Transforming Transportation 2010<br />Next Steps after Copenhagen: Opportunities and Challenges in the Transport Sector<br...
Bogotá in figures<br /><ul><li>Demographic data
Central Administration’s Finances
Public Transport System
Transport Policy</li></li></ul><li>Demographic data<br /><ul><li>7 million inhabitants, 15% of Colombia
Covers an area of 37,414 Ha
High density (310 Hab/Ha)
1.2 million of private vehicles
18.000 buses
Public transport’s average speed 18 Km/hr
BRT system begun a decade ago</li></li></ul><li>Urban Transformation <br />Density: 222 hab/ha.<br />Density: 250 hab/ha<b...
Urban Transformation Forecast 2008-2038 <br />Population 2008: 7.155.052 Hab<br />Population 2038:9.312.689 Hab<br />
Public Transport Trips’ Distribution<br />THE FORECAST FOR  2018 SHOWS THAT THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE CITY WILL ATRACT MOR...
Bogota’s Economy<br />Economic Growth<br />Contribution to National GDP<br />Economy Structure<br />GDP Comparisons<br />S...
Bogotá’s Expenditures<br /><ul><li>During the past half decade the city has made an effort to prioritize investments over ...
Central Administration - Income Evolution <br />1992-2009<br />12%<br />2%<br />28%<br />Transferencias<br />58%<br />Ingr...
Bogotá’s Public Transport System<br />Traditional public transport system (colectivo)<br /><ul><li>Over supply (more than ...
High-demand corridors close to saturation
580 routes without hierarchy
Overlapping routes: on-the-street competition for passengers, known as “penny war”
Inadequate operational scheme
High rates of emissions and accidents</li></ul>TransMilenio<br /><ul><li>TransMilenio has improved the mobility of 28% of ...
Public Transport Fares Comparisons<br />Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009...
Bogotá’s Transport Policy - City’s Masterplan 2006<br />
TransMilenio<br /><ul><li> 10 years of achievements
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Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota

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By Camilo Zea. Presented on Day Two of Transforming Transportation. Washington, D.C. January 15, 2010.

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Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Transforming Transportation 2010<br />Next Steps after Copenhagen: Opportunities and Challenges in the Transport Sector<br />Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota<br /> <br />January, 2010<br />Camilo Zea<br />Metro Project<br />
  3. 3. Bogotá in figures<br /><ul><li>Demographic data
  4. 4. Central Administration’s Finances
  5. 5. Public Transport System
  6. 6. Transport Policy</li></li></ul><li>Demographic data<br /><ul><li>7 million inhabitants, 15% of Colombia
  7. 7. Covers an area of 37,414 Ha
  8. 8. High density (310 Hab/Ha)
  9. 9. 1.2 million of private vehicles
  10. 10. 18.000 buses
  11. 11. Public transport’s average speed 18 Km/hr
  12. 12. BRT system begun a decade ago</li></li></ul><li>Urban Transformation <br />Density: 222 hab/ha.<br />Density: 250 hab/ha<br />Density: 222 hab/ha.<br />Density: 276hab/ha.<br />Density: 157hab/ha.<br />Density: 306 hab/ha.<br />Density: 156 hab/ha.<br />Density: 310 hab/ha.<br />1970<br />1960<br />1980<br />1950<br />1940<br />1990<br />1912 - 1939<br />2008<br />During the last 100 years Bogotá’s population has multiplied by 50, duplicating as a consequence its density<br />Density: 149 hab/ha.<br />Density: 310hab/ha.<br />1538 - 1912<br />2038<br />
  13. 13. Urban Transformation Forecast 2008-2038 <br />Population 2008: 7.155.052 Hab<br />Population 2038:9.312.689 Hab<br />
  14. 14. Public Transport Trips’ Distribution<br />THE FORECAST FOR 2018 SHOWS THAT THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE CITY WILL ATRACT MORE THAN 1.500.000 DAILY TRIPS<br />
  15. 15. Bogota’s Economy<br />Economic Growth<br />Contribution to National GDP<br />Economy Structure<br />GDP Comparisons<br />Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009<br />
  16. 16. Bogotá’s Expenditures<br /><ul><li>During the past half decade the city has made an effort to prioritize investments over expenditures</li></ul>Operational expenses vs. Investment - Central Administration<br />Operational Expenses<br />Investment<br />
  17. 17. Central Administration - Income Evolution <br />1992-2009<br />12%<br />2%<br />28%<br />Transferencias<br />58%<br />Ingresos Corrientes<br />
  18. 18. Bogotá’s Public Transport System<br />Traditional public transport system (colectivo)<br /><ul><li>Over supply (more than 18,000 buses on service)
  19. 19. High-demand corridors close to saturation
  20. 20. 580 routes without hierarchy
  21. 21. Overlapping routes: on-the-street competition for passengers, known as “penny war”
  22. 22. Inadequate operational scheme
  23. 23. High rates of emissions and accidents</li></ul>TransMilenio<br /><ul><li>TransMilenio has improved the mobility of 28% of the public transport system. Today, it mobilizes more than 1.5 million passengers per day.</li></ul>Source: Observatorio de Movilidad de Bogotá y la Región. CCB Nº 1. December 2007 <br />
  24. 24. Public Transport Fares Comparisons<br />Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009<br />
  25. 25. Bogotá’s Transport Policy - City’s Masterplan 2006<br />
  26. 26. TransMilenio<br /><ul><li> 10 years of achievements
  27. 27. Contribution to the environment</li></li></ul><li>TransMilenio: 10 years of achivements<br />The TransMilenio system replaced 1,500 obsolete buses on major corridors with newer and larger vehicles (Euro II technology). The result has been a more efficient system that has improved the mobility of millions of people without operating subsidies<br />TransMilenio was also part of an urban renewal program bringing other improvements to the city such as new public spaces, pedestrian streets, and about 150 miles of bicycle paths connecting with the TransMilenio system (Vincent, 2007).<br />
  28. 28. TransMilenio: 10 years of achivements<br /><ul><li>Travel time reductions (12 min average)
  29. 29. 88% fatalities reduction
  30. 30. Deteriorated urban sectors recovered
  31. 31. Land value increase around trunk corridors and stations
  32. 32. Creation and consolidation of strategic sectors in the city
  33. 33. Public space generation
  34. 34. Real estate developments
  35. 35. Green house effect reduction. Significant drops in CO2 s, PM10, NOx, SOx, emissions</li></ul>Average travel time reduction in minutes<br />Travel time (min)<br />Socio-economic strata<br />Startegic areas<br />
  36. 36. TransMilenio: Contribution to the environment<br />230.000 (avg.) CO2 tons savings per year<br /><ul><li>TransMilenio is the first big scale transport project in the world registered in the United nations under the Kyoto protocol, to mitigate climate change and reduce green gases effect since 2006. </li></li></ul><li>Challenges & opportunities<br />
  37. 37. Our Challenges: Copenhagen climate change conference conclusions<br />For all its limitations, however, the Copenhagen Accord is the first real step to fighting climate change in the 21st century. The real value of the summit may lie in what it teaches us about dealing with climate change. (TIME 2009)<br />The negotiations at Copenhagen were so contentious because of the very real impact the proposals will have, not only for the environment, but also on national economies; therefore, the importance of promoting climate investment funds (CIF) <br /> Colombia is the second country from LA (after México) developing an Investment Plan (IP) for financing of Public Transport Systems through the Clean Technology Fund (CTF).<br />It is fundamental to support projects (e.g.. environmentally friendly and sustainable transport projects), as tools to tackle environmental damage<br />Source: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1929071_1929070_1949054,00.html#ixzz0bm4y6US0<br />
  38. 38. Our Challenges: The shift of the technological balance&apos;<br />Bogotá’s city planners have realized how “energy and the environment” are key concepts to build our city and its transport system <br />Energetic interests:<br /><ul><li>Petrol dependency reduction
  39. 39. Rational use of energy
  40. 40. To make the most of the installed electrical infrastructure
  41. 41. Prices stability and low volatility</li></ul>Environmental Interests:<br /><ul><li>Use of renewable sources of energy
  42. 42. Emissions' reduction
  43. 43. Air quality improvement
  44. 44. Pollution risk reduction</li></ul> World’s Prospect<br /><ul><li>Fuel price volatility
  45. 45. Growth of car ownership rate and energy demand
  46. 46. Drop of energy natural reserves
  47. 47. Changes in world policies to supply fuel
  48. 48. Bio fuels as a feasible option of energy </li></ul>Source:Emgesa 2009<br />
  49. 49. Our Opportunities: Clean Technology Fund (CTF)ColombiaInvestment Plan<br />The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Investment Plan is a “business plan” agreed among, and owned, by the Government of Colombia (GoC) for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to provide support for the low-carbon objectives contained in Colombia’s National Development Plan and its National Climate Change Strategy. (Bogotá’s IPTS proposed for CTF co-financing)<br />Transport is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the country and is a sector where emissions will be difficult to abate; it is the fastest-growing source of CO2. The transport sector represents 33% of the country’s CO2e emissions from combustion of fossil fuels.<br />Source: IADB <br />
  50. 50. Challenges & Opportunities<br />The sector has a great potential to reduce its carbon footprint through a wide range of low-carbon interventions <br />On a general level, there are three ways of reducing GHG emissions in the transport sector (Grütter, 2007): <br /><ul><li>Reducing the demand for travel or transport services (e.g., by land use planning or regulatory instruments such as road taxes)
  51. 51. Reducing the emissions per unit transported (e.g., by modal shift, increased occupancy rates, or use of larger units)
  52. 52. Reducing the emissions per kilometer traveled (e.g., by improving driving behavior and vehicle efficiency or by switching to low-carbon fuels)
  53. 53. In the case of Bogota, from the demand side, different policies to rationalize private vehicle use have been implemented since 2000, including plate number restrictions on specific days and promotion of car pooling.
  54. 54. Along with this, the Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) and Metro projects will reduce the number of vehicles-km (emissions) of the system :</li></ul>Source: IADB <br />
  55. 55. Our Projects<br />
  56. 56. Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) <br /><ul><li>New scheme of routes, optimized and organized according to the city’s needs
  57. 57. Operation based on defined zones
  58. 58. Fleet conformed by the adequate typology of vehicles
  59. 59. Fare integration and unique payment system
  60. 60. Entrepreneurial scheme change
  61. 61. Democratization and active participation of owners
  62. 62. Gradual implementation
  63. 63. Upgrading and optimization of actual fleet
  64. 64. Full coverage of the city
  65. 65. Quality of service enhancement
  66. 66. Additional emissions reduction</li></ul>13 operational zones<br />
  67. 67. Metro Project<br /><ul><li>New scheme of routes, optimized and organized according to the city’s needs
  68. 68. Increase productivity
  69. 69. Travel time reductions
  70. 70. Achieve an efficient distribution of demand vs. high levels of service quality
  71. 71. Long term solution - sustainable in time
  72. 72. Comfort levels improvement
  73. 73. The definition of the first metro line has been consequent with the objective of improving the accessibility of citizens, specially those with low income levels- </li></li></ul><li> TransMilenio Connections<br /> Railway conections<br />Expected Metro Network<br />A<br />Santa Fé<br />Chapinero<br />FF.CC. Norte<br />127<br />170<br />La Candelaria<br />C<br />Portal del Norte<br />72<br />26<br />10ª<br />NQS<br />68<br />Barrios<br />Unidos<br />Los Martires<br />Antonio<br />Nariño<br />Portal de Usme<br />Engativá<br />Puente <br />Aranda<br />Portal de Suba<br />TTT<br />B<br />A<br />Portal de la 80<br />BOYACÁ<br />C<br />Portal del Tunal<br /> 1st Line<br /> 2nd Line <br /> 3rd Line<br /> 4th Line<br />CALI<br />FF.CC. de Occidente<br />Ciudad Bolívar<br />cable<br />Portal del Sur<br />Portal de Las Américas<br />
  74. 74. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />12<br />13<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />14<br />15<br />16<br />17<br />18<br />19<br />20<br />21<br />22<br />23<br />24<br />25<br />26<br />27<br />28<br />29<br />Metro: An instrument for development<br /><ul><li>The metro will be part of the Integrated Public Transport System
  75. 75. As a new mode, the metro will strengthen transport multi-modality
  76. 76. The system optimizes land use, considering that it will be in some sections underground
  77. 77. The first line must be conceived as a complement to the transport current solution at the east border of the city
  78. 78. Bogota will consolidate its massive transport offer (Metro & BRT)
  79. 79. Key: accessibility gains to be capitalized in the land market (value capture opportunities)</li></ul>Land value increase <br />
  80. 80. Potential Funding Sources for Metro<br />Non-traditional Credits<br />
  81. 81. Environmental Benefits: SITP (IPTS) & Metro projects<br />Metro + SITP<br />SITP<br />
  82. 82. Fleet Optimization<br /><ul><li>According to detailed operational designs for the Integrated Public Transport System of Bogota, including Metro, fleet reductions will be:</li></ul>It is evident that and adjustment of the transport sector, in terms of reducing oversupply through optimization and rationalization of the transit routes and services, is the most cost-effective solution for abatement of carbon-related emissions<br />To implement the IPTS it will be necessary to scrap (chatarrizar) 8,000 buses considering its life cycle has been accomplished (more than 12 years). However, to guarantee service levels it will be necessary to provide the city with 3,200 new buses (Euro III Technology)<br />Source: IADB <br />
  83. 83. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>We must keep in mind that worldwide, it is estimated that around 75% of the projected increase in oil demand by 2030 will come from the transport sector; therefore all our efforts must be addressed in the same path for tackling this trend of emissions
  84. 84. Bogota is committed to achieve a sustainable transport system and mitigate transport externalities to our environment through the implementation of an Integrated Public Transport Systems (IPTS) – Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Metro systems, and initiatives that incorporate a coordinated urban planning strategy
  85. 85. In addition to contribute to a low-carbon economy, our sustainable transport initiatives will provide significant co-benefits:
  86. 86. improved air quality
  87. 87. road safety
  88. 88. energy supply security
  89. 89. reduced congestion
  90. 90. A more livable city
  91. 91. The successful implementation of the IPTS in Bogota would have a multiplicative effect in other large and medium-sized cities in Colombia as well as in other emerging countries (the Transmilenio system is being replicated in several mid and low-income cities around the world). It is estimated that a national program over time, with the characteristics and scale of Bogota’s IPTS (assuming full replacement of the bus fleet with low-carbon technologies), could lead to an overall reduction of up to 24% in the carbon footprint of the transport sector. This, if achieved, and in absence of other measures, could result in a reduction of 3% of the national carbon footprint</li>

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