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Session 7 group dynamics

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  • 1. Defining and Classifying Groups © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group(s) Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Informal Group A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
  • 2. Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task. Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
  • 3. Why People Join Groups © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Security
    • Status
    • Self-esteem
    • Affiliation
    • Power
    • Goal Achievement
    E X H I B I T 8 –1
  • 4. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
  • 5. … Group Development (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
  • 6. Stages of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –2
  • 7. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role(s) A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  • 8. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.
  • 9. Group Structure - Norms © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Classes of Norms:
    • Performance norms
    • Appearance norms
    • Social arrangement norms
    • Allocation of resources norms
    Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
  • 10. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
  • 11. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Deviant (Depart) Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
  • 12. Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –5 Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Source: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal , April 1995, p. 565.
  • 13. Group Structure - Status © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Member Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Group Norms Status Equity Culture
  • 14. Group Structure - Size © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Other conclusions:
    • Odd number groups do better than even.
    • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups.
    Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Group Size Performance Expected Actual (due to loafing)
  • 15. Group Structure - Composition © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts (shared feature) Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
  • 16. Group Structure - Cohesiveness © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Increasing group cohesiveness:
    • Make the group smaller.
    • Encourage agreement with group goals.
    • Increase time members spend together.
    • Increase group status and admission difficultly.
    • Stimulate competition with other groups.
    • Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
    • Physically isolate the group.
    Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
  • 17. Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –6
  • 18. Group Tasks
    • Decision-making
      • Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks.
      • Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.
      • Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 19. Group Decision Making
    • Strengths
      • More complete information
      • Increased diversity of views
      • Higher quality of decisions (more accuracy)
      • Increased acceptance of solutions
    • Weaknesses
      • More time consuming (slower)
      • Increased pressure to conform
      • Domination by one or a few members
      • Ambiguous responsibility
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 20. Group Decision Making (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group think Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Group shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
  • 21. Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon
    • Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.
    • Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.
    • Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.
    • There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 22. Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
  • 23. Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
  • 24. Why Have Teams Become So Popular
    • Teams typically outperform individuals.
    • Teams use employee talents better.
    • Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
    • Teams facilitate employee involvement.
    • Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation.
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 25. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  • 26. Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –1
  • 27. Types of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  • 28. Types of Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Task forces
    • Committees
    Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
  • 29. Types of Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
    • Team Characteristics
    • The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues
    • A limited social context
    • The ability to overcome time and space constraints
    Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  • 30. A Team-Effectiveness Model © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –3
  • 31. Creating Effective Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 32. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 33. Key Roles of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –4
  • 34. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 35. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 36. Effects of Group Processes © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– + – = E X H I B I T 9 –4
  • 37. Creating Effective Teams: Diversity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
  • 38. Turning Individuals Into Team Players
    • The Challenges
      • Overcoming individual resistance to team membership.
      • Countering the influence of individualistic cultures.
      • Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement.
    • Shaping Team Players
      • Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles.
      • Training employees to become team players.
      • Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 39. Teams and Quality Management
    • Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams:
      • Are small enough to be efficient and effective.
      • Are properly trained in required skills.
      • Allocated enough time to work on problems.
      • Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action.
      • Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 40. Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
    • Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
      • Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives?
      • Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals?
      • Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?
    © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 41. Formal and Informal Group of Dynamics Submitted By: Sanjay and Priyanka
  • 42. Group?...
    • A group refers to 2 or more persons who share a common purpose.
    • “ A group is defined as two or more persons in astate of interaction. - Kimball Young
    • “ A group is plurality of persons who interact with anyone else.”
  • 43. Group Dynamics…
    • It is related to the interactions between group members in a social situation.
    • It is concerned with getting knowledge of groups, how they develop, and their effect on individual members and organization.
  • 44.
    • “ Group dynamics is an expression that describes the situation in which people acting together in a group accomplish certain thing, either positively in a way that cannot be explained adequately in terms of the individual acting separately.” - Thomas Harell
    • Many factors in the work environment affect group behaviour.The 2 most broad aspects are;
    • The physical env. Ex: plant,equipment, layout
    • The psycho-social env. Ex: reward system, supervisory practices
  • 45. Classification…
    • Groups may be classified on the basis of the following criteria
    • Purpose or goal
    • Extent of structuring
    • Legal organization or setting
    • Groups may be formal or informal
  • 46. Group Classification…
    • Have leaders
    • Have followers
    • Try to achieve some goal or goals
    • Have ideas about how to achieve the goals
    • Communicate expectations to members
    • Satisfy some needs of its members
  • 47. Informal Groups
    • Are not very well organized groups.
    • They exist because the formal groups in an organization do not satisfy human needs sufficiently.
    • Informal workgroups provide a means of satisfaction for security needs, social needs and esteem needs.
  • 48. Contd…
    • Informal groups support their members and protect them from outside pressure and authority.
    • The group protects an individual from unfriendly work environment.
    • New employees who doesn’t know surroundings well try to find an existing groups and join it for help in the orientation process.
  • 49. IWG n social needs
    • Many organisation do not allow communication and interaction between workers.
    • People want to belong to a small social group in which relationships are based on common interests and values.
    • Social groups occur in most companies.
  • 50. IWG n esteem needs
    • Informal goups are also a means of status or prestige for its members.
    • This is specially true if
    • The group is well known in the organization
    • Outsiders want to join the group
    • It is difficult to achieve acceptance into the group
    • The informal group is a source of egoistic need satisfaction
    • The need to achieve can be partiallly by the informal group.
  • 51. Advantages of IG
    • IG increase the employee’s sense of security and help him to do the work more effectively.
    • Informal groups can help the manager in maintaining discipline.
    • Informal groups help to maintain “ no time clock” policy because the employee are highly motivated and also there ir peer pressure.So any individual cannot take undue advantage of this policy.
  • 52. Disadvantages
    • IG arise when the goals of the group do not match with the organizational goals.
    • This problem occurs when a planned change is implemented.
    • The protection and social relationships provided by informal groups are in danger due to new plans that disturb order and stability, create new procedures of standard and production and disturb the pattern of personal interactions on the job.
  • 53. FORMAL GROUPS
  • 54. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
    • FORMING (much uncertainty)
    • STORMING (intra group conflict)
    • NORMING (close relationships and cohesiveness)
    • PERFORMING (fully functional)
    • ADJOURNING (wrapping up activities rather than task performance)
  • 55. FORMAL GROUPS
    • Large secondary groups that are deliberately and rationally designed to achieve specific objectives.
    • Carefully designed structure.
    • Status clearly separated from the individual.
    • Vary in size.
    • Fulfill a variety of personal and social needs.
    • Impact all our lives.
    • So dominant that we create formal organizations to supervise and coordinate other organizations.
  • 56. GROWTH AND DOMINANCE
    • Industrialization: Regulate work force, Large scale coordination. Mass production, maximize profit.
    • As technology improved, sophisticated management emerged to maximize production in order to serve new markets brought about by improved transportation and consumer demand.
    • McDonadlisation: Increasing controls and standardization, Irrationality, Technological dominance
  • 57. TYPES- FORMAL GROUP DYNAMICS
    • UTILITARIAN
    • COERCIVE
    • VOLUNTARY
    • FUNCTIONAL
    • CONFLICT
    • INTERACTIONISM
  • 58. VOLUNTARY
      • AAA=29 million members
      • School Bus Manufacturers=5
      • Functional in shift from community based to formal base: Mutual Aid Societies.
      • Wide variety of reasons and types: Self-help; AA new image of self and biography.
      • Not random: Membership takes $, SES higher, female and 1/5 male exclusively.
  • 59. FUNCTIONAL
      • Mediate government/individual: political force
      • Training in organization skills.
      • Minority representation: NAACP, AARP
      • Social control and regulation: impose norms, assist in government activities: resettle refugees, Drug awareness and prevention, neighborhood watch.
  • 60. CONFLICT
    • Little credit for skills developed through volunteer work
    • Often viewed as "female" work, filling the days of the wives of the Captains of Industry
  • 61. INTERACTIONALISM
    • Self groups
    • Reference groups
  • 62. THANKS