A report is the formal writing up of a
project or a research investigation
A report has clearly defined sections
presented in a standard format, which are
used to tell the reader what you did, why
and how you did it and what you found
Reports differ from essays because they
require an objective writing style which
conveys information clearly and concisely
Define the report purpose.
2. Analyze the intended
3. Determine what data is
needed to solve the problem
or make a decision.
collected by the researcher to solve a
researchers have more control over its
accuracy, completeness, objectivity, and
Three (3) main methods of primary data
- internet resources
- journal, magazines, and newspaper articles
- brochures and pamphlets
- technical reports
- company records (reports and
- legal documents ( e.g. court records)
- personal files (e.g. expense records)
- Medical records
2.Accuracy and Reliability
3.Purpose / Objectivity
What was the purpose of the
2. How was the data collected?
3. How was the data analyzed?
4. How consistent is the
data with that from
5. How old is the data
SURVEY - data collection method that
gathers information through
questionnaires, telephone or email
inquiries, or interviews.
QUESTIONNAIRE – a written instrument
with questions to obtain information
from recipients and is considered the
most frequently used method in business
Ask only for information that is not easily available
Have a purpose for each question.
Use precise wording so that no question can
possibly be misunderstood.
Use neutrally worded questions and deal with only
one topic per question.
Ensure that the response choices are both
exhaustive and mutually exclusive.
Be careful about asking sensitive questions, such as
information about age, salary, or morals.
Pilot-test your questionnaire on a few people to
check that all questions function as intended.
Arrange the questions in some logical
Arrange the alternatives for each questions
in some logical order – such as numerical,
chronological, or alphabetical.
Give the questionnaire a descriptive title,
provide whatever directions are necessary,
and include instructions for returning the
Use an easy-to-answer format.
To increase the likelihood that your target
audience will cooperate and take your
study seriously, ensure that your
questionnaire has a professional
appearance: use simple and attractive
format and proofread carefully.
1.When information can be
provided easily and quickly.
2.When the target audience is
3.When sufficient time is
Convert your raw data ( notes, copies of
Completed questionnaires, recordings of
web links) into information – meaning
and conclusions – that will help the
reader of your report
Table – is an orderly arrangement of data
into columns and rows. It represents the
most basic form of statistical analysis and is
useful for showing a large amount of
numerical data in a small space. With a
table you can show numerical data in a
more efficient and interesting way than
with narrative text.
It is one of the most challenging and arguably
the most important of the business
PROCESS IN WRITING A REPORT:
1. TIME –organize your report by time only
when it is important for the reader to know
the sequence of events.
2. LOCATION – appropriate for simple
informational reports, may be the most
efficient way to present the data by
discussing topics according to their
3. IMPORTANCE – for the busy reader, the
most efficient organizational plan may be to
have the most important topic first, followed
in order by topics of decreasing importance.
4. Criteria – for most logical organization, for
most analytical and recommendations
reports. By focusing on the criteria, you help
the reader to the same conclusion you
FINDING: 65% of employees use Facebook during
CONCLUSION: Employees are wasting time at
RECOMMENDATION: We should establish a
social media policy.
Choose direct plan for most business
(conclusions and recommendation first)
Indirect style – when your audience may
be resistant to your conclusions and
recommendations or when the topic is so
complex that the reader needs detailed
explanations to understand your
OUTLINE – is a useful step to help you plan
which points are to be covered, in what
order they will be covered and how the
topics relate to the rest of the report.
HEADING – help your reader and give your
report unity and coherence. It breaks the
long report and refocus the reader’s
TALKING HEADING – identify not
only the topic but also the major
GENERIC HEADING – identify only
the topic without giving the
Your final report is the only way your
audience know how much time or effort
you dedicated to the project.
Drafting the body:
- The findings
- Summary / Conclusions and
INTRODUCTION – sets the stage for
understanding the findings.
FINDINGS – major contribution of the
report and make up the largest section. It
discuss and interpret relevant primary and
secondary data you gathered.
RECOMMENDATIONS – length of the
summary depends on the length and
complexity of the report.
Cover Letter / Memo
Table of Contents
Emphasis and Subordination
1. To avoid accusations of plagiarism.
2. To give credit to the originator of
3. To demonstrate the validity of our
work with credible sources.
4. To instruct readers where to find
People write progress reports to keep interested
parties informed about what has been done on a
project and about what remains to be done. As a
result the tone should be serious and respectful.
Even though progress reports are often in the form
of a memo, the writer should be careful to write
formal, standard prose. Progress reports represent
not only the writer's work but the writer's
organizational and communication skills. Progress
reports can be structured in several ways. The
following suggested pattern helps the writer cover
If the progress report is a memo, it should
contain the following standard elements:
• Date: Date the memo is sent
• To: Name and position of the reader
• From: Name and position of the writer
• Subject: A clear phrase that focuses the
reader's attention on the subject of the
Because the reader is busy, get right to the point.
Imagine you are meeting the reader in the hall, and
you say, "I wanted to talk to you about this." Use
the same strategy for the first line of the memo's
body. Try saying out loud, "I wanted to tell you
that" and then start writing whatever comes after
that prompt. Often such a sentence will begin
something like this:"Progress on setting up the new
program in testing is going very well." If there is a
request somewhere in the memo, make it explicitly
up front; otherwise, your reader may miss it.
Usually in the same paragraph as the purpose
statement, the writer gives the reader
some background information. If the occasion
demands a written progress report instead of
a quick oral report, it is probably the case that
the reader needs to be reminded of the
details. Tell the reader what the project is and
clarify its purpose and time scale. If there have
been earlier progress reports, you might make
a brief reference to them.
The next section of a progress report explains
what work has been done during the
reporting period. Specify the dates of the
reporting period and use active voice verbs to
give the impression that you or you and
your team have been busy. You might
arrange this section chronologically (following
the actual sequence of the tasks being
completed), or you might divide this section
into subparts of the larger project and report
on each subpart in sequence. Whatever
pattern you use, be consistent.
If the reader is likely to be interested in the
glitches you have encountered along the
way, mention the problems you have
encountered and explain how you have
solved them. If there are problems you
have not yet been able to solve, explain
your strategy for solving them and give tell
the reader when you think you will have
Specify the dates of the next segment of
time in the project and line out a schedule
of the work you expect to get accomplished
during the period. It is often a good idea to
arrange this section