world war 1 - causes the notion of self-determination / nationalistic sentiments militarism / imperialism / "realpolitik" (Anglo-German naval race) and the resulting tension between European nations military alliances (Allies: Britain, France, Russia, U.S. and Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) a way of maintaining peace and protecting oneself, but ensuring a full-scale war through the slightest prompt done in contribution to the European goal of complete economic and political dominance (along with militarism), and exemplified in the encroachment of foreign territories and intra-colonial conflict Slavic nationalism (assassination of the Bosnian archduke)
world war 1 - involvement EUROPE – the Shlieffen Plan involves attacking France initially because of France’s industrialized society. Germany invades the neutral territory of Belgium and delayed in a two-front war. Germany additionally sent the Zimmerman Note, a telegram urging Mexico to wage war against the United States NORTH AMERICA – the US involvement is prompted by potential economic benefit. US provides arms to European allies as well as loans that were reimbursed. NORTH AMERICA – the US becomes directly involved due to unrestricted German submarine warfare. The war is portrayed as a war for liberty, an honorable war. Conscription, the Selective Service Act, National Food Admin, and propaganda industrialization becomes pro-destruction by 1912.
world war 1 - aftermath 14 Points open covenants of peace free trade, removal of economic barriers reduction of national arms (for Germany) adjustment of colonial claims in favor of sovereignty Treaty of Versailles League of Nations – Russia is excluded due to communism Europes guaranteed self-determination Spoils of War for the Victors territorial losses for Germany Military Restrictions on Germany Reparations from Germany
world war 1 – effects nationalistic rebellions in Africa (however, rebellions against the French are unsuccessful), China (Mao), Vietnam, India (Gandhi), from the notion of self- determination and a desire for sovereignty, Japan (Allied Power) gains wealth and invades China rise of fascism in Europe (Hitler), rise of Communism U.S. becoming a global power U.S. isolationism colonization of the middle east (mandates of Europe in territory previously belonging to Ottoman Empire) foundation for Palestinian Israeli conflict the global depression (resulting in part from the cycle of reparations and loans of the U.S. and Europe) - the Weimer Republic of Germany inflation coalition governments, no democratic traditions
great depression - causes U.S. speculation (of stocks on credit) lack of government regulation overproduction under consumption (because of a lack of disposable income) uneven wealth distribution bank failures (contraction) World economic nationalism (tariffs on imported goods deters foreign markets) the aforementioned flow of wealth from the U.S. to Germany to France and Britain back to the U.S.
great depression - effects development of fascist governments in Germany, Italy, and Spain development of welfare states in United States and Britain (idea is providing for peoples economic and social security) The New Deal in the United States Social Security Civilian Conservation Corps Federal Deposit Insurance Commission Keynesian economics, the foundation for the welfare state that advocated the government taking an active part in the economy
India - nationalism factors contributing to nationalism include the British Imperial policies of industrial monopoly and cash crops. Gandhi leads non-violent demonstrations of civil disobedience, promotes economic self-sufficiency through boycotting of British goods (a tactic that succeeds) the Indian National Congress and Muslim League aimed to achieve national independence and democracy. the Rowlatt Act allowed British to imprison any Indian citizens, even after they fought for them after World War 1. The Amritsar Massacre bolstered the numbers of protesters. independence is achieved with the India Act of 1937. The subcontinent is split and Pakistan is created as a country for Indian Muslims. Self- governing institutions develop.
china - nationalism The Treaty of Nanjing and the Boxer Rebellion fail to eliminate foreign influence. The Nationalist Party attempts to establish the Republic of China, and promote capitalism, democracy, and self-determination. China remains a sphere of influence after WWI, but the spheres go to Japan Chinese citizens stop supporting the Nationalist Party and support Maoism Advocating the peasant proletariat, agrarian socialism, communes, the red guard, an end to feudal patriarchy, and a cultural revolution in which students promoted communism, women were equal, and agriculture was championed. the Civil War arises from the conflict between the Nationalist Party and the Maoist Communists.
Africa - nationalism Factors contributing to the rise of black nationalism include World War 1 conscription education and the concept “new elites” the notion of self-determination (14 points) no sovereignty granted after World War 1 Pan-Africanism describes a movement attempting to unite African peoples Africans advocated the creation of independent nation-states.
Latin America - neocolonialism the Spanish-American (Cuban) war is a United States attempt at neocolonialism. Cuba becomes a protectorate, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines becomes territories. dollar diplomacy – to create stability to bolster commercial interest loans / concessions economic dependency / peonage Roosevelt Corollary (international police power) good neighbor policy the United States violates the Good Neighbor Policy with the Cold War interventions Cuban Missile Crisis Guatemala (Guzman’s communist seizure of the banana republic) Nicaraguan rebellion of U.S. financial management
world war two - aftermath Nuremberg Trials attempt to punish those responsible for the war for crimes against humanity, violations of international law, and waging an aggressive war. zones of occupation are established in Germany self-determination is granted for all of Europe United Nations is established as a superior League of Nations, excluding the USSR again The United States and the USSR become superpowers zones of occupation established by the US and USSR contribute to the formation of the Western and Eastern Bloc
the cold war iron curtain refers to the divide between the western European nations and the eastern European nations, totalitarian states with command economies. the US enacts a policy of containment Greece and Turkey are provided with financial aid from the Western Bloc the Marshall Plan provides for the West. the COMECON provides for the East NATO is a Western military attempt at brinkmanship. the Warsaw Pact is the Eastern military equivalent.
Korean war Russia takes over North Korea at the end of ww2 in an attempt to unify the country, North Korea invades south Korea China funds north Koreas objective, and china is supported in their effort by Russia South Korea comes under the influence of the U.S. and democracy starts to appear in China.
Vietnam war 1st Indochina war: Ho Chi Minh leads communist sympathizers against the French, who are attempting to maintain control over their Vietnam colony. The French are defeated, and Vietnam is divided in half. In order to contain totalitarianism and communism, the US goes to war against Vietnam and tries to establish democracy in South Vietnam. the US fails.
soviet union Khrushchev attempts to de-stalinate the soviet union ignite a sense of peaceful competition with the west after the Hungarian revolt, Khrushchev enforces communist policies Brezhnev strict enforcement of centralized party rule and facilitation of limited sovereignty with the Brezhnev Doctrine Alexander Dubcek of Czechoslovakia advocates liberal socialism and a period of liberalization known as "Prague Spring," which is crushed by Brezhnev rule contributing factors to the velvet revolution were the illegitimacy of the soviet government in Czechoslovakia, the centralized rule, the lack of consumer goods and worker initiative, the arms race, and the revolutionary sentiment resulting from the Soviet failure to invade Afghanistan, and ethnic / nationalistic divisions. Gorbachev Perestroika is liberal economic restructuring, presenting a market element to the economy. Localized providences and regional rule help decentralize Russia glasnost encourages a free exchange of ideas through the criticism of Soviet policies, which becomes unprecedentedly heated democratization sovereignty and doing away with the Brezhnev Doctrine
Arab world There is fundamental disunity in the Arab World. Arabs are the dominant ethnic group of the Middle East, and the most prominent religion is Sunni Islam. western influence is present, but democracy functions differently than in the west sectarian divisions of Persian Shiite (Iran, the most prominent nation of the Arab World) and Sunni (Iraq) nations resulting in the Iran Iraq War ethnic divisions contribute to a lack of unity, as demonstrated by the Kurds, who do not possess a recognized state pan-Arabism represents an element of unity, an attempt at the "dar al Islam" which generates jihadist beliefs jihadist groups like the al-Qaeda have no unified state governments like the republic of turkey (which is politically a part of the west) and Syria (where there is a monopoly in power structure) are present Islamic republic holds two conflicting ideologies OPEC is another element of unity, an organization of nations exporting oil that has yet to move into a manufactured system.
Palestinian - Israeli conflict Jews argue that Israel is the birthplace of the Jewish people, part of their cultural identity the Balfour Declaration recognizes the right of Jews to reestablish the nation of Israel Justifications included their treatment in the Holocaust, and that they have historically made the lands fruitful Palestinians argue that the land is directly tied to their culture, that Judaism is more a religion than an ethnicity, that certain Jews that had previously lived in Palestine will be allowed to stay. The Palestinian Liberation Organization intends to be the governing body of the Palestinians in exile, attempting to eradicate the state of Israel Black September is a terrorist organization, a faction of the PLO that massacres Israeli athletes in 1972 the British mandates divide Palestinian territory into the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which disagree on how to govern. PLO developed the current Palestinian authority residing in both the West Bank and Gaza Strip
china - reform The Great Leap Forward under Mao is a failure, as millions die of starvation and subversives, Bourgeoisie challenging Maos efforts disappear China breaks away from the USSR and opens relations Deng Xiaoping advocates 4 modernizations in the fields of agriculture, science, technology, and industry China opens itself to Western ideas of capitalism there is a greater degree of scientific innovation There is still an element of communism, and the rise of Western ideas isolates the Soviet state China remains an economically open but politically closed totalitarian society with elements of free enterprise