Who  Really Discovered America? <ul><li>A well-known rhyme goes like this: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In fourteen hundred and nin...
Who  Really Discovered America? <ul><li>A well-known rhyme goes like this: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In fourteen hundred and nin...
the Western Hemisphere.
So many other groups have been nominated for the honor that the question  might  almost be rephrased as follows:  Who  did...
But what does the evidence show? Who  really  discovered the New World? Those suggested include
the Vikings,
the Japanese,
the Chinese,
the Egyptians,
the Hebrews,
the Portuguese,
and some Irish monks.
The Vikings are perhaps the best-known candidates.
<ul><li>Some assume that there were several voyages to the New World, but the most famous is the voyage of Lief Erickson. ...
<ul><li>Evidence suggests that Erickson and some companions visited the New World in about 1000, almost 500 years before C...
<ul><li>Viking records and artifacts found in the New World indicate that they arrived at a place they named “Vinland the ...
<ul><li>Scholars originally assumed that Vinland  must have been  the present-day Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li><...
<ul><li>Scholars originally assumed that Vinland  was probably  the present-day Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
Today, though, the assumption is that Vinland  couldn’t have been  Newfoundland, since that island is too far north for gr...
Today, though, the assumption is that  it is impossible that Vinland was  Newfoundland, since that island is too far north...
<ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the current theory is that Vinland  may have been  what is now Rhode Island, Cape Cod...
<ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the current theory is that  maybe Vinland was  what is now Rhode Island, Cape Cod, th...
The Japanese are more recent candidates.
In 1956 on the Pacific coast of Ecuador, an amateur archeologist discovered pottery fragments dating back about 5,000 years.
Where did they come from? Intrigued by the mystery, Betty Meggers of the Smithsonian Institute concluded that
individuals  may have  sailed from Japan across the Pacific to Ecuador about 5,000 years ago.
individuals  maybe  sailed from Japan across the Pacific to Ecuador about 5,000 years ago.
Meggars based her conclusion on the similarity of the pottery found in Ecuador to Japanese pottery of the same era.
Besides this, said Meggars, it has been established that there was no pottery in Ecuador in 3000 B.C., so the Japanese  ma...
Besides this, said Meggars, it has been established that there was no pottery in Ecuador in 3000 B.C., so  maybe the Japan...
<ul><li>. </li></ul>If this theory is true, how  could the voyage have happened?  Some think Japanese fishermen  might hav...
<ul><li>. </li></ul>If this theory is true, how  was it possible for the voyage to happen?  Some think  maybe Japanese fis...
The theory  may  sound unlikely and  may  be disproved eventually, but the pottery evidence  must  mean something.
The theory  may  sound unlikely and  may  be disproved eventually, but the pottery evidence  probably means  something.
<ul><li>One interesting theory is the story of St. Brendan, an Irish monk born in A.D. 484, who made many voyages in north...
Maps of the time of Columbus showed an island far out in the Atlantic called  “ St. Brendan’s Isle.” Brendan’s journey is ...
The journey supposedly took place in the 6 th  century, and reports of it  may have influenced  Columbus to believe that t...
The journey supposedly took place in the 6 th  century, and reports of it  maybe influenced  Columbus to believe that ther...
<ul><li>The text says that when Brendan and his fellow monks took this tremendous journey, they saw “sea monsters,” “cryst...
<ul><li>In 1976, British navigation scholar Tim Severin decided to test the theory to see if Brendan and his companions  c...
<ul><li>In 1976, British navigation scholar Tim Severin decided to test the theory to see if  it was really possible for B...
Using the specifications described in St. Brendan’s text, they built a curragh, an Irish boat made out of leather, and att...
On the way, they passed Greenland and wintered in Iceland, where they saw
whales, icebergs,
and a volcano.
They theorized that Brendan’s sea monsters  could have been  large, friendly whales, that the crystals rising to the sky  ...
They theorized that  maybe Brendan’s sea monsters were large, friendly whales , maybe the crystals rising to the sky were ...
and that volcanoes in Iceland  might have produced  the rain of bad-smelling rocks.
and that  maybe the volcanoes in Iceland produced  the rain of bad-smelling rocks.
Severin’s group did eventually get to Newfoundland, proving that a curragh  could have made  the journey to North America.
Severin’s group did eventually get to Newfoundland, proving that  it was possible for a curragh to make  the journey to No...
Religious artifacts and stone carvings showing vocabulary and grammatical constructions from Old Irish have been found in ...
This suggests that other missionaries  could have gone  to the New World after Brendan’s return. So the story may be true.
This suggests that  it is possible that other missionaries went  to the New World after Brendan’s return. So the story may...
However, we come back to the original question: Who really “discovered” America? Continued future research  should  get us...
However, we come back to the original question: Who really “discovered” America? Continued future research  will probably ...
Whatever the results of such future investigations, Columbus did  not , of course, really discover America.
The Native Americans
who migrated across the Bering Strait 10,000 or more years ago were, of course, the real discoverers, and they deserve mos...
The statement that Columbus “discovered” the New World really means that he started two-way communication between the Old ...
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Who Really Discovered America?

  1. 1. Who Really Discovered America? <ul><li>A well-known rhyme goes like this: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus sailed the ocean blue.” </li></ul><ul><li>However, Columbus may not have been the first to visit </li></ul>
  2. 2. Who Really Discovered America? <ul><li>A well-known rhyme goes like this: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus sailed the ocean blue.” </li></ul><ul><li>However, maybe Columbus wasn’t the first to visit </li></ul>
  3. 3. the Western Hemisphere.
  4. 4. So many other groups have been nominated for the honor that the question might almost be rephrased as follows: Who didn’t discover America?
  5. 5. But what does the evidence show? Who really discovered the New World? Those suggested include
  6. 6. the Vikings,
  7. 7. the Japanese,
  8. 8. the Chinese,
  9. 9. the Egyptians,
  10. 10. the Hebrews,
  11. 11. the Portuguese,
  12. 12. and some Irish monks.
  13. 13. The Vikings are perhaps the best-known candidates.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Some assume that there were several voyages to the New World, but the most famous is the voyage of Lief Erickson. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Evidence suggests that Erickson and some companions visited the New World in about 1000, almost 500 years before Columbus. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Viking records and artifacts found in the New World indicate that they arrived at a place they named “Vinland the Good” – the land of grapes. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Scholars originally assumed that Vinland must have been the present-day Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Scholars originally assumed that Vinland was probably the present-day Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Today, though, the assumption is that Vinland couldn’t have been Newfoundland, since that island is too far north for grapes to grow. Could the climate have been warmer in Erickson’s day? Perhaps.
  20. 20. Today, though, the assumption is that it is impossible that Vinland was Newfoundland, since that island is too far north for grapes to grow. Is it possible that the climate was warmer in Erickson’s day? Perhaps.
  21. 21. <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the current theory is that Vinland may have been what is now Rhode Island, Cape Cod, the Boston area, or Nova Scotia </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the current theory is that maybe Vinland was what is now Rhode Island, Cape Cod, the Boston area, or Nova Scotia </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Japanese are more recent candidates.
  24. 24. In 1956 on the Pacific coast of Ecuador, an amateur archeologist discovered pottery fragments dating back about 5,000 years.
  25. 25. Where did they come from? Intrigued by the mystery, Betty Meggers of the Smithsonian Institute concluded that
  26. 26. individuals may have sailed from Japan across the Pacific to Ecuador about 5,000 years ago.
  27. 27. individuals maybe sailed from Japan across the Pacific to Ecuador about 5,000 years ago.
  28. 28. Meggars based her conclusion on the similarity of the pottery found in Ecuador to Japanese pottery of the same era.
  29. 29. Besides this, said Meggars, it has been established that there was no pottery in Ecuador in 3000 B.C., so the Japanese may have introduced it.
  30. 30. Besides this, said Meggars, it has been established that there was no pottery in Ecuador in 3000 B.C., so maybe the Japanese introduced it.
  31. 31. <ul><li>. </li></ul>If this theory is true, how could the voyage have happened? Some think Japanese fishermen might have been swept out to sea and carried across the Pacific for 10,000 miles.
  32. 32. <ul><li>. </li></ul>If this theory is true, how was it possible for the voyage to happen? Some think maybe Japanese fisherman were swept out to sea and carried across the Pacific for 10,000 miles.
  33. 33. The theory may sound unlikely and may be disproved eventually, but the pottery evidence must mean something.
  34. 34. The theory may sound unlikely and may be disproved eventually, but the pottery evidence probably means something.
  35. 35. <ul><li>One interesting theory is the story of St. Brendan, an Irish monk born in A.D. 484, who made many voyages in northwestern Europe to establish monasteries. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Maps of the time of Columbus showed an island far out in the Atlantic called “ St. Brendan’s Isle.” Brendan’s journey is mentioned in a document called “ Voyage of St. Brendan the Abott.”
  37. 37. The journey supposedly took place in the 6 th century, and reports of it may have influenced Columbus to believe that there really was a New World.
  38. 38. The journey supposedly took place in the 6 th century, and reports of it maybe influenced Columbus to believe that there really was a New World.
  39. 39. <ul><li>The text says that when Brendan and his fellow monks took this tremendous journey, they saw “sea monsters,” “crystals that rose up into the sky,” and described “a rain of bad-smelling rocks.” </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>In 1976, British navigation scholar Tim Severin decided to test the theory to see if Brendan and his companions could really have accomplished this voyage. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>In 1976, British navigation scholar Tim Severin decided to test the theory to see if it was really possible for Brendan and his companions to accomplish this voyage. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Using the specifications described in St. Brendan’s text, they built a curragh, an Irish boat made out of leather, and attempted the journey.
  43. 43. On the way, they passed Greenland and wintered in Iceland, where they saw
  44. 44. whales, icebergs,
  45. 45. and a volcano.
  46. 46. They theorized that Brendan’s sea monsters could have been large, friendly whales, that the crystals rising to the sky might have been icebergs,
  47. 47. They theorized that maybe Brendan’s sea monsters were large, friendly whales , maybe the crystals rising to the sky were icebergs ,
  48. 48. and that volcanoes in Iceland might have produced the rain of bad-smelling rocks.
  49. 49. and that maybe the volcanoes in Iceland produced the rain of bad-smelling rocks.
  50. 50. Severin’s group did eventually get to Newfoundland, proving that a curragh could have made the journey to North America.
  51. 51. Severin’s group did eventually get to Newfoundland, proving that it was possible for a curragh to make the journey to North America.
  52. 52. Religious artifacts and stone carvings showing vocabulary and grammatical constructions from Old Irish have been found in Virginia in the United States.
  53. 53. This suggests that other missionaries could have gone to the New World after Brendan’s return. So the story may be true.
  54. 54. This suggests that it is possible that other missionaries went to the New World after Brendan’s return. So the story may be true.
  55. 55. However, we come back to the original question: Who really “discovered” America? Continued future research should get us closer to an answer.
  56. 56. However, we come back to the original question: Who really “discovered” America? Continued future research will probably get us closer to an answer.
  57. 57. Whatever the results of such future investigations, Columbus did not , of course, really discover America.
  58. 58. The Native Americans
  59. 59. who migrated across the Bering Strait 10,000 or more years ago were, of course, the real discoverers, and they deserve most of the credit.
  60. 60. The statement that Columbus “discovered” the New World really means that he started two-way communication between the Old World and the New. In that sense, therefore, Columbus’s reputation is still safe.
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