James II father, King Charles I, was beheaded when James was 16 years old
For being a Traitor, Murderer, and public enemy to the good people of the Nation
James did not know at that age that he would follow in his fathers footsteps
Exiled James was exiled from England in 1649 and sought refuge in France
WAR He then joined the French Army But his brother Charles joined the Spanish Army and James was kicked out of the French Army
Roman CATHOLICISM With the War he found a new hope and religious group Roman Catholicism
Change of view James and his brother where allowed to return to England and his brother Charles was then crowned king.
Children James and his wife Anne Hyde had 2 daughters Anne and Mary in the early 1660’s
In 1677, James reluctantly consented to his daughter Mary's marriage to the Protestant William of Orange (who was his nephew) but allowed it.
James became King of England, Scotland and Ireland. After his brother Charles II passed away in 1685
James wanted to design an absolute monarchy
James was best known for his belief in the Divine Right of Kings and his attempts to create religious liberty for English Roman Catholics against the wishes of the English Parliament.
But many opposed him as too pro-Frenchand too pro-Catholic and did not want an absolute Monarchy
Invade On 30 June 1688, a group of seven Protestant noble's invited the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army. By September, it had become clear that William sought to invade.
Flee James ended up fleeing to France for refuge
James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 butwas defeated by William.
Mary and William became Monarchy and James was left in Exile in France.
James spent his last years in denial
DEATH James died of a Brain hemorrhage on 16 September 1701
Mary II AND IV
Born on the 30 of April 1662 to James and Anne Hyde
Mary was baptised Anglican shortly after her younger sister Anne was born
Both Mary and Anne were raised as Protestant because King Charles demanded it.
At the age of 15 Mary became betrothed to William of Orange (her cousin) she wept all day when she found out.
The marriage would cause an alliance between the English and Dutch
Marry and William were married on the 16th of November 1677, and straight after, they went back to the Netherlands
Mary became pregnant within months of their marriage and she went to visit William on one of his expeditions where she had a miscarriage.
That left her unable to ever have children and that filled her life with great unhappiness.
On the 30th of June the Immortal Seven requested William to dispose of James. Mary was upset but knew it had to happen.
Mary did not want to become involved with Political power as she did not care for it.
Mary told James "she would be no more but his wife, and that she would do all that lay in her power to make him King for life"
Mary returned to England after James was in exile. She had a secret joy of returning to her home land
In January 1689 Parliament voted that Mary become soul monarch of England
Mary did not wish to become Queen believing a woman should follow their husbands
On the 11th of April 1689, Mary and William attend their joint coronations
On the 11th of May William and Mary formally accepted the Scottish Crown.
Mary wielded less power over England then William.
Mary became joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband from 1689
In late 1694 Mary got Smallpox, Anne said she would risk anything to see her sister one last time but Mary declined seeing her sister.
Mary died at Kensington Palace shortly after midnight on the morning of 28 December.
Born on the 4th of November to William II Prince of Orange and Princess Royal Mary
William's father died 8 days before his birth due to smallpox
William was a sovereign Prince of Orange at birth due to his fathers being desist.
William was baptised a protestant
Williams mother died when he was 10 years old from small pox whist visiting her brother King Charles II
With both his parents desist it became a confrontation between his Dynasty and the advocates of the Republican of Netherlands on who he would learn from.
James went along with what he was told to do. When William’s father died they suspended the office of Stadtholder. Many tried to convince to let William become his rightful position when he was 18 but they refused
William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King of France Louis XIV ( James's ally)
In the 1670 William was asked to join the Dutch Army, meaning he would not be able to become Stadtholderwhilst in that position
William wrote a secret letter to Charles in January 1672 asking his uncle to exploit the situation by exerting pressure on the States-General to appoint William Stadtholder In return, William then wouldally the Republic with England and serve Charles's interests as much as his "honor and the loyalty due to this state" allowed. Charles took no action on the proposal, and continued his war plans with his French ally.
On 4 July 1672 the States of Holland appointed William Stadtholder
During the war with France, William tried to improve his position by marrying Mary Stuart
Marry and William where married on the 16th of November 1677, and straight after they went back to the Netherlands.
30th of June the Immortal Seven requested William to dispose of James
With a Dutch army William landed at Brixham in southwest England on 5 November 1688. To invade and dispose of James
William came with 1,000-foot and 4,000 horse soldiers
William permitted James to leave the country in stead of killing him.
11 April 1689 Mary and William attend their joint coronations and became joint sovereigns of England
William and Mary were offered the Scottish Crown they accepted on 11 May 1689
William enforced many laws for the best interest of England . Like the Act of Toleration (1689)
Mary II died of smallpox in 1694, leaving William III to rule alone of the three kingdoms. Despite his conversion to Anglicanism, William's popularity plummeted during his reign as a sole Sovereign.
In 1702, William died of pneumonia, a complication from a broken collarbone following a fall from his horse. His sister in law Anne took over as soul sovereign.