IMPORTANCE OF
PUBLIC SPEAKING
•It shares your ideas with the public.
•During the modern times, a lot of
men and women have shared ideas
and have influen...
•It is a vital means of civic
engagement.
•It can express your ideas that can
create an impact in a democratic
society.
•I...
PUBLIC
SPEAKING
ORDINARY
CONVERSATION
Organized
Adapting
feedback
With impact
Tailored
Highly
structured
Special
delivery
...
FOUR IMPORTANT
FUNCTIONS OF
PUBLIC SPEECHES
FOR A COMMUNITY
1. For self-definition - identifying our sense of
belongingness with the community
2. To spread information through a
comm...
Ethical Principles for Public Speaking
(Verderber, 2012)
1. Ethical communicators are honest.
2. Ethical communicators hav...
SPEECH EFFECTIVENESS
•The extent to which the audience
listens, understands, remembers and is
motivated to act on what the...
CREATING AND
DELIVERING YOUR
FIRST SPEECH
GUIDELINES (Abelos, 2006)
1. Approach the first speech with a positive
attitude
2. Select a subject for your speech
3. Dev...
OVERCOMING YOUR
PUBLIC SPEAKING
APPREHENSION OR
STAGE FRIGHT
“Although stage fright is normal
in public settings, even the most
frightened person whose heart is
pounding will perform ...
STAGE FRIGHT
ALERT!
PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION
•A type of public speaking anxiety which is a
fear you encounter when expecting a speaking
ta...
PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION
1= STRONGLY AGREE 2= AGREE 3=UNDECIDED
4=DISAGREE 5=STRONGLY DISAGREE
____1. I have no fear o...
•Stomach upset
•Flushed skin
•Sweating
•Shaking
•Light-headedness
•Rapid heartbeats
•Verbal disfluencies
(stuttering & voc...
COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS
•Negative self-talk
Roots of Negative Thoughts:
1. Biologically based temperament (Introvert vs.
Extrov...
THREE PHASES OF SPEAKING ANXIETY
1. ANTICIPATION
- anxiety you feel BEFORE giving a
speech
2. CONFRONTATION
- anxiety you ...
FIVE GENERAL METHODS
TO ELIMINATE SPEAKING
APPREHENSION
1. COMMUNICATION ORIENTATION MOTIVATION
PERFORMANCE
ORIENTATION
COMMUNICATION
ORIENTATION
PUBLIC
SPEAKING
A situation wher...
2. Visualization
•It helps you develop a mental picture of
yourself delivering an effective speech.
•Goes hand in hand wit...
3. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
• It reduces apprehension by gradually
visualizing and engaging in increasingly more
frighte...
4. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING
•Systematically rebuilding your thoughts about
public speaking
Anxiety-arousing negative self-t...
•This has four steps:
1. Identify your negative thoughts / fear
2. Consider if the fears are rational or not.
3. Develop p...
5. PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS TRAINING
•Systematic teaching of the skills associated
with preparing and delivering an effectiv...
5. Relaxation Exercises
•Breathing techniques and
progressive muscle relaxation
exercises that help reduce anxiety.
1. Abd...
6 SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES TO ELIMINATE
PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION
1. Allow sufficient time to prepare.
2. Practice your spee...
REFERENCES
Verderber, R. F., Sellnow, D. D., & Verderber, K. S.
(2010). Communicate! Wadsworth: Cengage
Learning.
Verderbe...
EFFECTIVE SPEECH
PLANNING
•It is a strategy you can use to
achieve your goals in terms
of public speaking.
What is a speech plan?
•The five general rules for effective
public speeches established by Roman
philosophers more than 2,000 years
ago.
•Common...
1. Invention – convincing content
2. Arrangement – clearly organized
3. Style – use of appropriate language
4. Delivery – ...
PROCESS FOR SPEECH PLANNING
STEP 1: Selecting speech goal
STEP 2: Understanding the
audience
STEP 3: Gathering
information...
• What is a speech goal?
• Speech goal is a specific statement of what you want
your listeners to know, believe or do.
• W...
•To have an appropriate speech goal, consider
yourself as the speaker and the audience; then, try
to consider the occasion...
•How to select a topic?
You can identify your topic by listing things
that you know and that interest you. You
can also cl...
•Know your audience by conducting an
audience analysis.
•The analysis should be based on people’s
age, gender, culture, ed...
•FAQ’s:
Who is the audience?
What do they need to know about your topic?
What do they already know?
What is the size of th...
•After determining your speech topic and
considering the occasion and the audience, you
can now phrase your speech goal.
•...
•What is audience adaptation?
•Audience adaptation is the process of fitting
your speech’s information to the needs,
inter...
•Always consider your listeners’ needs,
interests, ability to understand the content
of your speech and their attitude tow...
• Demonstrate relevance
Adapting the information in your speech so that
audience members view it as important to them
STEP...
•The audience will pay attention to your
speech if it has a personal impact.
•Effective speakers demonstrate timeliness,
p...
•Demonstrate knowledge and expertise.
•Establish credibility/trustworthiness.
•Choose specific and familiar language.
•Be ...
•Even if you know the topic that you will be
talking about, you still need additional
information and supporting details f...
•Regardless of the sources of your information, it is
important to evaluate the information you gather
and select the thin...
•When locating sources, consider primary and
secondary sources.
•When evaluating sources, consider authority,
objectivity,...
•How to begin the process of organizing your
speech?
•Identify the two to four major ideas you want your
audience to remem...
•Main points must be carefully worded and
arranged in an organizational framework.
•Two basic organizational frameworks:
•...
•After outlining the body of the speech,
you may start outlining your
introduction and conclusion.
•An effective introduct...
•How to get attention with your introduction?
•Make a startling statement
•Ask a question (rhetorical or direct)
•Tell a s...
•For conclusion, you can have clincher: one-
/two-sentence statement in a conclusion
that provides a sense of closure by
d...
•Even if you have a very short speech,
if it is possible, use a visual aid.
•Presentational aids can help you clarify, emp...
•In public speaking, practice really makes perfect.
WHY?
•Because if you don’t practice your speech you run
the risk of mi...
•Speech effectiveness does not just depend
on the words you say or your speech; it also
depends on how you use your voice ...
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ORALCOM Week 3 4 Public Speaking Apprehension

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ORALCOM Week 3 4 Public Speaking Apprehension

  1. 1. IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
  2. 2. •It shares your ideas with the public. •During the modern times, a lot of men and women have shared ideas and have influenced the world with their speeches. •Communication skills (including public speaking) were the first among the qualities sought by most employers.
  3. 3. •It is a vital means of civic engagement. •It can express your ideas that can create an impact in a democratic society. •It is a form of empowerment. •Public speaking offers you an opportunity to make a difference.
  4. 4. PUBLIC SPEAKING ORDINARY CONVERSATION Organized Adapting feedback With impact Tailored Highly structured Special delivery More formal Can be interrupted Informal delivery Can be informal
  5. 5. FOUR IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC SPEECHES FOR A COMMUNITY
  6. 6. 1. For self-definition - identifying our sense of belongingness with the community 2. To spread information through a community. - SONA, press conference, etc. 3. To debate questions of fact, values, and policy in community. - for arguments 4. To bring about individual and group change - for persuasion
  7. 7. Ethical Principles for Public Speaking (Verderber, 2012) 1. Ethical communicators are honest. 2. Ethical communicators have integrity. 3. Ethical communicators are fair. 4. Ethical communicators demonstrate respect for others. 5. Ethical communicators are responsible
  8. 8. SPEECH EFFECTIVENESS •The extent to which the audience listens, understands, remembers and is motivated to act on what the speaker says. •Must be a goal of every public speaker
  9. 9. CREATING AND DELIVERING YOUR FIRST SPEECH
  10. 10. GUIDELINES (Abelos, 2006) 1. Approach the first speech with a positive attitude 2. Select a subject for your speech 3. Develop your purpose and supporting materials 4. Organize the speech 5. Develop language 6. Practice the speech 7. Delivering the speech 8. Criticism of the speech
  11. 11. OVERCOMING YOUR PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION OR STAGE FRIGHT
  12. 12. “Although stage fright is normal in public settings, even the most frightened person whose heart is pounding will perform better when he or she is well prepared.” (Verderber, 2012)
  13. 13. STAGE FRIGHT ALERT!
  14. 14. PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION •A type of public speaking anxiety which is a fear you encounter when expecting a speaking task or actually speaking in front of an audience. •It plagues most public speakers; in fact, as many as 76% of experienced public speakers have speaking apprehension.
  15. 15. PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION 1= STRONGLY AGREE 2= AGREE 3=UNDECIDED 4=DISAGREE 5=STRONGLY DISAGREE ____1. I have no fear of giving a speech ____2. Certain parts of the body feel very tense and rigid while giving a speech. ____3. I feel relaxed while giving a speech. ____4. My thoughts become confused and jumbled when I am giving a speech ____5. I face the prospect of giving a speech with confidence. ____6. While giving a speech, I get so nervous I forget the facts I really know.
  16. 16. •Stomach upset •Flushed skin •Sweating •Shaking •Light-headedness •Rapid heartbeats •Verbal disfluencies (stuttering & vocalized pauses) •Feeling: •Anxious •Worried •Upset PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS
  17. 17. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS •Negative self-talk Roots of Negative Thoughts: 1. Biologically based temperament (Introvert vs. Extrovert) 2. Previous experience : Socialization - Modeling: imitating the behaviors of those who are close to you - Reinforcement: people’s response 3. Level of Skill
  18. 18. THREE PHASES OF SPEAKING ANXIETY 1. ANTICIPATION - anxiety you feel BEFORE giving a speech 2. CONFRONTATION - anxiety you feel as you BEGIN delivering the speech 3. ADAPTATION - the period when your anxiety level GRADUALLY DECREASES
  19. 19. FIVE GENERAL METHODS TO ELIMINATE SPEAKING APPREHENSION
  20. 20. 1. COMMUNICATION ORIENTATION MOTIVATION PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION COMMUNICATION ORIENTATION PUBLIC SPEAKING A situation where you must impress the audience. An opportunity you find to be able to talk to a number of people or to a group of people. AUDIENCE You focus on them because you think that they are hypercritical judges who will notice minor mistakes. You are more concerned on your message/speech to be understood than impressing the audience.
  21. 21. 2. Visualization •It helps you develop a mental picture of yourself delivering an effective speech. •Goes hand in hand with preparing yourself and your speech •Visualizing yourself delivering a powerful speech tends to lower your apprehension
  22. 22. 3. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION • It reduces apprehension by gradually visualizing and engaging in increasingly more frightening speaking events. •THE GOAL: To transfer the calm feelings we attain while visualizing to the actual speaking event.
  23. 23. 4. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING •Systematically rebuilding your thoughts about public speaking Anxiety-arousing negative self-talk Anxiety-reducing positive self-talk
  24. 24. •This has four steps: 1. Identify your negative thoughts / fear 2. Consider if the fears are rational or not. 3. Develop positive coping statements. 4. Incorporate your positive coping statements into your life 4. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING
  25. 25. 5. PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS TRAINING •Systematic teaching of the skills associated with preparing and delivering an effective public speech •The intention must be to reduce public speaking apprehension.
  26. 26. 5. Relaxation Exercises •Breathing techniques and progressive muscle relaxation exercises that help reduce anxiety. 1. Abdominal breathing 2. Sighing 3. Progressive muscle relaxation exercise.
  27. 27. 6 SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES TO ELIMINATE PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION 1. Allow sufficient time to prepare. 2. Practice your speech aloud. 3. Choose an appropriate time to speak. 4. Use positive self-talk. 5. Face the audience. 6. Focus on your message.
  28. 28. REFERENCES Verderber, R. F., Sellnow, D. D., & Verderber, K. S. (2010). Communicate! Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. Verderber, R. F., Sellnow, D. D., & Verderber, K. S. (2012). The challenge of effective speaking. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
  29. 29. EFFECTIVE SPEECH PLANNING
  30. 30. •It is a strategy you can use to achieve your goals in terms of public speaking. What is a speech plan?
  31. 31. •The five general rules for effective public speeches established by Roman philosophers more than 2,000 years ago. •Commonly attributed to Cicero. Canons of Rhetoric
  32. 32. 1. Invention – convincing content 2. Arrangement – clearly organized 3. Style – use of appropriate language 4. Delivery – speak with confidence, fluency, and strategic retention aids 5. Memory – sensitivity to the context and improvisational necessities The 5 Canons of Rhetoric
  33. 33. PROCESS FOR SPEECH PLANNING STEP 1: Selecting speech goal STEP 2: Understanding the audience STEP 3: Gathering information STEP 4: Organizing ideas STEP 5: Choosing presentational aids STEP 6: Practicing aloud
  34. 34. • What is a speech goal? • Speech goal is a specific statement of what you want your listeners to know, believe or do. • What is rhetorical situation? • Rhetorical situation is the combination of the occasion, speaker and the audience that influences the speech given. STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  35. 35. •To have an appropriate speech goal, consider yourself as the speaker and the audience; then, try to consider the occasion where you will deliver your speech. •Begin by selecting a topic that you know something about and that interests you or important to you. STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  36. 36. •How to select a topic? You can identify your topic by listing things that you know and that interest you. You can also classify your topics by identifying your subjects first. You can consider your major and career interests, hobbies and activities, and issues and concerns. STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  37. 37. •Know your audience by conducting an audience analysis. •The analysis should be based on people’s age, gender, culture, educational level, occupation, income level, and group affiliation. STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  38. 38. •FAQ’s: Who is the audience? What do they need to know about your topic? What do they already know? What is the size of the audience? When and where will the speech be given? What is the time limit for the speech? What are the audience expectations for the speech? STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  39. 39. •After determining your speech topic and considering the occasion and the audience, you can now phrase your speech goal. •For classroom speeches the general goal is either to inform or to persuade. •Your speech goal must state exactly what you want your audience to understand, believe, or do. STEP 1: Select a speech goal that is appropriate to the rhetorical situation
  40. 40. •What is audience adaptation? •Audience adaptation is the process of fitting your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your listeners. STEP 2: Understand your audience and adapt to it
  41. 41. •Always consider your listeners’ needs, interests, ability to understand the content of your speech and their attitude toward you and your topic. •Provide basic information regarding your topic if you know that your audience does not know much about your topic. STEP 2: Understand your audience and adapt to it
  42. 42. • Demonstrate relevance Adapting the information in your speech so that audience members view it as important to them STEP 2: Understand your audience and adapt to it
  43. 43. •The audience will pay attention to your speech if it has a personal impact. •Effective speakers demonstrate timeliness, proximity, and personal impact. •Draw from common experiences. STEP 2: Understand your audience and adapt to it
  44. 44. •Demonstrate knowledge and expertise. •Establish credibility/trustworthiness. •Choose specific and familiar language. •Be culture sensitive. STEP 2: Understand your audience and adapt to it
  45. 45. •Even if you know the topic that you will be talking about, you still need additional information and supporting details for your point. •Do not just focus on what you already know. •Conduct interviews or surveys if needed. STEP 3: Gather and evaluate information to use in the speech
  46. 46. •Regardless of the sources of your information, it is important to evaluate the information you gather and select the things that are valid and truthful. •Make sure every detail you get is relevant to your topic. •The more you know about your topic, the easier to evaluate the information you get. STEP 3: Gather and evaluate information to use in the speech
  47. 47. •When locating sources, consider primary and secondary sources. •When evaluating sources, consider authority, objectivity, currency, and relevance. STEP 3: Gather and evaluate information to use in the speech
  48. 48. •How to begin the process of organizing your speech? •Identify the two to four major ideas you want your audience to remember. •Construct a complete sentence for each major idea. •Combine your speech goal with each major idea into a brief thesis statement with main point preview. STEP 4: Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured outline
  49. 49. •Main points must be carefully worded and arranged in an organizational framework. •Two basic organizational frameworks: •Chronological framework: first to last •Topical framework: using headings STEP 4: Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured outline
  50. 50. •After outlining the body of the speech, you may start outlining your introduction and conclusion. •An effective introduction draws audience’s attention to what you are saying. STEP 4: Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured outline
  51. 51. •How to get attention with your introduction? •Make a startling statement •Ask a question (rhetorical or direct) •Tell a story •Tell a joke •Supply a personal reference •Recite a quotation •Perform or motivate an action •Create suspense STEP 4: Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured outline
  52. 52. •For conclusion, you can have clincher: one- /two-sentence statement in a conclusion that provides a sense of closure by delivering important points in a memorable way. •Once finished, review your outline to assure that the parts are relevant to your speech goal. STEP 4: Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured outline
  53. 53. •Even if you have a very short speech, if it is possible, use a visual aid. •Presentational aids can help you clarify, emphasize or dramatize what you say. •Presentational aids can be visual, audio or audiovisual aids. •Plan when to use the presentational aids. STEP 5: Choose, prepare, and use appropriate presentational aids
  54. 54. •In public speaking, practice really makes perfect. WHY? •Because if you don’t practice your speech you run the risk of missing a major opportunity for communicating your ideas effectively. Moreover, during practice sessions, you can work on the appropriateness, accuracy, clarity, and vividness of your wording. STEP 6: Practice oral language and delivery style
  55. 55. •Speech effectiveness does not just depend on the words you say or your speech; it also depends on how you use your voice and body in delivering your speech. •Practicing your speech aloud contributes to your confidence. •Do NOT memorize your speech. STEP 6: Practice oral language and delivery style

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