subject of the memo
  39. 39.  Because the reader is busy, get right to the point. Imagine you are meeting the reader in the hall, and you say, "I wanted to talk to you about this." Use the same strategy for the first line of the memo's body. Try saying out loud, "I wanted to tell you that" and then start writing whatever comes after that prompt. Often such a sentence will begin something like this:"Progress on setting up the new program in testing is going very well." If there is a request somewhere in the memo, make it explicitly up front; otherwise, your reader may miss it.
  40. 40.  Usually in the same paragraph as the purpose statement, the writer gives the reader some background information. If the occasion demands a written progress report instead of a quick oral report, it is probably the case that the reader needs to be reminded of the details. Tell the reader what the project is and clarify its purpose and time scale. If there have been earlier progress reports, you might make a brief reference to them.
  41. 41.  The next section of a progress report explains what work has been done during the reporting period. Specify the dates of the reporting period and use active voice verbs to give the impression that you or you and your team have been busy. You might arrange this section chronologically (following the actual sequence of the tasks being completed), or you might divide this section into subparts of the larger project and report on each subpart in sequence. Whatever pattern you use, be consistent.
  42. 42.  If the reader is likely to be interested in the glitches you have encountered along the way, mention the problems you have encountered and explain how you have solved them. If there are problems you have not yet been able to solve, explain your strategy for solving them and give tell the reader when you think you will have them solved.
  43. 43.  Specify the dates of the next segment of time in the project and line out a schedule of the work you expect to get accomplished during the period. It is often a good idea to arrange this section