L6 questions of morality
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L6 questions of morality






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    L6 questions of morality L6 questions of morality Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson 6 - ETHICS Presented by: Arnel O. Rivera LPU-Cavite Based on the presentation of: Mr. Alexander Rodis
    • ETHICS  In broad terms ethics concerns itself with the question of morality. What is right and what is wrong in human relations?  Philip Wheelwright has written a clear and precise definition of ethics: “Ethics may be defined as that branch of philosophy which is the systematic study of reflective choice, of the standards of right and wrong by which it is to be guided, and of the goods toward which it may ultimately be directed.”
    • Three major areas:  Descriptive ethics  Normative ethics  Metaethics.
    •  Descriptive ethics is in part an attempt to distinguish what is from what ought to be.  It seeks to identify moral experience in a descriptive way. We seek to identify, within the range of human conduct, the motives, desires, and intentions as well as overt acts themselves.  We consider the conduct of individuals, or personal morality; the conduct of groups, or social morality; and the culture patterns of national and racial groups. DESCRIPTIVE ETHICS
    • NORMATIVE ETHICS  It deals with acceptable judgments regarding what ought to be in choice and value. “We ought to keep our promises” and “you ought to be honorable” are examples of normative judgments— of the moral ought, the subject matter of ethics.  From the time of the early Greeks, philosophers have formulated principles of explanation to examine why people act the way they do, and what the principles are by which people ought to live; statements of these principles are called ethical theories.
    • METAETHICS  It centered on the analysis and meaning of the terms and language used in ethical discourse and the kind of reasoning used to justify ethical statements. Metaethics does not propound any moral principle or goal (except by implication), but rather consists entirely of philosophical analysis:  What is the meaning of “good?”  Can ethical judgments be justified?
    • DIFFERENT IDEAS ABOUT MORALITY SKEPTICISM – the doctrine that moral knowledge is not possible. Whether there are moral standards is not knowable or alternatively, if there are any moral standards, we cannot know what they are.
    •  SUBJECTIVIST – what is right or wrong depends entirely on what the person (individual relativism) or culture (cultural relativism) thinks what is right or wrong.  cultural relativism – the idea that what the culture believes is morally right or wrong is morally right or wrong for people in that culture  individual relativism - what is right or wrong is what each individual believes is right or wrong.
    •  EGOISM – it is based on self-interest  Descriptive egoism – all conscious action you seek to promote yourself interest.  Prescriptive egoism- the doctrine that in all conscious action you ought to seek your self interest above all.
    • HEDONISM – it is the pursuit of pleasure.  Psychological hedonism – the ultimate object of a person’s desire is always pleasure  Ethical hedonism – a person ought to seek pleasure over other things.  b.1 egoistic ethical hedonism – one ought to seek his or her own pleasure over other things  b.2 universalistic ethical hedonism – otherwise known as utilitarianism – one ought to seek the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people over other things.
    • THE FIVE MAIN ETHICAL FRAME WORKS 1. Divine-Command ethics – What God ordains I ought to do. Augustine and Aquinas are good examples. 2. Consequentialism – Whatever has the most desirable consequences? The Epicureans, Stoics, and utilitarianism 3. Deontological Ethics- Whatever it is my moral duty to do (in at least some cases, regardless of consequences) Kant is a good example 4. Virtue Ethics-What the virtuous person would do? (for virtue ethics, the primary question is not, What ought I to do? But rather what kind of person ought I to be? Plato and Aristotle. 5. Relativism. What my culture or society thinks I ought to do.