Ocean GIS Initiative
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Ocean GIS Initiative Ocean GIS Initiative Presentation Transcript

  • June 2012The Ocean GISInitiativeEsri’s Commitment toUnderstanding Our OceansBy Dr. Dawn Wright, Esri Chief Scientist
  • Table of Contents3 Introduction 17 Deep Ocean Exploration & Research 3 Understanding Our Oceans 18 Global Oceans 4 The Ocean GIS Initiative 18 Clearwater Seafoods 5 Areas of Focus 19 Strategic Goals7 Projects 19 Grow the Ocean Basemap 7 The Ocean Basemap 19 Build a More Integrated Elevation Service 8 SeaSketch 19 Provide Intelligent Bathymetry in the Cloud 9 Ocean Health Index 20 Grow Ocean Use Planning Tools 10 ArcGIS for Maritime 20 Expand the ArcGIS for Oceans Resource Center 11 Ocean Use Planning Portal 21 Convene an Oceans Summit 13 Benthic Terrain Modeling 21 Update and Support the Arc Marine Data Model 13 NOAA Projects 22 Develop Vertical, Time-Dependent Data Transformations 22 Improve Support for Multidimensional Data and15 Partnerships Analyses 15 Quality Positioning Services 23 Support Ocean Numerical Models 16 University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping 16 Danish National Survey and Cadastre 16 Restore Americas Estuaries 16 West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health 17 World Ocean Council 17 Consortium for Ocean LeadershipOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 2
  • IntroductionOn a planet where 71 percent of the surface is covered by water, Only 5 to 10 percent of the ocean floor and the waters beneaththe oceans are critical for life itself. They feed us, regulate our the surface have been explored and mapped in a level of detailweather patterns, provide over half the oxygen that we breathe, similar to what already exists for the dark side of the moon, forand contribute to our energy and economy. Mars, and for Venus.An estimated 350 million jobs globally are linked to the oceans.One billion people living in developing countries depend on fish Understanding Our Oceansas their primary source of protein. Geographic information system (GIS) technology, which has long provided effective solutions to the integration, visualization, andThere is five times more carbon stored by coastal habitats than analysis of information about land, is now being similarly appliedby tropical forests. But there is also five times more pollution in to oceans. In recent years, our ability to measure change in thethe oceans now due to agricultural runoff than there was in 1960. oceans (including open ocean, nearshore, and coast) is increasing,Eighty-five percent of the worlds fisheries are categorized as not only because of improved measuring devices and scientificeither "fully exploited," "overexploited," or "depleted." Ninety techniques but also because new GIS technology is aiding us inpercent of the big fish in the oceans are gone. better understanding this dynamic environment. This domain has progressed from applications that merely collect and display dataClimate change threatens coastal communities worldwide. to complex simulation, modeling, and the development of newLess than 2 percent of the oceans is legally protected in parks research methods and concepts.and reserves, as compared to 12 percent of land areas globally.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Introduction 3
  • As a company with the mission to inspire and enable people to positively impact their future through a deeper, geographic understanding of the changing world around them, Esri recognizes that this understanding must involve a strong commitment to the oceans. Esri has in the last year launched a major initiative, Ocean GIS, across the entire company. The team supporting this initiative is composed of Professional Services staff, GIS software engineers, project managers, instructors, partners, and others.The amount of data being collected about the oceans presents a grandchallenge.The Ocean GIS InitiativeThe news is replete with stories of the hazards of hurricanes,tsunamis, sea-level rise and coastal flooding, shark attacks, toxicspills, oxygen-poor "dead zones," and even modern-day pirates.The oceans can be a dangerous place, and mitigating thesedangers requires a commitment to science-based understanding. The Esri ocean GIS team.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Introduction 4
  • The Ocean GIS initiative has also been motivated in great part Areas of Focusby the need to provide effective mapping tools and techniques Esris Ocean GIS initiative is developing mapping and spatialto respond to recent disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon analysis tools, geospatial data, associated resources, andoil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the Tohoku-Oki earthquake engagement with the oceans community in five main areas:and tsunami in Japan. It is also motivated by a sincere desire toassist in the implementation of the US National Ocean Policy, • Research and Explorationparticularly in the area of coastal and marine spatial planning • Seafloor mapping and sampling, geomorphological(CMSP), for which GIS provides a crucial decision support engine. studies, and tectonophysicsAs part of this initiative, Esri is expanding from an initial emphasis • Benthic habitat mapping for estimating species abundance,on nautical chart production and applications for commercial identifying essential fish habitat, and ultimately conservingshipping, maritime defense/intelligence, and offshore energy sensitive or endangered areas(e.g., oil and gas, wind energy) to ocean science and resourcemanagement. Esri is pursuing a greater engagement with • Shoreline analysis, including calculation of rate-of-changethe ocean science community, as complex ocean data are statistics from multiple shoreline positions to analyzeincreasingly used to inform the responsible use and governance historical shoreline changeof the oceans, as well as effective management and conservation. • Climate change, including measuring or simulating theAlthough Esris engagement with coastal and ocean resource potential impacts of sea-level rise on shorelines andmanagers and conservationists is deep and will continue, wetlands, impacts of storms due to increasing oceaninconsistencies in ocean data models, formats, standards, tools, temperatures, impacts to ecosystems due to increasingservices, and terminology exist and will be addressed by the ocean acidification, and global energy transferinitiative. In addition, a paradigm shift is driving an evolution • Hazards, including the analysis of risk and potential loss offrom desktop and server enterprise solutions into a Software as buildings and infrastructure due to hurricane winds, coastala Service (SaaS) model in the cloud, and the Ocean GIS initiative floods, tsunamis, and nearshore or onshore earthquakesbuilds on this important shift.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Introduction 5
  • • Ecosystems and Environment • Fish habitat and distribution for quote-based management systems • Coral reef health and structure, mangrove assessment, estuary restoration, interaction of coastal ecosystem • Aquaculture-related disease and value tracking services, and management of seascape to optimize • Analysis of fishery closure areas, protected resources, Gulf services Coast Environmental Sensitivity indexes, at-risk species, • Coastal and pelagic animal tracking and marine mammal and federal status to illustrate some of the environmental genomics impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill • Marine debris mapping and tracking, especially in situ, as • Recreation and Adventure small plastics are not detectable with satellite imagery • Professional and amateur boat racing, voyages for various • Coastal Protection and Marine Spatial Planning causes, and ocean-based sporting events that can benefit from live, map-based tracking of assets and participants • National Ocean Policy Regional Ocean Partnership mandates • Crowdsourced data from recreational vessels • Marine protected area design and designation • Offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy development • Beach and recreational fisheries access • Fisheries and Aquaculture Management • Mapping of US fishery management plans and boundaries of groundfish essential fish habitat • Analysis of trends in nearshore and estuarine capture of fisheries globally • Aquaculture optimization and permittingOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Introduction 6
  • ProjectsEsri is already engaged in a wide variety of projects supporting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); thethe Ocean GIS initiative. Some of these are highlighted below. Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS); the Seafloor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay; the UniversityThe Ocean Basemap of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (UNH-CCOM); Oregon State University; the National GeographicOn World Hydrography Day 2011, Esri officially released the Society; and DeLorme, NAVTEQ, and Esri.worlds first ocean basemap on ArcGIS Online. The focus ofthe basemap is to provide the best possible cartographicrepresentation of authoritative bathymetric data, as well as oceanfloor feature names; water body names; and, in certain regions,derived depth values in meters. Release of the Ocean Basemaprepresents a crucial first step in the establishment of an oceanGIS.A variety of authoritative data providers have already contributedto the Ocean Basemap project. Chief among these is the GeneralBathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), an internationalconsortium operating under the auspices of the InternationalHydrographic Organization (IHO) and the IntergovernmentalOceanographic Commission of UNESCO. GEBCO providesthe worlds most trusted publicly available 1 km resolutionbathymetry data, as well as a complete gazetteer of global oceanfloor feature names. Other authoritative providers include the Detail of the Gulf of Mexico from Esris ocean basemap.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 7
  • aggressively pursuing additional content for the Ocean Basemap through a variety of channels. SeaSketch Esri is working in collaboration with Will McClintock of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), Center for Marine Assessment and Planning to deliver a cutting-edge decision support tool for effective ocean planning for a range of end users, including government, industries, and regional institutions. UCSB is nearing completion of the initial version of SeaSketch, a web-based ocean geodesign platform that will be accessible via ArcGIS Online. SeaSketch greatly extends the capabilities of the well-knownRecent additions to ocean basemap bathymetry contributed by theCanadian Hydrographic Service. MarineMap used in support of science-based and stakeholder- driven marine protected area network planning throughoutThe Ocean Basemap is the clear foundation for an ocean GIS, as California. It will incorporate a much larger suite of spatialany individual or organization involved in maritime operations, analytics, including spatial dimensions of trade-offs amongocean science, ocean conservation, or ocean management potentially conflicting resources, services, sectors, and times.can deploy feature overlays or web services, such as maritime Regardless of technical or scientific ability, users of SeaSketchboundaries, energy infrastructure, shipping activity, subsea will be able to view map data from authoritative sources from allgeology, ocean surface and water-column observations, and over the world (e.g., distributions of habitats, energy resources,nautical charts, to dynamically mash up with the bathymetry. GIS infrastructure, maritime boundaries). Using these maps as aspecialists focused on land problems are also expressing great reference, users will then be able to sketch, save, and shareinterest in the Ocean Basemap as an important step toward management plans and discuss them with other users via aan integrated terrain model for the entire planet. Esri is also facilitated chat forum tied directly to their maps. In addition, they will be able to build support for their plans based on scientificOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 8
  • merit, particularly by way of submitting the spatial features of the plan to a biological-economic model of trade-offs between ecosystem services (tourism, conservation, energy development, lobster fishing, whale migration corridors, etc.) in relation to potential management strategies. SeaSketch map interface with forum categories. Ocean Health Index The Ocean Health Index (OHI) is a project cofounded by Conservation International, the National Geographic Society, and the New England Aquarium with the ambitious goal of establishing a new world standard for measuring ocean health Opening page of SeaSketch prototype.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 9
  • by representing that health as a single number. The index is ArcGIS for Maritimedesigned to take the pulse of the oceans to provide a quick set ArcGIS for Maritime is a comprehensive geospatial platform forof vital signs (i.e., indicators that measure the intensity of the chart production and nautical and bathymetric data management.most urgent ocean stressors, including climate change, ocean The package enables professional-grade product and serviceacidification, overfishing, habitat degradation, invasive species, support for the management of ocean GIS. As a result, it canloss of biodiversity, pollution, and eutrophication). This will aid be used to efficiently generate a variety of navigational andmanagers, policy makers, and the public in quickly diagnosing nonnavigational products in compliance with industry andwhere problems lie and identifying possible solutions. The organizational standards and requirements. This packageproject therefore seeks to bridge that important science/policy supports a wide variety of users in port management, maritimemaker divide and is thus featured prominently in a series of transport, ocean science, coastal resource management, nauticalinformative articles within the society, policy, and economy chart production, and maritime defense. Some of the tasksjournal Pacific Standard. supported include building, maintaining, and creating standardThe development of the OHI is guided by an advisorycommittee and steering committee of the worlds leading marineecologists and assisted by 12 scientific staff. The process hasstarted with identification of 10 public goals broadly agreedon by international consensus (shoreline protection, tourismand recreation, clean waters, biodiversity, seafood provision,subsistence harvest, natural products, carbon storage,livelihoods, and sense of place). Based on these goals, a setof indicators is in development to consistently and reliablymeasure the health of the oceans and coasts across a varietyof different contexts: data poor and data rich, tropical andtemperate, regional and global. Ultimately, these indicators willbe incorporated into a single index number that will be calculatedannually for the entire globe as well as at smaller regional sites. ArcGIS for Maritime concept.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 10
  • nautical charts; managing, visualizing, and sharing bathymetric biologists, regional fisheries organizations, state agencies,data; and managing multiuser discovery and access to massive nonprofit and conservation organizations, mission planners forcollections of ocean and coastal information. NOAA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Coast Guard, the DOI, and theArcGIS for Maritime includes workflows for nautical chart viewing Department of Defense (DoD). It therefore has Esris most directand converting among International Hydrographic Organization tie to the US National Ocean Policy.data transfer standards; quality control/quality assurance; formanagement of bathymetric data (load into a BathymetricInformation System [BIS]; interact with grids, collections, andmetadata; create surfaces, features, and queries; share in variousmodes); and for integration with data models such as Arc Marine,various map services such as the Ocean Basemap, and new toolsas they are developed by the community.Ocean Use Planning PortalEsri has developed an ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning portalbased on ArcGIS Online. This is the first ocean-themed variationon ArcGIS Online with featured content provided by NOAA,the Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management (BOEM) of theDepartment of the Interior (DOI), and the Northeast RegionalOcean Council. ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning is a collectionof maps, applications, and templates primarily for the coastaland marine spatial planning community seeking to manage UScoastal and marine resources while also evaluating the impactsof human use on ocean and coastal ecosystems. This includescoastal planners, environmental engineers, coastal policystaffers, economic planners, fisheries research scientists, marine ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 11
  • In addition, the portal provides resources to many offshore A primary goal of ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning is to provideenergy companies, the commercial fishing industry, and the maps and applications that yield rich supporting informationshipping industry in the planning and management of their and are available as ready-to-use services specifically designedactivities. Similar to ArcGIS Online in general, the portal provides for this sector so that people will spend less time developinga collaborative environment where users can share examples of and loading data, building maps from scratch, and searching fortheir work and their maps and services, as well as map templates, analytical tools to meet their needs.and other best practices in both the use and provision of ready-to-use maps and applications for the ocean planning community.A hallmark of ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning is the many featuredweb applications, the most popular of which is one for windenergy site suitability. This tool, built by Esri in collaboration withNOAA and BOEM, is designed for offshore energy companiesand regional ocean councils to investigate potential wind energydevelopment sites. The sample data provided is from theNortheast and Mid-Atlantic regions, but other regions will beincluded in future versions. The tool enables site selection ofouter continental shelf blocks based on multiple criteria (depthand distance from shore and from shipping lanes, exclusionof dumping grounds and DoD boundaries, wind speed, andproximity to critical habitat areas and marine protected areas). It Wind Energy Site Suitability web application linked in ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning showing site selection of outer continental shelf blocksthen calculates viewsheds from both offshore and onshore based based on multiple criteria.on wind turbine height from a single point or within a polygonthat the user sketches online, summarizing the analysis in acolorful report.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 12
  • Benthic Terrain Modeling NOAA ProjectsThe Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) is an application originally Esri has supported a wide variety of demonstration projects anddeveloped in 2005 at Oregon State University under a service-based contracts with NOAA line offices, including thecooperative agreement with the NOAA Coastal Services Center National Ocean Service (NOS); the National Marine Fisheries(CSC) GIS Integration and Development program. The application Service (NMFS); the National Weather Service (NWS); theprovides a set of geoprocessing tools to analyze benthic terrain National Environmental Satellite, Data & Information Servicefor the purposes of classifying surficial seafloor characteristics (NESDIS); and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Researchthat may be in studies of benthic habitat, geomorphology, (OAR). Representative projects include the following:prediction of benthic fish species distribution, marine protected • NOAA Coastal Services Center and BOEM: Multipurposearea design, and more. Esri has placed resources toward Marine Cadastrecollaborating with NOAA CSC on porting the original codefrom Visual Basic to Python for deployment in ArcGIS 10.x as a • NOAA CSC: Development of Story Maps for coastal countytoolbox. In addition, certain functions in the tools will be available plannersas separate web-based geoprocessing services. • NMFS Northeast Regional Office: Development of a fish count web application demonstration • NOAA NOS OCS Marine Chart Division: Ongoing implementation and production conversion of the NOAA Nautical Chart System II to ArcGIS for Maritime • NOAA Coast Survey Development Laboratory: Development of a new ArcGIS for Server software-based version of NOAA ENC Direct to GISOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 13
  • • NOAA GeoPlatform: Addition of various web map and web feature services in advance of the hurricane seasonNOAA GeoPlatform under construction. • NOAA NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center: Support for the development and implementation of various desktop applications and web-based viewers, including the various programs within the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division • National Ice Center: Continued development of the Sea Ice Prediction and Analysis System (SIPAS) based on ArcGIS for ServerOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Projects 14
  • PartnershipsEsri is leveraging a number of important partner relationships hydrographic and naval agencies. Esri and QPS are now workingto advance the Ocean GIS initiative. A small sample of these together to integrate Fledermaus tools into the geoprocessingrelationships is presented below. framework of the ArcGIS for Maritime solution for 10.1.Quality Positioning ServicesEsri partner Quality Positioning Services (QPS) is a maritimetechnology and services provider with headquarters in theNetherlands, with US-based operations in Portsmouth, NewHampshire, and Houston, Texas. It is a highly specialized companywell-known in the hydrographic, petroleum, and oceanographycommunities for its domain knowledge and excellent software.QPS recently acquired Esri partner IVS 3D, maker of theFledermaus scientific visualization system, and is consolidatingproduct lines. Fledermaus is heavily used at the world-famousScripps Institution of Oceanography Visualization Center and isa de facto scientific visualization standard throughout the marinegeology and geophysics arm of the ocean science community,including the large international National Science Foundation(NSF)-sponsored programs Ridge 2000, Margins, and theOcean Observatories Initiative. It is also used at many national Fledermaus 3D visualization of the North Atlantic Ocean.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Partnerships 15
  • University of New Hampshire Center working with RAE on developing support for a national estuaryfor Coastal and Ocean Mapping GIS while also fostering an RAE pilot project at People for Puget Sound.Esri is a member of the Industrial Consortium of UNH-CCOM.This is a consortium for collaborating and developing newapproaches to ocean and coastal mapping challenges. A West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Healthrecognized global leader in technology, testing, and training in The West Coast Governors Alliance on Ocean Health (WCGA)hydrographic tools, UNH-CCOM is a cooperative institute funded is a proactive regional collaboration between the governors ofvia an NOAA line item, as well as by competitive grants, to California, Oregon, and Washington and their natural resourcesperform a broad spectrum of work ranging from Law of the Sea policy staff to more effectively manage "human activities andsurveying (soon to be incorporated into the ocean basemap) to their impact on ocean resources in a way that accounts formultibeam acoustic backscatter analysis. the relationships among all ecosystem components, including people and other species and the environment in which we allDanish National Survey and Cadastre live." This is also a key recommendation of the bipartisan Joint Ocean Commission Initiative. WCGA is one of 10 official regionalThe Danish National Survey and Cadastre (KMS) has been ocean partnerships (ROPs) nationwide that explicitly advance theengaged in a project with Esri Professional Services through objectives detailed in the US National Ocean Policy.Informi GIS A/S for a pilot implementation of ArcGIS forMaritime that will enable nautical charting of all areas offshore of Esri played a key role in helping establish a new West Coast DataGreenland. Network action coordination team (ACT). This ACT will support the information needs of the existing WCGA ACTs (ClimateRestore Americas Estuaries Change, Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, Marine Debris, Ocean Awareness and Literacy, Polluted Runoff, RenewableRestore Americas Estuaries (RAE) is a national nonprofit Ocean Energy, Seafloor Mapping, Sediment Management,organization that seeks to preserve and restore Americas Spartina Eradication, and Sustainable Coastal Communities).estuaries, marine ecosystems, and wetlands. Esri has been The ACT will coordinate the activities of three technical working groups (Data, Information Technology, and Outreach) and consultOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Partnerships 16
  • with a broader West Coast network of data experts and users in Ocean Drilling Program, and the National Ocean Sciences Bowl.shaping regional geospatial data coordination activities to inform It is also the program office for the National Oceanographicregional ocean issues. Partnership Program; the Interagency Working Group on Ocean Observations; and the Ocean Research and Resources AdvisoryWorld Ocean Council Panel, which provides independent advice and guidance to the US presidents National Ocean Council.Esri has recently become a member of the World Ocean Council,a global, multisectoral industry leadership alliance for oceansustainability. Of the five working groups of the council (Policy Deep Ocean Exploration & Research& Governance, CMSP, Operational and Technical, Regions, and Deep Ocean Exploration & Research (DOER) was founded inScience), Esri will be most involved in the Science and CMSP 1992 by Sylvia Earle as a marine consulting firm. The scope ofgroups to "coordinate cross-sectoral ocean industry efforts the company has expanded to customized design and buildingto call for, and participate in, expanded, improved and better of submersibles for ocean science and all manner of subseacoordinated ocean science [and CMSP], especially in relation to robotics and related instrumentation, field operation support,climate change." and training. DOER is currently focused on Project Deepsearch, an ambitious endeavor to build a human-occupied submersibleConsortium for Ocean Leadership capable of full ocean depth, providing unlimited ocean access to science. It is also currently building a new submersible forEsri will soon hold affiliate membership in the Consortium for the University of Hawaiis School of Ocean and Earth ScienceOcean Leadership, a nonprofit organization that represents more and Technology (SOEST) and exploring the use of GIS via athan 100 of the worlds premier oceanographic research and partnership with Esri for processing and mapping data fromeducational institutions, aquaria, and industry partners. With its the submersible, as well as related data from the Pacific Islandsheadquarters in Washington, DC, it is a unified, powerful, and Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS).widely respected voice on Capitol Hill for the entire US oceanresearch and education community. The consortium shapes thefuture of ocean science, technology, and education by managingand coordinating wide-ranging programs such as the Census ofMarine Life, the Ocean Observatories Initiative, the InternationalOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Partnerships 17
  • Global Oceans population dynamics and overlay spatial and temporal fishing data with sediment types, survey data, harvest areas, and benthicEsri is entering into a partnership with Global Oceans, a habitat. Clearwater Seafoods is looking to expand the use of GIS,new nonprofit organization that seeks to provide additional including using it on the bridge of its commercial fishing vesselsseagoing assets to the ocean science community (ships, ROVs, to manage real-time positioning of the vessels as well as managesubmersibles, containerized lab spaces, analytical instruments, dataflow from ship to shore, and the organization has partneredetc.) in the face of shrinking resources via traditional means. As with Esri and Esri Canada Limited toward this end.the organization moves into operational mode and engages withthe ocean science community as to how best to use its resources,the complement of Esris GIS products, as well as the Arc Marinedata model for structuring, organizing, and analyzing data, willbe an important set of tools that Global Oceans is excited aboutleveraging at sea on behalf of ocean scientists.Clearwater SeafoodsClearwater Seafoods Limited is a global leader in the seafoodindustry and the largest harvester of wild shellfish in AtlanticCanada. Based in Nova Scotia, Canada, the award-winningcompany has built its business around a core commitmentto long-term sustainability and responsible fishing. Alwayslooking to improve operations, Clearwater invests significantlyin technologies that enable top-quality seafood to be deliveredfrom ocean to plate. A recent investment in ArcGIS has resulted insignificant cost savings, minimized impact on ocean ecosystems,and aided the company in meeting the stringent requirementsfor Marine Stewardship Council certification of sustainableseafood. Specifically, it uses ArcGIS to study fish resources andOcean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Partnerships 18
  • Strategic GoalsTo support a better understanding of our oceans, Esri is Provide Intelligent Bathymetry in the Cloudfocused on improving and expanding its products, tools, Esris goal is to provide intelligent bathymetric services in theservices, partnerships, and connections with the broader ocean cloud by underpinning the Ocean Basemap with the power ofcommunity. Some of the initiatives being pursued toward this ArcGIS for Maritime—Bathymetry and the BIS therein. A BISgoal are outlined below. server would push out additional management functions forGrow the Ocean BasemapEsri will continue to build the bathymetry data asset in the OceanBasemap via crowdsourcing, with a continued strong emphasis onauthoritative contributions from international hydrographic officesand scientific institutions. It will also explore and implement theprovision of additional public domain content layers, such asexisting nautical chart services with IHO S-57 symbology, andglobal maritime boundaries, offshore energy infrastructure, seasurface temperature, salinity, sediment classifications, and more.Build a More Integrated Elevation ServiceEsri will expose the Ocean Basemap as part of the WorldElevation Service, making it a truly integrated "land and ocean"elevation service. Esris vision for bathymetry in the cloud.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Strategic Goals 19
  • bathymetry, such as database rules to sequence and display Expand the ArcGIS for Oceans Resource Centerdata by highest resolution, acquisition date, and so forth, as The ArcGIS Resource Center is currently being reorganized andwell as have the benefit of faster performance. This capability updated in conjunction with the release of ArcGIS 10.1, and awould allow the Ocean Basemap to deploy in the cloud a truly beta version of an ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning resource centerworldwide model of bathymetry. is already in progress. Work continues on populating this resource center with additional content under the themes of ResearchGrow Ocean Use Planning Tools and Exploration, Ocean Observation, Marine Ecosystems,Esri is developing an advisory group of key customers to assist Aquaculture and Fisheries, and Recreation and Adventure.with guiding the growth and further development of ArcGIS forOcean Use Planning. Current development projects in this arenainclude the following: • The addition of economic data and demographic data services, giving all ocean use planning applications the ability to tie impacts to economy or onshore populations • Development of fisheries management content and resources • Development of conservation and protection resources An ArcGIS for Ocean Use Planning resource center in beta.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Strategic Goals 20
  • Convene an Oceans Summit Update and Support the Arc Marine Data ModelThe Esri Oceans Summit, to be held November 7–8, 2012, is The Arc Marine data model, first published in a researcha primary means of advancing Esris Ocean GIS initiative. This monograph in 2007, has been widely adopted by agencies andhigh-level strategy meeting will be attended by intermediate to organizations responsible for our oceans. It is still recognized as aadvanced ocean GIS analysts and developers. valuable model, and adoption of it appears to be ongoing, with a number of organizations seeking to standardize on Arc Marine.Day one of the summit will focus on identifying barriers to use of Esri updates the data model as new versions of ArcGIS areGIS in ocean science and management as associated functional released and is looking at the best way to support this model.requirements. Day two will focus on removal of those barriersand bridging of gaps via technical solutions in multidimensionaland sensor data formats and in tools, workflows, computingplatforms, and issues of accuracy and uncertainty. A successfulevent will result in the establishment of a community of successfulusers with a shared vision of advancing the use of GIS in oceanscience and resource management. Common marine data types, from the Arc Marine data model.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Strategic Goals 21
  • Develop Vertical, Time-Dependent Esri is continually improving support for scientific spatialData Transformations and temporal data formats such as the climate forecast (CF) convention of the Network Common Data Form-4 data modelIn collaboration with the USGS and Scripps Institution of (netCDF-4) and the closely related Hierarchical Data FormatOceanography, Esri is developing a series of vertical, time- (HDF). In addition, Esri seeks to better articulate to users thedependent datum transformations to help researchers transform rich palette of 3D representation that ArcGIS already contains,data between ellipsoidal, orthometric, and tidally referencedelevation data at the shoreline. This is absolutely critical forcoastal surveying, coastal geomorphology, and coastal terrainmodels that connect nearshore bathymetry for terrestrial DEMsthat are used for storm surge, hurricane, and tsunami inundationmodeling.Improve Support for MultidimensionalData and AnalysesSatellites can clearly map the ocean surface, and acousticsensors can map the ocean floor, but ocean scientists currentlyhave a limited view of the water column between the oceansurface and the ocean floor. There is a critical need to studythe internal structure of features in the water column such asplumes (hydrothermal vent plumes, oil well plumes as in the Gulfof Mexico spill) or schools of fish to obtain fish stock dynamics, The importance of visualizing the water column (aka "midwater" above the ocean floor), as shown by this screen capture of an output of thespawning grounds, seasonal habitats, and the impact of climate Fledermaus midwater mapping tool over the source of the Deepwaterchange on these. To exploit water column data, an efficient Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The visualization was produced by UNH-CCOM, courtesy of http://ccom.unh.edu/project/deepwater-horizon.means of reading, processing, and analyzing the data is required. It shows acoustic backscatter data over the wellhead collected after it was successfully capped in mid-July 2010. Although the wellhead was indeed capped, the visualization suggests a small amount of natural gas was still escaping.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Strategic Goals 22
  • such as features, TINs, vectors, multipatches, arrays, and the like;consideration of the voxel data structure; and continued work onhandling point clouds and associated functions on them.Esri will be adding more 3D analytics in ArcGIS 11, enhancingall 3D representations to deal with the visualization andinterpretation of scientific data, imagery features, point clouds,and arrays. This is particularly important in Esris quest to improvesoftware functionality for ocean and atmospheric GIS.Support Ocean Numerical ModelsBuilding a GIS platform that various kinds of numerical modelerscould use to associate their efforts would provide a kind ofgeospatial fabric to interrelate the models. One of the mostwidely used models in the oceans space is the Regional OceanModeling System (ROMS), yet models such as ROMS pose great Example of how ocean models are often not uniformly spaced, as grids may be composed of unstructured triangles (left) or structured curvilinearchallenges for GIS, as they are often not uniformly spaced and grids (right).may be composed of either unstructured triangles or structured (Courtesy of Rich Signell, USGS)curvilinear grids. There is a great need for tools to handle thesegrids in a more standardized way, allowing the possibility ofstandard access to data on the models native grid. To addressthis important issue, Esri is investigating the use of netCDFMarkup Language (NcML), an XML representation of netCDFmetadata, which contains attributes that work effectively with thethird dimension.Ocean GIS Initiative  June 2012 Strategic Goals 23
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