AmenorrheaDanielle, Kelsey, Joe, MattTable 3 Period 3
An Overview
• Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual  bleeding and may be primary or secondary.An Overview
• Primary Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual  bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics in a  girl by age 14.     ...
• For a woman to have a regular menstrual cycle, her  HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY gland, OVARIES  and UTERUS should all be fun...
• The Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland by  releasing follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and  luteinizing hormo...
• Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the  cyclical changes in the endometrium ( uterine  lining), including men...
A chart illustrating a normal menstrual cycle.
Causes
• Craniopharyngioma- a brain tumor near the pituitary  gland.• Teratoma-a tumor made up of a mixture of tissues.• Sarcoido...
• Kallmann Syndrome- Deficiency of gonadotropins,  which are hormones capable of promoting growth  and function of reprodu...
• Prolactinemia- High blood levels of prolactin, a  hormone that stimulate the secretion of breast milk.• Pituitary Tumors...
• Autoimmune Hypophysitis- Cells of the pituitary  gland destroyed by the body’s own defense system• Pituitary RadiationPi...
• Anovulation- Lack of the release of an egg• Hyperandrogenemia- High blood levels of male  hormones• Polycystic ovary syn...
• Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis- Defective development  of the ovary• Autoimune Oophoritis- Cells of the ovaries  destroyed by t...
•   Anorexia/Bulimia•   Chronic Disease ( Ex: Tuberculosis)•   Excessive weight gain/loss•   Malnutrition•   Psychiatric D...
Symptoms
• Amenorrhea is a symptom of an underlying disorder.Symptoms
• Galactorrhea- Production of breast milk in women  who are not pregnant• Headache• Reduced Peripheral Vision These could ...
•   Noticeable weight gain/ loss•   Excessive anxiety•   Hot Flashes•   Night Sweats•   Disrupted Sleep    These can be si...
Exams and Tests
• Blood Tests to determine hormone levels• CT or MRI of the head to exclude pituitary and  hypothalamic causes• Thyroid Fu...
Medical Treatments
• Hormone Replacement Therapy• Radiation Therapy for tumor-related• Contraceptives to restore menstrual cycleMedical Treat...
Amenorrhea. (2002). In Britanica (15th ed., Vol. 1, p. 324). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britanica Inc. (Originalwork published ...
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Amenorrhea

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Amenorrhea

  1. 1. AmenorrheaDanielle, Kelsey, Joe, MattTable 3 Period 3
  2. 2. An Overview
  3. 3. • Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.An Overview
  4. 4. • Primary Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 14. -OR-• The absence of menstrual bleeding with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 16.An Overview
  5. 5. • For a woman to have a regular menstrual cycle, her HYPOTHALAMUS, PITUITARY gland, OVARIES and UTERUS should all be functioning normally.An overview
  6. 6. • The Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland by releasing follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).• This causes the ovaries to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.An overview
  7. 7. • Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the cyclical changes in the endometrium ( uterine lining), including menstruation.An overview
  8. 8. A chart illustrating a normal menstrual cycle.
  9. 9. Causes
  10. 10. • Craniopharyngioma- a brain tumor near the pituitary gland.• Teratoma-a tumor made up of a mixture of tissues.• Sarcoidosis- the formation of nodules in different parts of the body.Hypothalamic causes
  11. 11. • Kallmann Syndrome- Deficiency of gonadotropins, which are hormones capable of promoting growth and function of reproductive hormones.• Nutritional Deficiency• Low Body WeightHypothalamic causes
  12. 12. • Prolactinemia- High blood levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulate the secretion of breast milk.• Pituitary Tumors• Postpartum Pituitary Necrosis- Death of pituitary cells after a woman delivers a baby.Pituitary Causes
  13. 13. • Autoimmune Hypophysitis- Cells of the pituitary gland destroyed by the body’s own defense system• Pituitary RadiationPituitary causes
  14. 14. • Anovulation- Lack of the release of an egg• Hyperandrogenemia- High blood levels of male hormones• Polycystic ovary syndrome• Premature Ovarian Failure• Turner Syndrome-Genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries, short stature.Ovarian Causes
  15. 15. • Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis- Defective development of the ovary• Autoimune Oophoritis- Cells of the ovaries destroyed by the body’s own defense system• Radiation or Chemotherapy• Abnormalities of the genital tractOvarian Causes
  16. 16. • Anorexia/Bulimia• Chronic Disease ( Ex: Tuberculosis)• Excessive weight gain/loss• Malnutrition• Psychiatric Disorders• Recreational Drug Abuse• Excessive Stress• Excessive ExerciseFunctional Causes
  17. 17. Symptoms
  18. 18. • Amenorrhea is a symptom of an underlying disorder.Symptoms
  19. 19. • Galactorrhea- Production of breast milk in women who are not pregnant• Headache• Reduced Peripheral Vision These could be signs of an intracranial tumor.Symptoms
  20. 20. • Noticeable weight gain/ loss• Excessive anxiety• Hot Flashes• Night Sweats• Disrupted Sleep These can be signs of Ovarian Insufficiency or Premature Ovarian Failure.Symptoms
  21. 21. Exams and Tests
  22. 22. • Blood Tests to determine hormone levels• CT or MRI of the head to exclude pituitary and hypothalamic causes• Thyroid Function Tests• Hysteroscopy-Visual inspection of uterusExams and Tests
  23. 23. Medical Treatments
  24. 24. • Hormone Replacement Therapy• Radiation Therapy for tumor-related• Contraceptives to restore menstrual cycleMedical Treatment
  25. 25. Amenorrhea. (2002). In Britanica (15th ed., Vol. 1, p. 324). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britanica Inc. (Originalwork published 1768)Slap, G., M.D. (2005). Amenorrhea. In K. Krapp & J. Wilson (Eds.), The Gale Encyclopedia of ChildrensHealth (Vol. 1, pp. 88-92). Michigan: Thomson Gale.The Tale of 4 Hormones- Normal Menstrual Cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2012, fromhttp://pcosjournal.com/hormones-normal-menstrual-cycle/Turkington, C. A. (2002). Amenorrhea. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (2nd ed., Vol.1, pp. 146-148). Michigan: Gale Group.Nelson, L. M., M.D. (n.d.). Amenorrhea. Retrieved from WEB M.D, LLC website: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=59246&pf=3&paSlide 8 Image: http://img.medscape.com/pi/emed/ckb/obstetrics_gynecology/252558-1336968-276110-1622624.jpgSources

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