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Brain nutrition
 

Brain nutrition

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    Brain nutrition Brain nutrition Presentation Transcript

    • Brain development:
      Nutrition
      By: Brittany Clark
    • What is nutrition?
      Nutrition: “a process in animals and plants involving the intake of nutrient materials and their subsequent assimilation into the tissues” (World English Dictonary)
      Throughout life nutrition is important to sustaining a healthy brain
      Brain development is most sensitive to nutrition between mid-gestation and 2 years
      *(Benton 2008)
    • Brain Development
      The brain starts developing around one month after conception and continues until mid-twenties
      Environment, experiences, and balanced diet will help the brain continue to develop after birth
      (Zerotothree.com)
    • Importance of Diet
      During infancy and childhood the brain is rapidly developing, relying on diet to provide proper nourishment
      Infants brains experience windows of opportunities: a time in which a new skill is more easily learnt
      Malnutrition can prevent ideal metabolic functioning during these sensitive periods
      Creating short and long term behavioral and cognitive problems
      *(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)
    • Baby Brains
      By birth the brain will be ¼ the size of an adult brain
      Weight of a newborns brain is 10% of body weight
      An adults brain accounts for only 2%
      The spinal cord and brain stem are well developed
      The limbic system and cerebral cortex are not
      *(Benton 2008) (Zerotothree.com)
    • Baby Brain Cont’d
      Babies are born with approximately 100 billion brain cells
      Proper nutrition will help these cells make connections and neural pathways needed throughout life
      (Allaboutbabies.com)
    • myelination
      Myelin: a fatty layer that coats the axons in mature neurons
      Creating protection and increasing the speed of neurotransmission
      Babies are born with very little myelin
      Only reflexes needed for survival are fully myelinated (e.g. suckling and breathing)
      Myelination is most rapid during the first year and continues until 5 years old
      It occurs throughout life but at a much slower rate
      Click here to view a short video on myelination
      *(Benton 2008)
    • Breastfeeding
      Myelin is made up of 30% protein and 70% fat
      Most common fat is oleic acid
      Oleic acid is most ample fatty acid in human breast milk
      Breast milk will change to accommodate infants nutritional need
      Colostrum: (days 1-5) high in antibodies and prepares the immune system
      Transitional milk- (6 days – 2 weeks) more sugar water and calories
      Mature milk (after 2 weeks) has more calories and carbohydrates
      *(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)
    • Breastfeeding cont.
      Nutritional value of breast milk cannot be duplicated
      Evidence shows children who were breast fed have high IQ’s
      Also breast fed children tend to have stronger immune systems
      Click hereto watch short video on benefits of breastfeeding
      *(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)
    • Essential brain nutrition
      There are several components needed to create a balanced diet
      The amounts and concentration will vary depending on age; but components will stay the same
    • Protein
      Basic component is amino acid
      Some amino acids have the role as neurotransmitter
      Needed to myelinate
      Foods that are high in protein:
      Fish
      Milk
      eggs
      *(Rubin 2008 p.26) (Fi.edu) *(Rosales et al. 2009)
    • Zinc
      Zinc plays important role in baby’s brain development and behavior
      Lack of zinc could develop several development problems
      deficit of activities, attention, emotional, motor skills, concentration and memory
      Food that contains Zinc:
      Whole grains, lentils, eggs, seeds
      (Rubin 2008 p.35) (Fi.edu)
    • Essential Fatty Acid
      To build brain cells you need fatty acids
      Your body needs two forms of fat (EFA) in its diet because you cannot produce them
      First: Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA)
      Foundation of the Omega- 3 fatty acid
      Foods that contain ALA:
      Green vegetables, Flax seeds, Walnuts
      Second: Linoleic acid (LA)
      Foundation of the Omega- 6 fatty acids
      Food that contain AL:
      Seasame oils, corn, safflower
      *(Rosales et al. 2009) *(Rubin 2008 p.127) (Fi.edu)
    • Iron
      Most essential nutrient in baby’s cognitive development
      Functions as a cofactor which helps enzyme in the metabolism process of the body
      The iron deficiency
      Disrupts baby’s mental and psychomotor development
      Food that contains high amounts of iron:
      Spinach, beans, beef
      Vitamin C is needed in order to absorb iron
      P. 32 (Fi.edu) *(Rosales et al. 2009)
    • Carbohydrates
      Main source of energy for the brain and body
      Two types
      Complex: Good carbs
      It takes the body longer for it to digest and provide constant source of energy needed for developing brain
      Food containing high amount of complex carb:
      Whole grain, fruit, vegetables
      Simple: Bad Carbs
      Digest quickly and cause sugar high and lows
      Food containing high amount of simple carb:
      Refined table sugar, refined grain products, corn syrup
      *(Rubin 2008 p.127) (Fi.edu)
    • Vitamin B complex
      There are several types of vitamin B needed in brain development
      vitamin B1, vitamin B6, and also Folic Acid (vitamin B9)
      Helps in the production of neurotransmitters
      Vitamin B deficiency will result in developmental problems in brain and nerve system
      Foods containing Vitamin B:
      Meat, beans, wholegrain
      *(Rubin 2008 p.32) (Fi.edu)
    • Brain Blockers: Trans Fat
      Modern food processing techniques has altered fatty acids
      Trans fat gets incorporated into brain cell membranes and replaces natural DHA
      This effects the electrical activity in neurons
      This type of fat disrupts communication in your brain and prepares the brain for degeneration
      It alters the brain’s architecture making it more vulnerable to stress
      Foods containing trans fat:
      Anything with partially hydrogenated oil
      (fi.edu)
    • Diseases and disorders
      Disorders such as ADHD and Autism have been linked to poor nutrition
      In some studies the change of diet dramatically reduces symptoms
      Diseases such as Alzheimer's and Heart disease are also linked to poor nutrition
      Don’t forget: from conception to old age it is important to feed our bodies with nutritious foods. Nutritious is delicious!
      Thank you and go feed your brain!
      (fi.edu)
    • Bibliography
      Benton, David. "The Influence of Children’s Diet on Their Cognition and Behavior." European Journal of Nutrition 47.3 (2008): 25-37. Ebsco. Web. 1 Aug. 2001. This article supplied me with studies done correlating childhood nutrition and cognitive development. This article explained the importance of including fatty acids into an infants diet.
      "Brain Nutrition for Baby." All About Babies. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. <http://babytipz.com/babys-brain/brain-nutrition-for-baby>. This article provided great information on the essentials of brain nutrition. It also was useful in explaining how important nutrition is and it explained in detail why.
      "How Does Nutrition Affect the Developing Brain?" ZERO TO THREE: Homepage. Web. 01 Aug. 2011. <http://www.zerotothree.org>. This article gave me information on critical time periods in the developing brain as well as when the brain is fully developed. It also gave me information on breast feeding and myelination.
      "The Human Brain - Fats." The Franklin Institute. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/fats.html>. This website was wonderful for learning the different components needed for the brain. It broke down all the fats and explained why our brain needed them and what their function was. It also was useful in noting what is harmful to our brains.
    • Bibliography Cont.
      Rosales, Francisco J., Steven J. Reznick, and Steven H. Zeisel. "Understanding the Role of Nutrition in the Brain and Behavioral Development of Toddlers and Preschool Children: Identifying and Addressing Methodological Barriers." Nutritional Neuroscience 12.5 (2009): 190-202. Ebsco. Taylor and Francis. Web. 2 Aug. 2011. This article explained the dramatic postnatal development of an infants brain. It also examined the role of nutrition in brain development.
      Rubin, Jacqueline. Naturally Healthy First Foods for Baby: the Best Nutrition for the First Year and beyond. Naperville, IL: Source, 2008. Print. This book provided me with basic nutritional needs of an infant through his first year. It explained the importance of a balanced diet to create a healthy brain.