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After the (snow) storm in Copenhagen: A new policy agenda on mitigating climate change in the transport sector


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By Holger Dalkmann. Presented on Day Two of Transforming Transportation. Washington, D.C. January 15, 2010.

By Holger Dalkmann. Presented on Day Two of Transforming Transportation. Washington, D.C. January 15, 2010.

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Insert the title of your presentation here Presented by Name Here Job Title - Date After the (snow) storm in Copenhagen: A new policy agenda on mitigating climate change in the transport sector Holger Dalkmann Programme Director, TRL 15 Jan 2010 – Transforming Transportation Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto Supported by
  • 3. The Road to Copenhagen
    • The Kyoto Protocol
      • Adopted in 1997, entered force in 2005
      • 1 st commitment period (2008-12)
      • Targets for “Annex 1” countries
      • Flexible instruments key elements:
      • ETS, JI and CDM
    • A two track approach since Bali (2007) to work towards a new agreement in Copenhagen:
      • AWG-KP (The Kyoto Track)
      • AWG-LCA (The Convention Track)
    Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto
  • 4. Copenhagen: The window of opportunity will not get bigger Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto Picture copyright Ramon Cruz Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto Saturday 19 th 2009 Plenary 4 am
  • 5. The Copenhagen Results
    • No legally binding agreement
    • No mention of targets (for anyone)
    • “ Taking note of” the Copenhagen Accord
    • Extension of AWG LCA and AWG KP
    • Large uncertainty on the future of climate talks post COP15
    Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto
  • 6. Negotiations now essentially under three tracks
    • Option 1: Accord serves as input for AWGs
    • Option 2: Accord becomes a nucleus of a new international policy initiative
    3. Copenhagen Accord 1. AWG-KP 2. AWG-LCA Picture copyright Ko Sakamoto
  • 7. “ Taking note of the Copenhagen Accord”
    • Mention of 2 degree target
    • Kick–start finance of $30 billion between 2010-2012, growing to $100 billion per annum by 2020
    • Carbon markets mentioned, but no reference to sectoral mechanisms
    • Internationally supported N ational A ppropriate M itigation A ctions ( NAMAs) to be M easurable R eportable V erifiable (MRV)
    • Mention of a Technology Mechanism
    • Adaptation in LDCs, SIDS and Africa given “urgent” attention
  • 8. Opportunity 1 for transport: Role of climate finance after Copenhagen – Transport Window Approaching $100 Billion p.a. by 2020 $ Trillions Now! $30 Billion (new and additional) for 2010-2012
  • 9. Opportunity 2 for transport: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)
    • No guidance in the Accord!!!
    • A new definition?
    • “ A NAMA is what developing countries will provide in Appendix 2 of the Copenhagen Accord.”
  • 10. NAMAs Unilateral Actions Supported Actions (Non-traded) Supported Actions (Traded) Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and their supporting pillars MRV Requirement Technology / knowledge transfer Capacity Building Financing
  • 11. Applying transport to NAMAs: Opportunities and Barriers (Jakarta Case Study for ADB - SLoCaT) Type of NAMA Applicability Opportunities Barriers Unilateral  TDM relies on domestic policy intervention (e.g. setting up and enforcing regulations, planning entire networks etc) limited institutional, financial and technical resources to implement TDM measures Non-tradable (Supported)  TDM can be supported by the international community, in terms of capacity building, technology transfer and financing Difficulty of MRV-ing support and its actions Tradable  Crediting under a sectoral target (with boundaries set at city level) may work Level of intervention (i.e. a city or district-wide level) not inductive to project-based crediting (CDM)
  • 12. Transport NAMAs – potential applications Source: Dalkmann et al (2009) NAMA categories (based on LCA negotiating text) Potential transport applications (a) Sustainable development policies and measures
    • Local, regional & national sustainable development strategies incorporating transport elements
    (b) Low-emission development strategies and plans
    • Regional and national transport plans/strategies with low-carbon objectives
    (c) Programmatic CDM, technology deployment programmes or standards, energy efficiency programmes and energy pricing measures
    • CDM based on transport PoAs
    • Fuel economy/vehicle standards
    • Taxation and fiscal policy on fuels and vehicles
    (d) Cap-and-trade schemes and carbon taxes
    • Cap-and-trade of transport fuels (upstream trading)
    • Fuel taxes
    (e) Sectoral targets, national sector-based mitigation actions and standards, and no-lose sectoral crediting baselines
    • Sectoral targets, either absolute or intensity based.
    • Sub-sectoral targets for car, rail, maritime and aviation transport.
  • 13. Opportunity 3 for transport
    • Important date: January 31
      • Developed countries to submit targets for 2020
      • Developing countries to submit NAMAs
    • Urgent: Get transport on NAMA registry
    • Champions needed!
    Transport Transport Transport Transport
  • 14. Opportunity 4 for Transport: Technology
    • Copenhagen Accord mentions a Technology Mechanism
    • AWG-LCA text further refers to:
      • Technology Executive Committee (to replace the Expert Group on Technology Transfer at COP16) and
      • Climate Technology Centre (CTC)
      • Need for appropriate, affordable and applicable technology transfer
    • CTC with a transport division and regional center
    • New TNA: “Transport Needs Assessment”
  • 15. Technologies appropriate for developing countries Source: Bongardt (GTZ) (2009) Measure Frequency of mention in TNA Country Reports Included in UNDP TNA Handbook Public Transport Improvements 28 Non-Motorized Transport 6 Land Use Planning 3 Emission / Fuel Standards, Technical Checks 16 (  ) Cleaner Technologies 31  Biofuels 6  Economic and Fiscal Instruments 3 Public Awareness 4 Traffic and Demand Management 9 (  )
  • 16. Opportunity 5 for transport: A Future for Transport CDM (CMP5)?
    • Executive Board (EB)asked to improve the efficiency of the CDM
    • Development of standardized baselines
    • EB called to prioritise development of methodologies for ‘under-represented project activity types’
    • Parties, IGOs and observer organisations invited to make recommendations on standardised baselines
    • >> Input open until 22 March 2010
  • 17. Next steps for transport
    • In particular:
      • Opp1: Transport window for kick-start funding
      • Opp2: Pilot transport NAMAs to be supported and getting Transport NAMAs into Appendix 2
      • Opp3: Technology Mechanism for Sustainable T.
      • Opp4: New chance for (PoA) CDM?
      • Opp5: Adaptation Fund and Integration into NAP/CAFI
  • 18. For further information
    • Please see our new “Bridging the Gap” paper on the outcome of Copenhagen and implications for transport
  • 19. Thank you for your attention Holger Dalkmann Programme Director Sustainable Transport and Climate Change Email: Thank you to our financial and technical supporters / partners: