Amenorrhea
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Amenorrhea

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Amenorrhea Amenorrhea Presentation Transcript

  • AmenorrheaDanielle, Kelsey, Joe, MattTable 3 Period 3
  • An Overview
  • • Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.An Overview View slide
  • • Primary Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 14. -OR-• The absence of menstrual bleeding with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 16.An Overview View slide
  • • For a woman to have a regular menstrual cycle, her HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY gland, OVARIES and UTERUS should all be functioning normally.An overview
  • • The Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland by releasing follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).• This causes the ovaries to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.An overview
  • • Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the cyclical changes in the endometrium ( uterine lining), including menstruation.An overview
  • A chart illustrating a normal menstrual cycle.
  • Causes
  • • Craniopharyngioma- a brain tumor near the pituitary gland.• Teratoma-a tumor made up of a mixture of tissues.• Sarcoidosis- the formation of nodules in different parts of the body.Hypothalamic causes
  • • Kallmann Syndrome- Deficiency of gonadotropins, which are hormones capable of promoting growth and function of reproductive hormones.• Nutritional Deficiency• Low Body WeightHypothalamic causes
  • • Prolactinemia- High blood levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulate the secretion of breast milk.• Pituitary Tumors• Postpartum Pituitary Necrosis- Death of pituitary cells after a woman delivers a baby.Pituitary Causes
  • • Autoimmune Hypophysitis- Cells of the pituitary gland destroyed by the body’s own defense system• Pituitary RadiationPituitary causes
  • • Anovulation- Lack of the release of an egg• Hyperandrogenemia- High blood levels of male hormones• Polycystic ovary syndrome• Premature Ovarian Failure• Turner Syndrome-Genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries, short stature.Ovarian Causes
  • • Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis- Defective development of the ovary• Autoimune Oophoritis- Cells of the ovaries destroyed by the body’s own defense system• Radiation or Chemotherapy• Abnormalities of the genital tractOvarian Causes
  • • Anorexia/Bulimia• Chronic Disease ( Ex: Tuberculosis)• Excessive weight gain/loss• Malnutrition• Psychiatric Disorders• Recreational Drug Abuse• Excessive Stress• Excessive ExerciseFunctional Causes
  • Symptoms
  • • Amenorrhea is a symptom of an underlying disorder.Symptoms
  • • Galactorrhea- Production of breast milk in women who are not pregnant• Headache• Reduced Peripheral Vision These could be signs of an intracranial tumor.Symptoms
  • • Noticeable weight gain/ loss• Excessive anxiety• Hot Flashes• Night Sweats• Disrupted Sleep These can be signs of Ovarian Insufficiency or Premature Ovarian Failure.Symptoms
  • Exams and Tests
  • • Blood Tests to determine hormone levels• CT or MRI of the head to exclude pituitary and hypothalamic causes• Thyroid Function Tests• Hysteroscopy-Visual inspection of uterusExams and Tests
  • Medical Treatments
  • • Hormone Replacement Therapy• Radiation Therapy for tumor-related• Contraceptives to restore menstrual cycleMedical Treatment
  • Amenorrhea. (2002). In Britanica (15th ed., Vol. 1, p. 324). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britanica Inc. (Originalwork published 1768)Slap, G., M.D. (2005). Amenorrhea. In K. Krapp & J. Wilson (Eds.), The Gale Encyclopedia of ChildrensHealth (Vol. 1, pp. 88-92). Michigan: Thomson Gale.The Tale of 4 Hormones- Normal Menstrual Cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2012, fromhttp://pcosjournal.com/hormones-normal-menstrual-cycle/Turkington, C. A. (2002). Amenorrhea. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (2nd ed., Vol.1, pp. 146-148). Michigan: Gale Group.Nelson, L. M., M.D. (n.d.). Amenorrhea. Retrieved from WEB M.D, LLC website: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=59246&pf=3&paSlide 8 Image: http://img.medscape.com/pi/emed/ckb/obstetrics_gynecology/252558-1336968-276110-1622624.jpgSources