+
Online L2 Instruction
(Second Language)
Elements and Efficacy
+
Model: L2 Online Course
If we consider online L2 classes as part of what has transpired as a
result of the disruption of...
+
21st Century Language Instruction
Communicative Approach: Language is a tool for social interaction
and communication.
*...
+
Doughty & Long’s 10 MPs
Doughty & Long’s 10 MPs cont.
* focus on form;
* provide negative feedback;
* respect learner ‘s...
+
Approach to Study:
Having looked at the basic elements of the
communicative approach to L2 instruction I
will next look...
+
Hampler & Stickler’s Skills Chart
Bennett and Marsh point to two types of skills beyond the technical level:
to “identif...
+
Rationale for the Skills Pyramid
 Online learning material for languages can
provide a number of ways to meet most of t...
+
Essence of Skills Pyramid:
 In addition to tech resources available online
instructor support is required for successfu...
+
Practicing the 4 skills: Online tools
Necessary Conditions:
While a synchronous written
environment can provide learner...
+
Four Skills: Necessary Conditions
Wang believes that student oral and aural
interaction may be supported by
videoconfer...
+
Skills for Online Language Tutors
According to Hampler and Stickler, online teaching skills build on
one another in a ki...
+ Higher Levels: H & S’s Pyramid,
tu
Instructors need to
know how to deal
w/the constraints &
affordances of the
course so...
+
Hampler & Stickler’s Pyramid
(cont.)
This level talks about the
instructor’s ability to create a
sense of community with...
+
H & S’s Skills Pyramid: 5th Level
“Facilitating Communicative
Competence”
EE
Encouraging interaction in an
online enviro...
+
Level 6: “Creativity and Choice”
Teaching online should not
hinder instructors from being
creative. The most obvious
way...
+
Top Tier: “Own Style”
On the highest level of the skills pyramid,
an online teacher will have developed
his/her own pers...
+
Compton’s Critique
Lily K. L. Compton in “ Preparing language teachers to
teach language online: a look at skills, roles...
+
Compton’s Framework: Technology,
Pedagogy & Evaluation
“Knowledge of language learning theories, assessment and task eva...
+
Supporting student2student
interaction: 3C
Although, I would subscribe to Compton’s
framework that online L2 language
i...
+ 3C: Synchronous Learning
Management Systems
Y. Yang and N.S. Chen in “Criteria for evaluating synchronous learning manag...
+
3C: Collaborative Cyber Community
 Yang & Chen believe what is required is a
comprehensive platform where the interface...
+
3C (Collaborative Cyber Community)
Synchronous Learning Mgt System
3C:
Above is the link to the website of 3C, which was...
+
An Ideal SLMS: 3C
Wang & Chen say that, an SLMS should serve as a
learning space where cultural and collaborative
learni...
+
Functions of 3C:
Has a(n)
Announcement Board (preferably linking to emails)
Enables the instructor to post announcemen...
+
Asynchronous functions of 3C
+
The Teacher’s Office
A number of functions, like content uploading and learning link design, etc.
+
Support for use of the target language
A SLMS for L2 learning should support the use of
the target language in text cha...
+
Cyber f2f interaction & synchronicity
 Online classroom should serve as a platform where
teacher and student may intera...
+
Audio and Video Interface
This interface would support quality multi-
way oral and visual interaction.
Cyber tools tha...
+
Figure 3: The synchronous class
with cyber face2face features, 3C
+
Important design elements:
language learning
Interface in English with function for default languages.
Flexibility in ...
+
Conclusions:
The communicative approach to teaching a second
language necessitates that there be student to student
exch...
+
Reflections:
The efficacy of 3C notwithstanding, an instructor
who
facilitates student interaction in the class is a cri...
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Online L2 Instruction

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Online L2 Course for K-12 Schooling

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  • Model
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  • Online L2 Instruction

    1. 1. + Online L2 Instruction (Second Language) Elements and Efficacy
    2. 2. + Model: L2 Online Course If we consider online L2 classes as part of what has transpired as a result of the disruption of traditional schooling, then the lack of a comprehensive model for online second language learning (L2) should not be surprising. Therefore, I will begin this presentation by looking at the nature of language instruction itself.
    3. 3. + 21st Century Language Instruction Communicative Approach: Language is a tool for social interaction and communication. * Task-based language learning (TBLT) is an offshoot. * Doughty and Long: 10 Methodological Principles (MP) in TBLT * use tasks, not texts as the assessment * promote learning by doing; * elaborate input (do not simply or rely entirely on authentic materials; * provide rich (not impoverished) input; * encourage inductive (chunk) learning.
    4. 4. + Doughty & Long’s 10 MPs Doughty & Long’s 10 MPs cont. * focus on form; * provide negative feedback; * respect learner ‘syllabuses’/developmental processes; * promote cooperative/collaborative learning; and * provide individualized instruction (according to communicative needs and cognition). (Y. Wang & N.S. Chen, p.4)
    5. 5. + Approach to Study: Having looked at the basic elements of the communicative approach to L2 instruction I will next look at a couple of schema that lay out the essential skills an L2 online instructor should possess
    6. 6. + Hampler & Stickler’s Skills Chart Bennett and Marsh point to two types of skills beyond the technical level: to “identify the significant differences and similarities between f2f and online learning and teaching contexts”, and to identify strategies and techniques to facilitate online learning and help students to exploit the advantages in relation to both collaborative learning.” (p. 16)
    7. 7. + Rationale for the Skills Pyramid  Online learning material for languages can provide a number of ways to meet most of the principles Canale and Swain posit (Hampler and Stickler, p. 312).  Availability of authentic teaching and learning materials.  Web-searches and email exchanges with other learners.  Tools which provide opportunity to communicate with native speakers.
    8. 8. + Essence of Skills Pyramid:  In addition to tech resources available online instructor support is required for successful independent learning.  Communicative competence is best taught online when both factors, authentic and meaningful interaction and the necessary pedagogical support are combined. (Hampler & Stickler)
    9. 9. + Practicing the 4 skills: Online tools Necessary Conditions: While a synchronous written environment can provide learners with a medium for rehearsing oral language it has to be enhanced with practice in oral communication. (Hampler & Stickler, p.314)
    10. 10. + Four Skills: Necessary Conditions Wang believes that student oral and aural interaction may be supported by videoconferencing: four evaluative criteria tools: quality, reliability, and user-friendliness(2004, p. 382) Hampler & Stickler add cost-efficiency and Broadband capability as part of what an LMP should require.
    11. 11. + Skills for Online Language Tutors According to Hampler and Stickler, online teaching skills build on one another in a kind of a pyramid, from the most general skills to an apex of individual and personal styles. The most basic skill is technical competence, use of computers and related applications. The next step also requires technical competence, but related to the software specific to the course being taught.
    12. 12. + Higher Levels: H & S’s Pyramid, tu Instructors need to know how to deal w/the constraints & affordances of the course software, oftentimes not of their choosing.
    13. 13. + Hampler & Stickler’s Pyramid (cont.) This level talks about the instructor’s ability to create a sense of community within the online classroom. Basic netiquette and a group feeling of trust and confidence within the class should infuse the online classroom.
    14. 14. + H & S’s Skills Pyramid: 5th Level “Facilitating Communicative Competence” EE Encouraging interaction in an online environment can be achieved through task design (Strijbos, Martens & Jochems, 2004). Even pre-designed course materials will allow for different management of turn- taking and different ways of personalizing contact w/students (Stickler, Batstone, Duensing, & Heins, 2004).
    15. 15. + Level 6: “Creativity and Choice” Teaching online should not hinder instructors from being creative. The most obvious way to display creative skill is to design online activities w/the communicative principles in mind.
    16. 16. + Top Tier: “Own Style” On the highest level of the skills pyramid, an online teacher will have developed his/her own personal style, using the media and materials to their best advantage, while forming a rapport with his/her students and using the resources to foster active and communicative language learning. On the highest level of the skills pyramid, an online teacher will have developed his/her own style and use the media and materials to their advantage. S/he will have formed a rapport with the students and use all of the online resources to teach creatively, promoting active and communicative language learning.
    17. 17. + Compton’s Critique Lily K. L. Compton in “ Preparing language teachers to teach language online: a look at skills, roles, and responsibilities,” believes that levels 1&2 and 3&4 may be done simultaneously. She believes L2 acquisition does not require online socialization; ffocus should be on the learner’s mind and on the learner’s interaction with the material. L2 instructors should know how to facilitate L2 acquisition. “… focus on the curriculum, tasks and the delivery method rather than the online community.” (p.81)
    18. 18. + Compton’s Framework: Technology, Pedagogy & Evaluation “Knowledge of language learning theories, assessment and task evaluations are not only important for any language courses, they are also different for an online context. Therefore, it is crucial that a framework for online teaching should address these skills.” (Lily K.L. Compton)
    19. 19. + Supporting student2student interaction: 3C Although, I would subscribe to Compton’s framework that online L2 language instruction requires basic technology skills, knowledge of online language pedagogy and ongoing evaluation of the course(s), I believe that socialization is necessary, especially in nurturing speaking skills, in both face to face and online L2 courses..
    20. 20. + 3C: Synchronous Learning Management Systems Y. Yang and N.S. Chen in “Criteria for evaluating synchronous learning management systems: arguments from the distance language classroom,” Computer Assisted Language Learning; Vol. 22, No. 1, February 2009. 1-18., point out that learning management platforms may support one or two skills, but do not support the other necessary skills in L2learning. Email might improve learners writing skills, while videoconferencing might address listening and speaking, but neither of the tools encompass all of the four skills.
    21. 21. + 3C: Collaborative Cyber Community  Yang & Chen believe what is required is a comprehensive platform where the interface between the learner and learning context as defined by White (2003) encompasses the four skills of reading, writing, speaking & listening.  This need in L2 online learning is best facilitated by a system with a combination of asynchronous and synchronous internet-based technologies. For this, they have proposed “3C”.
    22. 22. + 3C (Collaborative Cyber Community) Synchronous Learning Mgt System 3C: Above is the link to the website of 3C, which was developed by the National Sun Yat-sen University in Taiwan. Wang and Chen claim that it is the most comprehensive SLMS, supporting all the functionalities that Blackboard/webCT and Moodle can offer. They also state that 3C is both a learning management and delivery system facilitating the requirements of a complete online course. (p. 3)
    23. 23. + An Ideal SLMS: 3C Wang & Chen say that, an SLMS should serve as a learning space where cultural and collaborative learning can happen, and where a sense of community among learners can be fostered…It can also be an effective platform to provide student support services (Keegan, 1996).
    24. 24. + Functions of 3C: Has a(n) Announcement Board (preferably linking to emails) Enables the instructor to post announcements. Multimedia Discussion Forum Serves as a collaborative learning space where learners and teachers can post topics and issues for discussion in the target language.
    25. 25. + Asynchronous functions of 3C
    26. 26. + The Teacher’s Office A number of functions, like content uploading and learning link design, etc.
    27. 27. + Support for use of the target language A SLMS for L2 learning should support the use of the target language in text chat and text-based forums. This is especially important for the scripts of languages such as Chinese and Japanese.  However, most computers support a number of non- Latin based languages. Students may easily type in 日本語 or 中国語。
    28. 28. + Cyber f2f interaction & synchronicity  Online classroom should serve as a platform where teacher and student may interact orally, visually and in writing.  Required functionalities:  ªComputer based audio and video communication tool;  ªAn onscreen whiteboard;  ªSynchronous text chat;  ªJoint web browsing
    29. 29. + Audio and Video Interface This interface would support quality multi- way oral and visual interaction. Cyber tools that facilitate face2face interaction are a web cam and headphones. An onscreen whiteboard is another essential tool in cyber face2face interaction.  Negotiation of meaning takes place here.
    30. 30. + Figure 3: The synchronous class with cyber face2face features, 3C
    31. 31. + Important design elements: language learning Interface in English with function for default languages. Flexibility in regarding instructional and pedagogical design. Scalability: ability of instructor to design own instructional links. Reliability: This is a necessary requirement of a SLMS and 3C had a zero crash rate during its two-stage evaluation.
    32. 32. + Conclusions: The communicative approach to teaching a second language necessitates that there be student to student exchange, which is easier to facilitate in a f2f environment. With the development of SLMS like 3C that need may be accommodated in an online class.
    33. 33. + Reflections: The efficacy of 3C notwithstanding, an instructor who facilitates student interaction in the class is a critical element. A synchronous learning management system might support the instructor to use the communicative approach, but s/he must have the technical knowledge, the pedagogical knowledge and ability to foster community in an online classroom to be successful in a L2 class.

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