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Types of business reports



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Types of business reports

  1. 1. Typical Business Reports 1
  2. 2. Business Communication Chapter – 13 “TYPICAL BUSINESS REPORTS” 2
  3. 3. Why we are here: It attempts to provide a moral justification, rationale or even establish clear rules as to “What is the Purpose of Writing a Business Report and how we give you more ideas & comprehensive business report compiling.  What is the purpose of the Business Report 3
  4. 4. Basic Strategies  Audience: When writing the report, you n ce need to consider the audience you are die Au writing for, whether it is the CEO or will the report be available to all staff concerned? r ch s ea  Research: The true value of the research Re may be assessed through a report since the written report may be the "only tangible product of hundreds of hours of ng p il i work. Com  Compiling: Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues. 4
  5. 5. "A Report Judges An Organization" “Good report Morton, work on it a little more until it sounds like one of mine.” Brilliant report, Kimble. I can’t tell where the facts ”Nice work on this report, end and the fiction begins.” Carlton. With this information we can easily lay-off fifty percent of our employees. Unfortunately you’ll be the first to go.” 5
  6. 6. Informational Report Writing Informational Report  Informational report is to provide required data/information to wish to know about the things in a specific and complete form.  Depending on the seriousness, they may have to be discussed later on.. Once you have this list, it will be easy for you to contact someone to clarify any information. 6
  7. 7. Informational Report 4- Construct 8 - Make Draft Rough Plan & Proofread 3- Plan 7- Start Sorting Methodology 2- Brainstorm 6 - Revise 1- Analyze Topic 5 - Research Submit your Work 7
  8. 8. Informational Report Gather and Complete Report Business Informational Report  Reports can cover a wide range of  Use the Business Information Report to topics, but usually focus on give you the insight you need to evaluate a transmitting information with a clear firm’s operations, profitability, and stability. purpose, to a specific audience. Also use it to evaluate the experience of the business and business background of Good reports are documents that are its principals. accurate, objective and complete.  The Business Information Report includes  Such reports are prepared for valuable information that can help you information purposes only and do make better business decisions. NOT include Institute recommendations on the course of action or the preferred application of  Report is packed with information, analysis, the data contained therein. and interpretations to enhance your decision making process.  The majority of reports are Informational Reports when the  Information includes payment records, management wish to know about the public, filings, financial information, banking new company, products, operations, commentary, business background of new policies or starting a business principals and a description of the firm’s for mutual benefits. operation. 8
  9. 9. Comprehensive to transmit Information Trade / Market Production Summary Analysis Informational Operation Finance Report Evaluate Special Events 9
  10. 10. Typical Business Reports (Chapter # 13) Yardstick Feasibility Investigative of Periodic Justification & e s ts Recommendation yp o r T p Situational Re Analytical Compliance Convention & Progress Conference & Interim 10
  11. 11. Periodic Report  This section is traditionally allocated the most marks, so it is well worth your investment in time to do it thoroughly. The Periodic report is to help the Management to make their policies, procedures, operation, products according to the consumer requirement and by this report management can decide how to develop their organization for more mutual benefits. 11
  12. 12. How it is Enhancing Using Periodic Report’s will help you Make daily credit Plan for sales calls Check the background decisions Find out about of Limit your risk changes that can new clients exposure impact credit Identify corporate Determine the relationships relationships and stability of new or Evaluate potential potential existing customers vendors and suppliers conflicts of interest Provide business details for research needs 12
  13. 13. es s alu on ev u si nr ncl sio Co clu on in c Ma Periodic Reports – Typical Elements 13 y ert rop .P Co ng the ori ing nit ect Mo saf f tor Fac ity egr ent Int em of ent ang tem Arr Sta ent em nag Ma of ent tem Sta nce ica nif Sig
  14. 14. Possible Periodic Report Format - matrix Criteria for Organisation Monitoring listing Subject Priority & Value scale Factors Lead agency affecting (& others products involved) values Management Due date & Actions comments 14
  15. 15. Specimen Reports Specimen Reports Informational Periodic Report Report 15
  16. 16. Situational Reports  Reports that are targeted to nonrecurring situations .i.e. unlike periodic reports, situations that don’t have a definite pattern of occurrence. e.g.  TripConvention & Conference reports  Progress reports 16
  17. 17. Situational Reports Characteristics  Style Written like Memos  Tone Follow an informal tone  Length Usually Short. Could vary on authorizer expectation 17
  18. 18. Situational Reports Trip, Convention & Conference reports  Submitted by employees when they return from a business trip, convention or a conference.  Keep organizations informed how well their money was spent.  Also inform management about new procedures, equipment and laws and supply information affecting products operations and service. 18
  19. 19. Situational Reports Format of Trip, Convention & Conference reports  Begin With Identifying the event , mention the topics to be discussed.  Body Three to five important points, carefully selected.  Expenses Include your expenses on a separate sheet on request.  End With Expression of appreciation, synthesizing value of the event. 19
  20. 20. Situational Reports Example : Trip, Convention & Conference reports Training Conference on Employment Interviewing 20
  21. 21. Situational Reports Things to be kept in mind.  There could be lots and lots of information. You should be selective.  Avoid using chronological order (First X happened then Y), organizing by importance is a good idea.  Select topics, the reader might be most interested in. 21
  22. 22. Situational Reports Progress and Interim reports  Explain continuing projects, including work completed, work in progress, future activities, and completion date.  Describes the projects status and progress.  Keeps the management informed whether the project is going in the right direction. 22
  23. 23. Situational Reports Format of Progress reports  Begin with Purpose & nature of project.  Body  Provide background information if audience require.  Describe the work completed.  Current progress of work.  Problems and possible remedies  End With Discussion of future activities and completion date. 23
  24. 24. Situational Reports Example : Progress reports Progress on research on location for a telefilm scene 24
  25. 25. Situational Reports Things to be kept in mind.  Keep the audience in mind. E.g. Include background information for your director as he/she might not tend to remember the project specifications.  Don’t hesitate to include the problems faced in the project. 25
  26. 26. Investigative Reports Investigative reports are generally assigned reports which focus on examining a situation or problem. e.g.  Report on doing business with and Australian company. 26
  27. 27. Investigative Reports Format of Investigative Reports  Begin with Introducing the problem.  Body Facts, findings, discussion etc.  End With Summarizing 27
  28. 28. Compliance Reports  Compliance Reports present data in compliance with local, state and federal laws.  Government regulating agencies require organizations to submit reports verifying compliance with laws  Usually answer the questions to how much profit, the organization earned and the taxes owed. 28
  29. 29. Compliance Reports Format of compliance reports  Begin with  Background information  Preview of major sections  Body  The Content. Data, figures etc  End With  Summary of report objective 29
  30. 30. Compliance Reports Example : Compliance reports  Report Description Trucking Company Safety Compliance Report 30
  31. 31. Compliance Reports Things to be kept in mind.  Correctness of data.  Accuracy of data. 31
  32. 32. Analytical Reports 32
  33. 33. Writing Analytical Reports Major components:  Introduction  Findings  Conclusions  Recommendations 33
  34. 34. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Introduction  Explain why the report is being written.  Preview the report’s organization.  Summarize the conclusions and recommendations ( for receptive audiences) 34
  35. 35. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Findings  Discuss the pros and cons of each alternative.  Establish criteria to evaluate alternatives.  Support the findings with evidence(: facts, statistics, expert opinion, survey data, and other proof)  Use headings, enumerations, lists, tables, and graphics to focus attention. 35
  36. 36. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Conclusion  Develop reasonable conclusion that answer the research question  Justify the conclusion with highlights from the finding 36
  37. 37. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Recommendations  Make recommendations, if asked.  Use action verbs. Explain needed action.  Must based on the findings 37
  38. 38. Typical Business Analytical Reports  Justification/recommendation reports  Feasibilityreports  Yardstick reports  Research reports 38
  39. 39. Justification/Recommendation Reports  Purpose  Make recommendations to management  Provide data to solve problems and make decisions.  Examples  Buying equipment  Changing a procedure  Hiring an employee  Contents  Problem/Need  Facts  Discussion (pros & cons)  Recommendation  Sample  A Justification Report 39
  40. 40. Justification/Recommendation Reports (contd..) Organizing Report Data  Indirect Approach  Direct Approach  Problem  Problem  Facts  Recommendations  Discussion  Facts  Recommendations  Discussion 40
  41. 41. Justification/Recommendation Reports (contd..) Choosing Approach  Direct approach  Receptive/Open-minded audience  Nonsensitive Topic (e.g. justifying a purchase)  Indirect approach  Skeptical/Hostile audience  Sensitive Topic (e.g. justifying ways for employees to quit smoking) 41
  42. 42. Feasibility Reports  Purpose  Analyze problems and predict whether alternatives will be practical or advisable  Help in decision making (among alternatives)  Examples  Should we move to another part of the country?  Should we rent, lease or buy?  What is the best location for our company?  Content  Decision  Background  Benefits  Potential Problems  Associated Cost  Time frame for implementing the solution  Sample  A Feasibility Report 42
  43. 43.  Informational Reports  Periodic Reports  Situational Reports  Progress Reports  Investigative and compliance Reports  Analytical Reports  Justification/Recommendation Reports  Feasibility Report  Yardstick Reports  Research Reports 43
  44. 44. Yardstick Reports 44
  45. 45. Yardstick Reports  The term "yardstick" is used in reference to anything which serves as a test or standard of measurement, comparison or judgment.  Usage of Yardstick Reports. 45
  46. 46.  Yardstick reports  Problem statement  Alternative solutions  Establish criteria's  Conclusions  Recommendations 46
  47. 47.  Example  Comparison of different manufactures for buying a piece of equipment 47
  48. 48. Format of Yardstick Reports  Introduction  purpose & overview.  Problem Statement  background.  Solutions & Alternatives.  Established criteria's  Compare Alternatives  Use Table or grid .  Conclusion & Recommendations 48
  49. 49. Sample Yardstick Report A popular cellular network company (Mobilink) is planning to open their new franchise at the NWFP Province of Pakistan Sample Report 49
  50. 50. Research Studies 50
  51. 51.  Research Studies Reports  Problem statement  Hypothesis  Present data  Perform Analysis  Conclusions  Recommendations (optional) 51
  52. 52. Research Studies  Follows Indirect Pattern  Startswith Problem discussion  Explore possible solutions  Reason for selecting a particular solution 52
  53. 53. Format of Research Studies Report  Abstract  Introduction  Sources & Methods  Results of Study  data  Conclusion  Recommendation 53
  54. 54. Introduction  Background  Problem or Purpose  Significance  Scope 54
  55. 55. Sources and Methods  Secondary Sources  Books, journals etc  Primary Sources  Observations  Surveys 55
  56. 56.  Results of Study  Present Data  Organize colleted data.  Conclusion  Recommendations  References 56
  57. 57. Example of Research Report Sample Report 57
  58. 58. Conclusion  Periodic Reports  Situational Reports  Progress Reports  Investigative and compliance Reports  Justification/Recommendation Reports  Feasibility Report  Yardstick Reports  Research Reports 58
  59. 59. References  MaryEllen Guffey, Business Communication :Process and Product   59
  60. 60. Thank you very much for your kind consideration 60

Editor's Notes

  • So far we have seen two broad categories of reports that Are …. Informational Reports. They present data but does not analyze that data or makes any conclusions. Analytical reports not only provides data but also analyze’s that data and draw conclusions. I would be presenting on Yardstick and research reports
  • Think for a while about the term yardstick Yardstick >> is a stick that is about 3 feet long. It is basically a measuring tool that is used in making measurements or comparision. Same is the case here with yard stcik reports Look at the picture When ever we measure some thing we have to use a standard unit This unit becomes the criteria of measeurement.
  • Used by higher level management in order to compare, measure different alternative solutions
  • Lets Take a look at the definition of yardstick reports. A yardstick report is a type of report that Discusses a problem statement Provide one or more alternate solutions to the problem Each of the alternative solution is measured or weighed against the criteria. Writer then provides conclusions and make recommendations. What diffrentiates yardstick reports from other reports is the The Consistency that it provides in comparing various alternative Solutions.
  • Assume your company decides to buy an equipment from a manufacturer you have to compare or evaluate different manufactures. One critera of comparison might be the cost of equipment that is provide by different manufacuters
  • A typical Format of Yardstick report is given below. Report starts with the introduction This sections describes the purpose of report and provides an overview of the organization of report. Discuss the problem briefly with a little background information. This section discusses the multiple solutions and alternates that are available. Writer then tells how he has established different criteria's that he is using to evaluate alternatives. This is the main part of yard stick report where writer performs the comparison between each of the Solution and alternatives In this section the writer highlights the differences or similarities between the solutions we can use tabular format to summarize complex data Writer then provide the conclusion and gives his recommendation with an obvious reason .
  • Are used by different business organizations in order to conduct a thorough studies of a particular problem. They uses a scientific approach to solve a particular problem
  • Research reports discusses a problem statement or purpose statement Suggest ways on how to solve that problem. Present data that has been collected during the research leading to conclusions. Analyze that data Draw conclusions and make recommendations.
  • They guide the reader through out the report so that the conclusions seems rational to the reader.
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