Conceptual and Geometric Design of
Nahhaki Tunnel and Quantity Estimation
Submitted To: Sir. Ali Murad Kisana
Submitted By...
Table of Contents

List of Figures

01

List of Tables

02

Chapter 1………………………………………………………………………………………………

03

Introductio...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

List of Figures
06

Fig 1: Study area

13

Fig 2: Drainage pattern

14

Fig 3: Topogr...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 24: Problem 01

34

Fig 25: Solution 01

35

Fig 26: Problem 02

36

Fig 27: Solu...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

-Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Monday, January 20, 2014

[This portion explains a kind of s...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Introduction

I

n present modern times, road infrastructure plays an important role ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

-Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Monday, January 20, 2014

[The following explains a rev...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Tunnel Design and Construction Overview

T

he design and construction of the tunnel ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Aspects of Tunnel Design
The following are the few important aspects of tunnel design...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Tunnel Construction Review
The construction review must include all the possible oppo...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Communication plays a key role to the passing of information and instruction
during t...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

As there is hazard or any related issue or problem, it should be mentioned to the
aut...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Risk Assessment
To reduce the material property risk and hazards:
1. Existing geologi...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

-Chapter 3
STUDY AREA, DATA SETS
METHODOLOGY, AND OUTPUT

Monday, January 20, 2014

[...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Study Area, Datasets and Methodology

T

he following sections explains the terminolo...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

1. Tunnel grade should be less than 1.5%.
2. Access road grade should be less than 4%...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 3: Topographic Features
3. Army camp

4. Elevation of the area

Monday, January 2...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 5: Contours

Available Data

−

Fig 6: Available Data (.dwg format)

Monday, Janu...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

The contours ranges from 795 m – 970 m.

Software
The software used to conduct this p...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 7: Contours from the Raster

Fig 8: Drainage Pattern
7. Our next task is to find ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 9: Suggested Route

Monday, January 20, 2014

b. 2nd Step: Slope in Percentage <4...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

9. Now check the profile of the suggested route. For this, use ‘3D Analyst’ tool
bar ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

12. The last step in Arc GIS is again the conversion. But this time, in CAD
drawing, ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Monday, January 20, 2014

Fig 13: Map of South Access Road

22
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Now the maps of these areas as shown below.

Monday, January 20, 2014

Fig 14: Profil...
Fig 15: Map of South Box Cut

Now for the North portal of the tunnel, along with box cut and access road.

Monday, January...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Now for the tunnel itself.

Monday, January 20, 2014

Fig 16: North Portal of the Tun...
Fig 17: Map of Tunnel

And its profile is given below.

Monday, January 20, 2014

M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

26
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 18: Profile of a Tunnel
Step 02:

CAD Output
The final outputs obtained from the ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Fig 19: South Existing Road (CAD)

Fig 21: South Box Cut (CAD)

Monday, January 20, 2...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

S:
South
Road_S1: Next to existing road
Road_S2:
Before Box cut_S
Box
Proposed road
C...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

CAD
Values
Sr
No.

Names

Length
(m)

Starting
Elevation (m)

Ending
Elevation (m)

S...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Step 04:
1. The last step is to Estimate the quantity for the cut and fill of the pro...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Access
Rd_N

522.90861
54

0

0

6013.449077

0

0

Table 2: Quantity Estimation (CAD...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

-Chapter 4
ISSUES AND PROBLEMS

Monday, January 20, 2014

[This section highlights fe...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Issues and Problems

T

here are few of the problems mentioned here that come in our ...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Solution:
To avoid this, use the lower elevations as compare to above shown high elev...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Red Line = Tunnel
Black Line = Proposed Route

Fig 26: Problem 02

Solution:

Here,
R...
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Monday, January 20, 2014

Fig 27: Solution 2

37
M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15)

Reference

Monday, January 20, 2014

1. Australia- Code of Practice for Tunnels under...
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Conceptual and geometric design of tunnel and quantity estimation

  1. 1. Conceptual and Geometric Design of Nahhaki Tunnel and Quantity Estimation Submitted To: Sir. Ali Murad Kisana Submitted By: Group_01 Atiqa Ijaz Khan 02 Rabia Zahoor 16 M. Fahad 25 UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB INSTITUTE OF GEOLOGY
  2. 2. Table of Contents List of Figures 01 List of Tables 02 Chapter 1……………………………………………………………………………………………… 03 Introduction 04 Chapter 2…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 05 Literature Review 06 Tunnel 06 Aspect of Tunnel Design 07 Chapter 3……………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Datasets and Methodology 13 Methodology 17 Arc GIS Output 21 CAD Output 27 Chapter 4…………………………………………………………………………………………. 33 Issues and Problems 34 References 38 UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB INSTITUTE OF GEOLOGY
  3. 3. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) List of Figures 06 Fig 1: Study area 13 Fig 2: Drainage pattern 14 Fig 3: Topographic features 15 Fig 4: Army camp on the project site 15 Fig 5: Elevation (contours) 16 Fig 6: Available data 16 Fig 7: Contours map from raster 17 Fig 8: Drainage map from arc gis 18 Fig 9: Suggested route 19 Fig 10: Route profile 20 Fig 11: KML route 20 Fig 12: Profile of access road 21 Fig 13: Map of south access road 22 Fig 14: Box cut profile 23 Fig 15: Map of south box cut 24 Fig 16: Map of north box cut 25 Fig 17: Map of tunnel 26 Fig 18: Tunnel profile 27 Fig 19: South existing road (cad) 28 Fig 20: South access road (cad) 28 Fig 21: South box cut (cad) 28 Fig 22: Tunnel (cad) 29 Fig 23: North portal of tunnel (cad) 29 Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig A: Tunnel basic 1
  4. 4. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 24: Problem 01 34 Fig 25: Solution 01 35 Fig 26: Problem 02 36 Fig 27: Solution 02 37 List of Tables 30 Table 02: Quantity estimation 32-33 Table 03: Calculated values for cut/fill 33 Monday, January 20, 2014 Table 01: CAD calculations 2
  5. 5. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) -Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Monday, January 20, 2014 [This portion explains a kind of summary of all the project that’s going on.] 3
  6. 6. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Introduction I n present modern times, road infrastructure plays an important role in the economy of any country. As being most common and daily use of communication, its development and maintenance is the key for its long-term sustainability. So the road construction and its other helping aspects should be done with proper care and precise measurements. Because it directly effects the finance. In the same way, one of the example is the construction of a tunnel along with its parameters and estimations. This catches our main focus in this project report. As the structure stands, it joins the terminals… The study area belongs to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, where the task is to construct a tunnel over a ridge, so to accelerate the vehicles speed and lessen the time travelling. For this, there are few of the limitations and conditions that should be full filled in order to complete the task properly on time. By the aid of surveying methods, and software, the conceptual and geometrical design is established. That then further goes for approval for its construction. The Monday, January 20, 2014 details and procedures are explained in upcoming portions. 4
  7. 7. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) -Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Monday, January 20, 2014 [The following explains a review of available literature on the tunnel design and construction. Including all the inspection plans, assessments, and procedure of ventilation. ] 5
  8. 8. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Tunnel Design and Construction Overview T he design and construction of the tunnel differs from other structures due to difficulty in accessing properly the geological properties, along its way. It should done with precise measurements so that to reduce the risks of hazards. Tunnel “A tunnel is a horizontal passage-way located underground.” While erosion and other natural forces can also form the tunnels. Tunnels can be created by excavation process. There are different method for this process. Like, Tunnel Basics Few of the basic process and terminology used in tunneling procedure. Like, Shaft, they are vertically, hand-dug portion in the mountains, in order to check the rock structure and soil type for further excavation. The Portal, which is the opening and Fig A: Tunnel Basic Monday, January 20, 2014 closing of the tunnel. 6
  9. 9. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Aspects of Tunnel Design The following are the few important aspects of tunnel design and construction: 1. Site selection 2. Tunnel design construction 3. Ground support design 4. Ventilation system design 5. Communication system 6. Hazards reporting 7. Personal protective equipment 8. Emergency response 9. Record keeping 10. Risk assessment 11. Existing services 12. Access Site Selection The site selection includes deep study of that particular area, ground availability and specifications. The designer should be equipped with all the required information. Following are the important studies that are used in order to select the suitable site: 1. Study of geology, topography and hydrology. 2. Climatic conditions. 4. Underground survey. 5. Rock mass condition and geology. 6. Weak regions. 7. Ground movement and scale. 8. Previous work or historic data. Monday, January 20, 2014 3. Groundwater test and check, quality, volume etc. 7
  10. 10. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Tunnel Construction Review The construction review must include all the possible opportunities and issues. It may encounter all the construction design and assumed data to define the buildable portions. It also includes all the details of: 1. Tunnel dimensions, 2. Allowable excavation limits, 3. Lining requirement, 4. Tunnel deformation conditions Ground Support Design As the construction of the tunnel requires the procedure of excavation, therefore, it may put weights on the existing rock structure. That’s why a ground support is required in order to overcome and control any upcoming problems. It involves both structural work and soil type. Its design may vary according to the requirements. Sometimes a permanent support is used. And sometimes, a pre-construction ground support is also developed to compensate any hazard ahead. Ventilation System The ventilation system provides enough measurements to deal with all kind of: 1. Underground gases, 3. Heat and fumes through excavation process, Throughout the procedure continues for tunneling, the ventilation design should face-through. Communication System Monday, January 20, 2014 2. Production of dust during operation, 8
  11. 11. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Communication plays a key role to the passing of information and instruction during the construction, lifting, monitoring of the systems, transporting persons and materials, monitoring and maintenance. There should establish a two-way radio control room for dealing with all kind of necessary communication. It should soundly connects the main work places like: 1. Tunnel portal and faces, 2. Shaft top and bottom, 3. Site offices and first aid rooms, 4. Emergency control offices. Personal Protective Equipment It should be done much more effectively in order to insure the safety. Therefore, it is regularly reviewed, inspected, maintained and replace if so necessary. It mostly includes: 1. Clothing for protection, 2. Eye protection, 3. Fall-arrest equipment, 4. Hearing protection, 5. High visibility garments, 6. Respiratory protective equipment, 7. Footwear, 9. Safety gloves, 10. Water-proof clothing, 11. Self-rescuers (oxygen) Hazard Reporting Monday, January 20, 2014 8. Safety helmets, 9
  12. 12. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) As there is hazard or any related issue or problem, it should be mentioned to the authorities to take further steps, in order to avoid them in future. All the details must be recorded and addressed as soon as possible. Emergency Response In case of emergency, the authorities should kept the following things in notice: 1. Shutting down of excavation process, 2. Evacuation of the persons from the work place, 3. Emergency communication, 4. Power shut down in case of power failure, 5. Tunnel collapse and rescue of trapped persons, 6. Providing breathing equipment and apparatus, 7. Sudden flooding and boating, 8. Under-ground explosions or ignitions, and fire-extinguishers. 9. Suitable medical treatment. Record Keeping One of the main aspects is to rack and keep all the record for further assessment and use. It may include: 1. Monthly reports, 2. Risk assessments, 3. Geo-technical reports, 5. Health and safety reports, 6. Accidents investigation reports, 7. Hazard reports, 8. Site instruction reports. Monday, January 20, 2014 4. Inspection reports, 10
  13. 13. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Risk Assessment To reduce the material property risk and hazards: 1. Existing geological information and structure should be reviewed with proper care. 2. Site investigation should be done on the standard terms. 3. The design should specifies the assumed geological conditions. 4. It should also explains the possible uncertainties and issues. Existing Services Before going to step into the tunneling process and excavation, all the existing fields and services must be identified. So to define the path and method that suits and serve the best. The existing services may include: 1. Gas pipe lines, 2. Water supply, 3. Sewer lines, 4. Telephone cables, 5. Electricity Access For to access the construction site, it should be pre-planned in order to control the timings and turn it cost effective. 1. Walkways, 2. Stairways, 3. Ladders. Monday, January 20, 2014 Access should be safe, and it may be from any ways like: 11
  14. 14. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) -Chapter 3 STUDY AREA, DATA SETS METHODOLOGY, AND OUTPUT Monday, January 20, 2014 [This portion explains in detail the overall procedure, conditions, limitations and methods to explore the accepted model of a tunnel. And also elaborates the output.] 12
  15. 15. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Study Area, Datasets and Methodology T he following sections explains the terminology as: Study Area The study area belongs to Nahhaki, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The project area has strengthen road infrastructure for connecting the two ends across the mountain. The required area having latitude and longitude of upper corner and lower corner as 34°24'34.38"N, 71°20'38.16"E, and 34°23'40.30"N, 71°20'40.11"E respectively. Fig 1: Study Area Aims and Objective And to estimate the quantity of cut and fill for the construction of the road to access end terminals. Conditions The followings are conditions, on which basis tunnel should be constructed: Monday, January 20, 2014 Our task is to suggest the conceptual and geometrical design of Nahhaki tunnel across the mountain. 13
  16. 16. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) 1. Tunnel grade should be less than 1.5%. 2. Access road grade should be less than 4%. 3. Tunnel length should be less than 800 meters. These are the fore-most conditions that should not cross. Few of the others are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tunnel height approx. to 8 meters. Over-burden approx. to 20-22 meters. Tunnel should not have the curve, preferred to be straight. Already existing road should not be used. Hill should be avoided. Width of the access road is approx. to 11.5 meters. Limitations Before to start the construction, the conceptual design faces few of the topographic limitations, like: Fig 2: Drainage Pattern 2. Topographic features Monday, January 20, 2014 1. Drainage pattern 14
  17. 17. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 3: Topographic Features 3. Army camp 4. Elevation of the area Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 4: Army Camp before the South Portal on the way of its Access Road 15
  18. 18. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 5: Contours Available Data − Fig 6: Available Data (.dwg format) Monday, January 20, 2014 The survey has been done, with all the possible available control points, showing the elevation contours. And then displayed on the CAD drawing. 16
  19. 19. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) The contours ranges from 795 m – 970 m. Software The software used to conduct this project are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CAD_2007 Arc GIS_9.3 Arc hydrology tool box_1.3 Google Earth_4.2 Excel_2013 Methodology The details of the procedure is given below: Step 01: Monday, January 20, 2014 1. Add the CAD drawing in Arc GIS. 2. Apply ‘Selection by Attribute’ query as to select the contours from it: a. Layer = Index OR Layer = Intermediate b. Export it. c. Select all the contours that > than 700 m and are < than 1000 m. 3. Make a boundary all around the selected contours area. 4. Generate a raster as: a. Toolbox -3D Analyst- Raster Interpolation – Topo to Raster 5. Now interpolate the contours from that Raster. 17
  20. 20. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 7: Contours from the Raster Fig 8: Drainage Pattern 7. Our next task is to find the area suitable for the access road. And its grade should not be greater than 4 % as per the condition. 8. Calculate the Slope in Degrees and to convert it in percentage by using ‘Raster Calculator’ by using the conversion expression of: a. 1st Step: “Tan (Slope of DEM * 3.1416 / 180) * 100”. Monday, January 20, 2014 6. The next step is to collect the drainage pattern of the raster area. For this use the ‘Arc Hydro Toolbox’. And follow the steps to get the pattern as: a. Terrain Processing – Flow Direction – Flow Direction with Sinks – Flow Accumulations – Stream Definition – Steam Segmentation – Flow Direction with Steam – Drainage Line from Stream b. The final output somewhat look like this: 18
  21. 21. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 9: Suggested Route Monday, January 20, 2014 b. 2nd Step: Slope in Percentage <4. c. 3rd Step: Digitize the route including access road (slope < 4%) and tunnel section (slope < 1.5%) as follows: 19
  22. 22. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) 9. Now check the profile of the suggested route. For this, use ‘3D Analyst’ tool bar as: 3D Analyst – Interpolate Line – Create Profile Graph a. Starting with elevation 800 m – 945 m. Fig 10: Route Profile 10. Export the Profile values to Excel for further plotting. 11. To re-check the route, export it to kml by using ‘Conversion Tools’ as: Conversion Tools – To kml – layer to kml (Where, Red Line shows the Route). Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 11: KML of Route 20
  23. 23. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) 12. The last step in Arc GIS is again the conversion. But this time, in CAD drawing, using ‘Conversion Tools’ as: Conversion Tools – To CAD – Export to CAD. Arc GIS Output Fig 12: Profiles of Access Road North and South Monday, January 20, 2014 The final results obtained from the Arc GIS are given in map format, along with their profile are as follows: 21
  24. 24. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 13: Map of South Access Road 22
  25. 25. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Now the maps of these areas as shown below. Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 14: Profiles of North and South Box Cut 23
  26. 26. Fig 15: Map of South Box Cut Now for the North portal of the tunnel, along with box cut and access road. Monday, January 20, 2014 M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) 24
  27. 27. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Now for the tunnel itself. Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 16: North Portal of the Tunnel 25
  28. 28. Fig 17: Map of Tunnel And its profile is given below. Monday, January 20, 2014 M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) 26
  29. 29. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 18: Profile of a Tunnel Step 02: CAD Output The final outputs obtained from the CAD are as given bellow: Monday, January 20, 2014 1. Add exported file from the Arc GIS_9.3 to the CAD_2007. 2. Now “define the elevations” over the route for construction purpose, on following items like: a. South Access Road b. South Existing Road c. South Box Cut d. Tunnel e. North Box Cut f. North Existing Road g. North Access Road 3. Mention the elevations and distances on the drawing. 4. Sketch the Access Road on both terminals of mountain, through the box cut. 5. Define the road under the tunnel with its height, elevations and distances. 27
  30. 30. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Fig 19: South Existing Road (CAD) Fig 21: South Box Cut (CAD) Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 20: South Access Road (CAD) 28
  31. 31. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) S: South Road_S1: Next to existing road Road_S2: Before Box cut_S Box Proposed road Cut_S1: section on Tunnel_1: Base of tunnel Tunnel_2: Height of tunnel N: North Box Proposed road Cut_N1: section on Proposed road next Road_N1 to Tunnel lower elevations lower elevations lower elevations lower elevations Fig 22: Tunnel (CAD) Fig 23: North Portal of Tunnel 1. The next step is in Excel to write down all the values for further calculations. 2. Write down all the lengths. 3. Also note down the Starting as well as Ending Elevations of the route and proposed road. Monday, January 20, 2014 Step 03: 29
  32. 32. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) CAD Values Sr No. Names Length (m) Starting Elevation (m) Ending Elevation (m) Slope (%) 1 Access Road_S Access Road_S1 Access Road_S2 Existing Road_S Box Cut_S Box Cut_S1 Tunnel Tunnel_1 Tunnel_2 Box Cut_N Box Cut_N1 Access Road_N Access Road_N1 Existing Road_N 859 796.6532 815.4389 3.12 225.921 806.2391 803.9415 -1.01 274.3037 803.9415 815.4389 4.19 361.3878 796.6532 806.2391 -2.61 318.333 319.0065 680.0791 680.0791 680.0791 55.942 45.2981 815.4389 807 840.2019 814.4038 823.2875 842.7692 814.3951 840.2019 814.5 842.7692 814.3951 823.3838 818.5147 814.5 -7.73 2.35 s 0 -43.4 0.23 27.82 818.5147 812.5154 -21.5 52.6347 814.5 812.5154 -3.7 121.3021 812.5154 804.2395 -6.8 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 4677.43 5998.1109 674.2289 Where, S: South Road_S1: Next to existing road Road_S2: Before Box cut_S Box Proposed road Cut_S1: section on Tunnel_1: Base of tunnel Tunnel_2: Height of tunnel N: North Box Proposed road Cut_N1: section on Road_N1 Proposed road next to Tunnel Table 1: CAD Calculations lower elevations lower elevations lower elevations lower elevations Monday, January 20, 2014 2 Area (sq.m) 30
  33. 33. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Step 04: 1. The last step is to Estimate the quantity for the cut and fill of the proposed road. 2. For this, calculate the area for every 5 sections of the tunnel. 3. Note down separately for the cut and fill. 4. The width of the road is 11.5 m. 5. So, multiply with this term to get the volume. 6. Put all the values in Excel sheet. QUANTITY ESTIMATION Seri al No. Names Cut Area(m2) Fill Area(m2) Difference Cut Volume(m3) Fill Volum e(m3) Differen ce 1 Access Rd_S 1853.3865 173.7524 1679.6341 21313.94475 1998.15 26 19315.7921 5 2 Box Cut_S 4512.4514 0 0 51893.1911 0 0 3 Tunnel 5998.11 0 0 68978.265 0 0 4 Box Cut_N 668.5901 0 0 7688.78615 0 0 5 Access Rd_N 48.5798 0 0 558.6677 0 0 Seri al No. Names Cut Area(ft2) Fill Area(ft2) Difference Cut Volume Fill Volum e Differen ce (ft3) (ft3) Access Rd_S 19949.68 626 1870.255269 18079.43099 229421.392 21507.9 3559 207913.45 64 2 Box Cut_S 48571.622 64 0 0 558573.6604 0 0 3 Tunnel 64563.118 73 0 0 742475.8654 0 0 4 Box Cut_N 7196.6439 44 0 0 82761.40536 0 0 Monday, January 20, 2014 1 31
  34. 34. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Access Rd_N 522.90861 54 0 0 6013.449077 0 0 Table 2: Quantity Estimation (CAD Values) 1. Access rd_s 2. Box cut_s 5. Access rd_n 644.4980+9.4947+160.1375+1039.2563 145.2217+27+1.5307 1.0188+47.5610 Table 3: Calculation Values for cut & fill Monday, January 20, 2014 5 32
  35. 35. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) -Chapter 4 ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Monday, January 20, 2014 [This section highlights few of the problems that come in our way during the conceptual and geometric design of the access road and the construction of the tunnel] 33
  36. 36. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Issues and Problems T here are few of the problems mentioned here that come in our way while designing. They are as follows: Problem 01: The existing road should be avoided. Otherwise, it is rejected. Here, Red Line = Existing Road Fig 24: Problem 01 Monday, January 20, 2014 Yellow Line = Proposed Road 34
  37. 37. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Solution: To avoid this, use the lower elevations as compare to above shown high elevated road. Here, Red Line = Proposed Road Brown Line = Existing Road Problem 2: The tunnel should not have a curve in its path. Otherwise, it is rejected. Here, Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 25: Solution 01 35
  38. 38. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Red Line = Tunnel Black Line = Proposed Route Fig 26: Problem 02 Solution: Here, Red Line = Tunnel Brown Line = Existing Road Monday, January 20, 2014 For use, re-adjust the tunnel section, by digitizing, but using the same levels for elevations. 36
  39. 39. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Monday, January 20, 2014 Fig 27: Solution 2 37
  40. 40. M.Phil. Geomatics (Session 2013-15) Reference Monday, January 20, 2014 1. Australia- Code of Practice for Tunnels under Construction 38

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