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  1. 1. “HEALTHY EATING HABIT” Paper presented At MEDICAL SEMINAR ORGANISED BY The Medical Services Of International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture ON 30TH APRIL 2008. BY DIETITIAN TUNDE AJOBO (RD) MNDA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Our bodies are made of Skin, Muscle, Bone and Organs, the Organs are made of tissue, and those tissues are made of cells. In essence each are made up of millions of cells!  These cells all die and have to be replaced. How do we replace them? How do we build new cells?
  3. 3. The raw materials come from only one place- what we put in our mouth. If we put healthy food in our mouth, we make healthy cells but if we put unhealthy food in our mouth, then we have raw materials that are unhealthy and produce inferior, sick cells that can make us sick!
  4. 4.  Among all human activities eating undoubtedly has the greatest effect on Health!  After breathing eating is what we do most frequently during a lifetime.
  5. 5. What is food? Food — Anything that; when taken into the body, serves to nourish, build, and repair tissues, supply energy, or regulate body processes.
  6. 6. To be built up and to perform its functions, the human body must be supplied with foods which contains ―Nutrients‖ and energy to assemble these components and ensure the proper functioning of the organs.
  7. 7. The work resulting from the utilization of foods by the body is used mainly for: Maintenance of the vital functions This is the energy necessity for life, i.e. The energy used for beating the heart Blood circulation Respiration Digestion Maintenance of the body temperature at 370C
  8. 8. Physical activities It is clear that energy requirement depend on the type of activity and therefore vary widely; from 75 to 300 calories (and more) per hour. Consequently a person caloric requirement will clearly depend on his occupation. A docker will need more energy than a watch- maker.
  9. 9. Growth Our body obtains the substances essentials for its own construction from food. Food also forms the basic material for tissue maintenance and repair. Indeed most of the body’s cells have a much shorter span of life than the body itself. The cells age, die and are then replaced by other cells that the body has built from the food.
  10. 10. This is also true for the healing of wounds, for example. Protection It is not sufficient to supply the body with the means for growth and action. It should also be protected against diseases, infections, and environment stress such as noise, over work e.t.c. Food also supplies the body with the substances it requires, for its own protection.
  11. 11. Foods consist of different components of variable nutritional value called nutrients: These are: Carbohydrates - e.g. Yam Cassava, Plantain, Cocoyam, Potato, Rice, Corn etc Proteins — e.g. Meat, Milk, Egg, Fish, Fats/Oil — Butter, Margarine, Palm oil, Soy oil, Cotton Oil, Minerals Salt -e.g. Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Iodine, Na+ Vitamins, e.g. Vitamin C and B Complex, Vitamin A, D, E, K. Water
  12. 12. They are classified according to their basic functions, as. Energy Factors Carbohydrates: 1gm of carbohydrates - 4 calories Fats: 1 gm of Fat - 9 calories Protein May also 1gm of protein - 4 calories Alcohol 1gm – 7 calories Building factors: These are mainly proteins, factors for building tissues and organs, and mineral salts, which play a part in building bones and teeth. However, water, fats and carbohydrates are also components of all the body’s cells.
  13. 13. Protective factors: Vitamins and mineral salts. Some proteins and fat also helps. It is important that healthy patterns be established early to prevent the development of conditions such as obesity and hypertension that may increase disease risk in later year.
  14. 14. Eating adequate amounts of essential nutrients coupled with energy intake in balance with energy expenditure, is essential to maintain health and to prevent diseases. Individual foods as well as foods within the same food group vary in their nutrient content.
  15. 15. No one food contains all the known essential nutrients. Eating foods from each of the different food groups helps ensure that all nutrients needs are met. Portion number and size should be monitored to ensure adequate nutrient intake without exceeding energy needs. Healthy individuals obtain an adequate nutrient intake from foods .
  16. 16. Vitamin and minerals supplements are not a substitute for a balanced and nutritious diet, there is need to emphasize the intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains. Excessive food intake, especially of foods high in saturated fat, sugar, and salt, should be avoided. Eat according to guide line in food pyramid.
  17. 17. Consume a variety of grain products, including whole grains. Grain products provide complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and fibre. Foods high in starches (Polysaccharides: e.. Bread, cereals, potatoes) are recommended over sugar (monosaccharides and dissacharides). Foods that are sources of whole grains as well as nutrient — fortified and enriched starches (such as cereals) should be major sources of calories in the diet.
  18. 18. Consume a variety of fruits and vegetables. Habitually consuming a variety of fruits and vegetables (especially those that are dark green, deep orange or yellow) helps ensure adequate intakes of micronutrients normally present in this food group. Fruit and Vegetables also have a high water content and hence a low energy density.
  19. 19. Dietary patterns characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing heart disease, stroke and hypertension. Fruits and vegetable should be taken daily, both as meals and snacks.
  20. 20. To ensure an adequate fiber intake, eat whole fruit and vegetable rather than juice. Food sources: Oranges, Apple, Grape, Watermelon, Pineapple etc. Proteins are needed in the body on daily basis because the body cannot store it. Proteins are widely distributed in nature: The main sources of dietary proteins are Animal proteins: Meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese etc.
  21. 21. Vegetable proteins: cereals (Bread) pulses (Lentils, chick- peas, beans) vegetables usually have a low protein content (1 to 2%) proteins form the basic structure of each of the body’s cells. Therefore they are essential for life and with greater reason for growth. Children, pregnant and lactating women need additional protein for synthesis of new tissues.
  22. 22. Animal protein foods are complete because they contain balanced proportions of all the essential amino acids while protein from plant foods are incomplete, lacking one or more essential amino acids. Fat and Oil: Fat supply the body with energy, provide the building blocks for cell membrane and help key systems in the body function properly. It helps in the absorption of fat soluble vitamin A,D,E,K. Not all fat are bad.
  23. 23. Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated fats (helpful to heart) e.g. fish oil, nuts, and vegetable oils (Soy oil) etc. Saturated fat and trans fats (increases blood cholesterol) e.g. Fatty meat, butter, whole milk, coconut, Palm kernel oil. Trans . fats are found naturally in some foods, the major source in the diet is partially hydrogenated oil. Examples of foods that may contain trans fats are: cookies, crackers, muffins, potato chips, and stick margarine.
  24. 24. Water: Water is essential for life. The body can go without food for several days but it cannot do without water. It is the most important component of the human body. It represents, on average 66% of bodyweight in adult and almost 75% in new-born.
  25. 25. Body water is divided into two compartments:  Intracellular, approximately 50% of bodyweight and 2/3 of total body water.  Extracellular. Water has various functions: It helps build and renew tissues It acts as a solvent and carrier of nutrients in solution and waste products.  It is required for numerous reactions.  Mineral salt.
  26. 26. Mineral Salt The body contains approximately 4% minerals, which, in common with all other components, must be supplied by the diet. Minerals do not provide energy in themselves but, because they form part of the tissues and skeleton, they are essential for growth.
  27. 27. For example Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Sodium, Chlorine and Magnesium: Sodium and potassium govern the water balance inside and outside the cells. Potassium is mainly found inside the cells, sodium outside. Iron is essential for the formation of the red corpuscles.
  28. 28. To nourish yourself optimally, you need to eat foods that provide adequate amounts of essential nutrients and energy. Research confirms that dietary excesses, especially of energy, fat and alcohol, contribute to many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes and liver disease.
  29. 29. “May your food be your medicine and your medicine be your food” Hippocrates, Greek Physician 5th Century b.C.
  30. 30. Thank You!