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18 th  Century Erasmus Darwin : Josiah Wedgwood (1731-1802)  (1730-1795)
Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848)
Robert Waring Darwin x Susannah Wedgwood Married in 1796
6 children : 1. Marianne Darwin  (1798-1858) 2. Caroline Sarah Darwin  (1800-1888) 3. Susan Elizabeth Darwin  (1803-1866) ...
19 th  Century
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, in Shrewsbury, England. His father, Robert Darwin...
 
<ul><li>His father, a doctor, was a giant of a man, weighing more than 150 kg and capable of cutting sarcasm and tyrannica...
<ul><li>The young Darwin had instead taken  great pleasure in collecting shells and watching birds in his spare time , but...
<ul><li>He fell in love with a dissipated sporting set and spent a great deal of time in the countryside on shooting trips...
<ul><li>Away from his father's domineering presence and from failed attempts to embrace medicine or theology, Charles was ...
Voyage of the Beagle  (1831-1836)
<ul><li>HMS Beagle was a  Cherokee class  10-gun  brig-sloop  of the  Royal Navy , named after the  beagle , a breed of do...
Robert FitzRoy   (1805 - 1865)
&quot;Anxious that no opportunity of collecting useful information,  during the voyage, should be lost;  I proposed to the...
FitzRoy was only 26 years old as the voyage commenced, but was already an accomplished scientist having surveyed the coast...
Mt. FitzRoy in Argentina-Chile
The relationship between Darwin and FitzRoy is the subject of Harry Thompson's  novel  This Thing of Darkness , long-liste...
 
 
Aims of the expedition <ul><li>The main purpose of the expedition was a  hydrographic survey  of the coasts of the souther...
<ul><li>A lesser priority was given to surveying approaches to harbours on the  Falkland Islands  and, season permitting, ...
<ul><li>Beagle was originally scheduled to leave on 24 October, 1831 but because of delays in her preparations the departu...
<ul><li>FitzRoy envisaged that while he and officers attended to  hydrography , Darwin should examine the land, providing ...
<ul><li>Dec. 1831 - Feb. 1832: Crossing the Atlantic Ocean  H.M.S. Beagle  leaves Plymouth. Tour of Madeira & Canary islan...
Darwin’s work begins <ul><li>He described the first day on the Beagle as  'a birthday for the rest of my life '. He spent ...
 
Atlantic islands
 
 
Pride of Madeira  (Echium candicans)
 
 
Feb. 1832 - Jan. 1833: The Beagle arrives at Brazil  Survey work at Rio de Janeiro  Survey work at Buenos Aires  Two boats...
Surveying South America
 
Tropical paradise and slavery   <ul><li>On 28 February they reached the continent, arriving at the magnificent sight of th...
Jan. 1833 - Nov. 1833: The Mission is started A visit to the Falkland Islands  Darwin leads the Gaucho life  Darwin explor...
 
 
Darwin made long journeys inland,  With travelling companions from the locality. In  Patagonia  he rode inland with  gauch...
 
<ul><li>He found the sights of slavery offensive and when </li></ul><ul><li>FitzRoy defended the practice by describing a ...
Fossil finds   <ul><li>With the Beagle anchored at  Bahia  Blanca , Darwin and FitzRoy went for &quot;a very pleasant crui...
<ul><li>He was astonished at the huge variety of exotic creatures that he encountered, and little by little began to formu...
<ul><li>At any interesting landfall he would rise before daylight and often travelled long distances on horseback. On one ...
<ul><li>Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the Bea...
<ul><li>On their first stop ashore at  St Jago , Darwin found that a white band high in the  volcanic rock  cliffs include...
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
<ul><li>At  Punta Alta  in  Patagonia  he made a major find of fossils of huge extinct  mammals  in cliffs beside modern s...
Tierra del Fuego
<ul><li>They reached  Tierra del  Fuego  on 18 December 1832 and Darwin was taken aback at the crude savagery of the  Yagh...
Gauchos, Rheas, fossils and geology
Nov. 1833 - Jun. 1834: Return to the mission  Falkland Islands, revisited  Expedition up the Rio Santa Cruz  The Beagle ro...
West coast of South America
Jun. 1834 - Apr. 1835: Arrival at Valparaiso Darwin's 1st Andes expedition FitzRoy's nervous breakdown Survey of Chiloe Is...
14 August 1843 to 27 September 1843
<ul><li>The Beagle and Adventure now surveyed the  Straits of Magellan  before sailing north round up the west coast, reac...
Jun. 1834 - Apr. 1835: Arrival at Valparaiso Darwin's 1st Andes expedition FitzRoy's nervous breakdown Survey of Chiloe Is...
Apr. 1835 - Oct. 1835: Survey of Galapagos Archipelago
&quot; I am very anxious to see the Galapagos Islands, -- I think both the Geology & Zoology cannot fail to be very intere...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older &quot;centre of creation&quot;, and found  mockingbirds ...
Darwin’s Finches
 
Darwin's Discovery:  Some of the specimens Darwin collected from the Galapagos: One buzzard, two owls, three flycatchers, ...
Galapagos at the Crossroads <ul><li>For millions, the Galapagos represent nature at its most unspoiled, an inviolate place...
<ul><li>&quot; Amongst other things, I collected every plant, which I could see in flower, & as it was flowering season I ...
 
Oct. 1835 - Mar. 1836: Into the Pacific Ocean Tahiti is Spotted Arrival at New Zealand The Beagle in Australia Exploring T...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>In Australia, the  marsupial   rat-kangaroo  and the  platypus  seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almos...
 
 
 
<ul><li>Darwin's Discovery: </li></ul><ul><li>On January 16 Darwin went with a guide and two horses on a 120 mile inland t...
 
FitzRoy Falls  in New South Wales,  Australia
Mar. 1836 - Oct. 1836: Exploring the Cocos Islands The Beagle arrives at South Africa Arrival at St. Helena Island The ret...
 
<ul><li>The Beagle investigated how the atolls of the  Cocos  (Keeling) Islands  had formed, and the survey supported Darw...
 
<ul><li>Darwin's Discovery: </li></ul><ul><li>On April 1st  HMS Beagle  arrived at the Keeling Islands which were discover...
<ul><li>These islands are composed entirely of coral and Darwin surmised that they were once part of a large submerged cor...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbi...
 
<ul><li>As  HMS Beagle  surveyed the coasts of  South America , Darwin theorised about geology and extinction of giant mam...
 
  2   October 1836  HMS Beagle finally arrived home after a voyage of four years, nine months, five days. They docked at F...
<ul><li>4 October 1836: </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin arrived at his father's house in the evening and found the family was fas...
<ul><li>Darwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835  Henslow  had fostered his former pupil’s...
Overwork, illness, and marriage   <ul><li>Darwin’s health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September he had “an uncomfort...
Darwin marries his cousin <ul><li>On 29 January  1838 Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremon...
<ul><li>Darwin now had the framework of his theory of  natural selection  “by which to work”, as his “prime hobby”. His re...
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) <ul><li>Darwin’s book was half way when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wall...
 
 
<ul><li>On the Origin of Species  proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when i...
<ul><li>As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a freq...
Origin of Species (1859)
 
 
<ul><li>Understanding that the earth must be hundreds of millions of years old was crucial to Darwin’s theory of evolution...
The theory: Darwin discovered that evolution occurs by natural selection, whereby species with characteristics best suited...
He put a strong case for  common descent , but avoided the then controversial term “ evolution ”, and at the end of the bo...
Responses to the publication
 
Descent of Man  (1871), sexual selection, and botany
Darwin and Orchids
 
 
 
 
Darwin and Insectivorous Plants
Venus Fly Trap Dionaea muscipula
1875
 
 
Robert Malthus
Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)
J. D. Hooker (1817-1911)
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
 
<ul><li>Darwin continued throughout most of the rest of his life to publish his research and writings on biology. In his l...
 
&quot; As far as I can judge of myself  I worked to the utmost during the  Voyage from the mere pleasure of  investigation...
Commemorative plants <ul><li>Darwinia  Rudge (Myrtaceae) c. 45 Aus., esp. SW </li></ul><ul><li>Darwiniera  Braas & Luckel ...
 
 
 
 
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Darwin and origin of species

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This was originally prepared to educate school and college students during Darwin birth bicentenary but I continued to make presentations for the children.

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Darwin and origin of species

  1. 3. 18 th Century Erasmus Darwin : Josiah Wedgwood (1731-1802) (1730-1795)
  2. 4. Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848)
  3. 5. Robert Waring Darwin x Susannah Wedgwood Married in 1796
  4. 6. 6 children : 1. Marianne Darwin (1798-1858) 2. Caroline Sarah Darwin (1800-1888) 3. Susan Elizabeth Darwin (1803-1866) 4. Erasmus Alvey Darwin (1804-1881) 5. Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) 6. Emily Catherine Darwin (1810-1866)
  5. 7. 19 th Century
  6. 8. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, in Shrewsbury, England. His father, Robert Darwin, was a physician, the son of Erasmus Darwin, a poet, philosopher, and naturalist. Charles's mother, Susannah Wedgwood Darwin, died when he was eight years old.
  7. 10. <ul><li>His father, a doctor, was a giant of a man, weighing more than 150 kg and capable of cutting sarcasm and tyrannically enforced views. He had been disappointed by his son's failure to do well at school, an education that Charles later described as 'simply a blank'. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>The young Darwin had instead taken great pleasure in collecting shells and watching birds in his spare time , but his father decided his son must attend Edinburgh University to study medicine and follow in his own footsteps. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles found the lectures there either 'awful' or 'dull', but was too scared of his father to tell him that he did not wish to become a physician. </li></ul><ul><li>After two years his exasperated father gave up this attempt, stating that Charles was 'doing no good' at his studies. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>He fell in love with a dissipated sporting set and spent a great deal of time in the countryside on shooting trips. Luckily, one of Charles's teachers at Cambridge had spotted the young man's interest in field studies and recommended him for the unpaid role as naturalist on board the Beagle , a ship that was about to set off to explore the world. </li></ul><ul><li>His father refused, forcing Charles to turn down the offer, but a supportive uncle intervened and in December 1831 the Beagle sailed with Darwin on board. </li></ul>John Stevens Henslow
  10. 13. <ul><li>Away from his father's domineering presence and from failed attempts to embrace medicine or theology, Charles was at last in his element. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836)
  12. 15. <ul><li>HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy , named after the beagle , a breed of dog. She was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames , at a cost of £7,803. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom in which she was the first ship to sail under the new London Bridge . After that there was no immediate need for Beagle so she was kept in reserve for five years and &quot;lay in ordinary&quot;, moored afloat but without masts or rigging. She was then adapted as a survey barque and took part in three expeditions. </li></ul><ul><li>On the second survey voyage the young naturalist Charles Darwin was on board, and his work would eventually make the Beagle one of the most famous ships in history. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Robert FitzRoy (1805 - 1865)
  14. 17. &quot;Anxious that no opportunity of collecting useful information, during the voyage, should be lost; I proposed to the Hydrographer [Captain Francis Beaufort] that some well-educated and scientific person should be sought for who would willingly share such accommodations as I had to offer, in order to profit by the opportunity of visiting distant countries yet little known. Captain Beaufort approved of the suggestion, and wrote to Professor Peacock, of Cambridge, who consulted with a friend, Professor Henslow, and he named Mr. Charles Darwin, grandson of Dr. Darwin the poet, as a young man of promising ability, extremely fond of geology, and indeed all branches of natural history. In consequence an offer was made to Mr. Darwin to be my guest on board, which he accepted conditionally; permission was obtained for his embarkation, and an order was given by the Admirality that he should be borne on the ship's books for provisions. The conditions asked by Mr. Darwin were, that he should be at liberty to leave the Beagle and retire from the Expedition when he thought proper, and that he should pay a fair share of the expenses of my table.&quot; -- Capt. Robert FitzRoy
  15. 18. FitzRoy was only 26 years old as the voyage commenced, but was already an accomplished scientist having surveyed the coast of South America on a previous expedition <ul><li>FitzRoy's achievements in nautical surveying, astronomy, scientific navigation and chronometric measurements and his authorship of a 'Narrative of a Ten Years ' Voyage of Discovery round the World' resulted in his election to the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1851.  His proposers included Charles Darwin and also Francis Beaufort, inventor of the Beaufort scale of wind strength.  After a brief interlude as Governor of New Zealand, FitzRoy went on to develop an interest in meteorology becoming the founder of the UK Meteorological Office and inventor of the weather forecast.   </li></ul>
  16. 19. Mt. FitzRoy in Argentina-Chile
  17. 20. The relationship between Darwin and FitzRoy is the subject of Harry Thompson's novel This Thing of Darkness , long-listed for the Man Booker Prize 2005 .
  18. 23. Aims of the expedition <ul><li>The main purpose of the expedition was a hydrographic survey of the coasts of the southern part of South America as a continuation of the work of previous surveys, producing charts for naval war or commerce and drawings of the hills as seen from the sea, with height measurements. In particular, the longitude of Rio de Janeiro which formed a setting out point for these surveys was in doubt due to discrepancies in measurements and an exact longitude was to be found, using calibrated chronometers and checking these through repeated astronomical observations. Continuing records of tides and meteorological conditions were also required. </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>A lesser priority was given to surveying approaches to harbours on the Falkland Islands and, season permitting, the Galápagos Islands . Then the Beagle was to proceed to Tahiti and on to Port Jackson , Australia which were known points to verify the chronometers. An additional requirement was for a geological survey of a circular coral atoll in the Pacific ocean including investigation of its profile and of tidal flows </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Beagle was originally scheduled to leave on 24 October, 1831 but because of delays in her preparations the departure was delayed until December. She attempted to depart on 10 December but ran into bad weather. Finally, on the morning of 27 December, the Beagle left its anchorage in the Barn Pool, under Mount Edgecumbe on the west side of Plymouth Sound and set out on its surveying expedition. </li></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>FitzRoy envisaged that while he and officers attended to hydrography , Darwin should examine the land, providing the expertise on mineralogy or geology that FitzRoy had wanted during the first voyage of the Beagle. The captain had to record his survey in painstaking paperwork, and Darwin too kept a daily log as well as detailed notebooks of his finds and speculations, and a diary which became his journal. Darwin's notebooks show a complete professionalism that he had probably learnt at the University of Edinburgh when making natural history notes while exploring the shores of the Firth of Forth with his brother Erasmus in 1826 and studying marine invertebrates with Robert Edmund Grant in 1827 </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Dec. 1831 - Feb. 1832: Crossing the Atlantic Ocean H.M.S. Beagle leaves Plymouth. Tour of Madeira & Canary islands. Landfall at the Cape Verde islands. </li></ul>
  23. 28. Darwin’s work begins <ul><li>He described the first day on the Beagle as 'a birthday for the rest of my life '. He spent the next five years sailing around the world on that small (only 90ft long) ship, collecting specimens wherever he was able to land. </li></ul>
  24. 30. Atlantic islands
  25. 33. Pride of Madeira (Echium candicans)
  26. 36. Feb. 1832 - Jan. 1833: The Beagle arrives at Brazil Survey work at Rio de Janeiro Survey work at Buenos Aires Two boats hired to assist surveys Violent storms at Tierra del Fuego
  27. 37. Surveying South America
  28. 39. Tropical paradise and slavery <ul><li>On 28 February they reached the continent, arriving at the magnificent sight of the town Salvador ( Bahia ), Brazil , with large ships a harbour scattered across the bay. On the next day, Darwin was in &quot;transports of pleasure&quot; walking by himself in the tropical forest </li></ul>
  29. 40. Jan. 1833 - Nov. 1833: The Mission is started A visit to the Falkland Islands Darwin leads the Gaucho life Darwin explores Buenos Aires Darwin explores the Rio Negro
  30. 43. Darwin made long journeys inland, With travelling companions from the locality. In Patagonia he rode inland with gauchos and saw them use bolas to bring down &quot;ostriches&quot; ( rheas ), and ate roast armadillo .
  31. 45. <ul><li>He found the sights of slavery offensive and when </li></ul><ul><li>FitzRoy defended the practice by describing a visit to a </li></ul><ul><li>Slave owner whose slaves replied &quot;no&quot; on being </li></ul><ul><li>asked by their master if they wished to be freed, </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin suggested that answers in such circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>were worthless. Enraged that his word had been </li></ul><ul><li>questioned, FitzRoy lost his temper and banned Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>from his company. The officers had nicknamed such </li></ul><ul><li>outbursts &quot;hot coffee,&quot; and within hours FitzRoy </li></ul><ul><li>apologised and asked Darwin to remain. </li></ul>
  32. 46. Fossil finds <ul><li>With the Beagle anchored at Bahia Blanca , Darwin and FitzRoy went for &quot;a very pleasant cruize about the bay&quot; on 22 September 1832, and about ten miles (16 km) from the ship they stopped for a while at Punta Alta . In low cliffs near the point. Darwin found conglomerate rocks containing numerous shells and fossilized teeth and bones of gigantic extinct mammals , in strata near an earth layer with shells and armadillo fossils, suggesting to him quiet tidal deposits rather than a catastrophe. With assistance (possibly including the young sailor Syms Covington acting as his servant Darwin collected numerous fossils over several days </li></ul>
  33. 47. <ul><li>He was astonished at the huge variety of exotic creatures that he encountered, and little by little began to formulate his ideas about their relationships and the way they had managed to adapt to so many environments. </li></ul>
  34. 48. <ul><li>At any interesting landfall he would rise before daylight and often travelled long distances on horseback. On one occasion he had ridden 80 miles in a burning sun, but commented that he was 'but little fatigued'. </li></ul>
  35. 49. <ul><li>Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the Beagle surveyed and charted coasts. He kept careful notes of his observations and theoretical speculations, and at intervals during the voyage his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters including a copy of his journal for his family. He had some expertise in geology, beetle collecting and dissecting marine invertebrates , but in all other areas was a novice and ably collected specimens for expert appraisal. Despite repeatedly suffering badly from seasickness while at sea, most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with plankton collected in a calm spell. </li></ul>
  36. 50. <ul><li>On their first stop ashore at St Jago , Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs included seashells. FitzRoy had given him the first volume of Charles Lyell ’s Principles of Geology which set out uniformitarian concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods,and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology. In Brazil , Darwin was delighted by the tropical forest ,but detested the sight of slavery . </li></ul>
  37. 51. Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
  38. 52. <ul><li>At Punta Alta in Patagonia he made a major find of fossils of huge extinct mammals in cliffs beside modern seashells, indicating recent extinction with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. He identified the little known Megatherium , with bony armour which at first seemed to him like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos . The finds brought great interest when they reached England. On rides with gauchos into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils he gained social, political and anthropological insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories. Further south he saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells as raised beaches showing a series of elevations. He read Lyell’s second volume and accepted its view of “centres of creation” of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species. </li></ul>
  39. 53. Tierra del Fuego
  40. 54. <ul><li>They reached Tierra del Fuego on 18 December 1832 and Darwin was taken aback at the crude savagery of the Yaghan natives, in stark contrast to the civilised behaviour of the three Fuegians they were returning as missionaries (who had been given the names York Minster, Fuegia Basket and Jemmy Button ). He described his first meeting with the native Fuegians as being &quot;without exception the most curious and interesting spectacle I ever beheld: I could not have believed how wide was the difference between savage and civilised man: it is greater than between a wild and domesticated animal, inasmuch as in man there is a greater power of improvement.&quot; In contrast, he said of Jemmy that &quot;It seems yet wonderful to me, when I think over all his many good qualities, that he should have been of the same race, and doubtless partaken of the same character, with the miserable, degraded savages whom we first met here. (Four decades later, in The Descent of Man he would use his impressions from this period as evidence that man had evolved civilization from a more primitive state.) </li></ul>
  41. 55. Gauchos, Rheas, fossils and geology
  42. 56. Nov. 1833 - Jun. 1834: Return to the mission Falkland Islands, revisited Expedition up the Rio Santa Cruz The Beagle rounds the Cape
  43. 57. West coast of South America
  44. 58. Jun. 1834 - Apr. 1835: Arrival at Valparaiso Darwin's 1st Andes expedition FitzRoy's nervous breakdown Survey of Chiloe Island Survey of Earthquake damage Darwin's 2nd Andes expedition Darwin's 3rd Andes expedition FitzRoy saves the HMS Challenger Survey of the Peru coastline
  45. 59. 14 August 1843 to 27 September 1843
  46. 60. <ul><li>The Beagle and Adventure now surveyed the Straits of Magellan before sailing north round up the west coast, reaching the island of Chiloé in the wet and heavily wooded Chonos Archipelago on 28 June 1834. They then spent the next six months surveying the coast and islands southwards. At Valparaiso on 23 July 1834, Darwin bought horses and set off up the volcanic Andes , but on his way back down fell ill and spent a month in bed. It is possible that he contracted Chagas ' disease here, leading to Charles Darwin's illness after his return, but this diagnosis of his symptoms is disputed. </li></ul>
  47. 61. Jun. 1834 - Apr. 1835: Arrival at Valparaiso Darwin's 1st Andes expedition FitzRoy's nervous breakdown Survey of Chiloe Island Survey of Earthquake damage Darwin's 2nd Andes expedition Darwin's 3rd Andes expedition FitzRoy saves the HMS Challenger Survey of the Peru coastline
  48. 62. Apr. 1835 - Oct. 1835: Survey of Galapagos Archipelago
  49. 63. &quot; I am very anxious to see the Galapagos Islands, -- I think both the Geology & Zoology cannot fail to be very interesting .&quot; -- Charles Darwin, Letter to his sister, Catherine in August 1835.
  50. 73. <ul><li>Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older &quot;centre of creation&quot;, and found mockingbirds allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island. He heard that slight variations in the shape of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food </li></ul>
  51. 74. Darwin’s Finches
  52. 76. Darwin's Discovery: Some of the specimens Darwin collected from the Galapagos: One buzzard, two owls, three flycatchers, one Sylvicola, three species of mockingbirds, one species of finch, one swallow, one dove, 13 species of finches (Darwin remarked how fascinated he was by the beak gradations, but the variation of finches confused Darwin a great deal), one turtle, one tortoise, four lizards (sea and land iguanas and two other types), four snakes, and very few insects.
  53. 77. Galapagos at the Crossroads <ul><li>For millions, the Galapagos represent nature at its most unspoiled, an inviolate place famed for its rare flora and fauna. But soon today's 30,000 human residents will surpass 50,000, a huge problem since almost all of the land is national park. Add invasive species, floods of tourists, and unresolved conflicts between Ecuadorian laws and local concerns: It's easy to see why the Galapagos were recently added to UNESCO's World Heritage in Danger list. </li></ul>
  54. 78. <ul><li>&quot; Amongst other things, I collected every plant, which I could see in flower, & as it was flowering season I hope my collection may be of some interest to you. - I shall be very curious to know whether the Flora belongs to America, or is particular. I paid also much attention to the Birds, which I suspect are very curious .&quot; Charles Darwin, Letter to Revd. John Henslow January 1836. </li></ul>
  55. 80. Oct. 1835 - Mar. 1836: Into the Pacific Ocean Tahiti is Spotted Arrival at New Zealand The Beagle in Australia Exploring Tasmania
  56. 85. <ul><li>In Australia, the marsupial rat-kangaroo and the platypus seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work. He found the Aborigines &quot;good-humoured & pleasant&quot;, and noted their depletion by European settlement </li></ul>
  57. 89. <ul><li>Darwin's Discovery: </li></ul><ul><li>On January 16 Darwin went with a guide and two horses on a 120 mile inland trip to Bathurst, New South Wales. They passed through Paramatta along the way and spent the night at Emu Ferry, 35 miles west of Sydney. Darwin commented on the scant vegetation, and contrasted it with the tropical forests of South America. The next day some native aborigines passed them on the road and Darwin paid them a shilling to display their spear throwing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Along the way Darwin made observations on the local wildlife and was very astonished by the creatures he saw (especially the odd-looking platypus). He surmised there must have been a separate act of creation just for these odd creatures. On his return Darwin visited Phillip Parker King, the commander of the Adventure during the first Beagle surveying voyage, who was now living on his farm just outside of Sydney. </li></ul>
  58. 91. FitzRoy Falls in New South Wales, Australia
  59. 92. Mar. 1836 - Oct. 1836: Exploring the Cocos Islands The Beagle arrives at South Africa Arrival at St. Helena Island The return to South America The Azores are Spotted Finally home in England! The Fate of the Beagle
  60. 94. <ul><li>The Beagle investigated how the atolls of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising. FitzRoy began writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and after reading Darwin’s diary he proposed incorporating it into the account. Darwin's Journal was eventually rewritten as a separate third volume, on natural history. </li></ul>
  61. 96. <ul><li>Darwin's Discovery: </li></ul><ul><li>On April 1st HMS Beagle arrived at the Keeling Islands which were discovered by Capt. William Keeling in 1608 (they are now called the Cocos Islands). They put in at Port Refuge, then sailed to Direction Island under very high winds. </li></ul>
  62. 97. <ul><li>These islands are composed entirely of coral and Darwin surmised that they were once part of a large submerged coral reef. He explored Direction Island for a few days, but found nothing but cocoa-nut trees and coral strewn beaches. Despite the relative desolate state of the islands Darwin did manage to collect a few small birds, one species of lizard, several species of insects and a whole lot of coral! He also theorized that plant seeds must have migrated across the oceans to these islands. The only inhabitants of the islands were Malays and a few English families. </li></ul>
  63. 102. <ul><li>When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the Falkland Island Fox were correct, “such facts undermine the stability of Species”, then cautiously added “would” before “undermine”. He later wrote that such facts “seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species”. </li></ul>
  64. 104. <ul><li>As HMS Beagle surveyed the coasts of South America , Darwin theorised about geology and extinction of giant mammals. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin spent most of this time exploring on land (three years and three months on land; 18 months at sea). </li></ul>
  65. 106. 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle finally arrived home after a voyage of four years, nine months, five days. They docked at Falmouth, England around 9:00 in the evening during a mild rain storm. Darwin set off immediately for Shrewsbury.
  66. 107. <ul><li>4 October 1836: </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin arrived at his father's house in the evening and found the family was fast asleep. The next morning he strolled into the dining room while his father and sisters were having breakfast. An immediate pandemonium of delight broke out all over the house. Much celebration commenced and a few of the servants got drunk. After the house quieted down Darwin spent the day writing letters to all his friends and relatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Robert Darwin, once an insecure college graduate, had become a seasoned naturalist, and a man at the start of a long journey whose conclusion would forever change the way humanity views its place in the world. </li></ul>
  67. 108. <ul><li>Darwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835 Henslow had fostered his former pupil’s reputation by giving selected naturalists a pamphlet of Darwin’s geological letters. Darwin visited his home in Shrewsbury and saw relatives, then hurried to Cambridge to see Henslow, who advised on finding naturalists available to catalogue the collections and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded gentleman scientist, and an excited Darwin went round the London institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage. </li></ul>
  68. 109. Overwork, illness, and marriage <ul><li>Darwin’s health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September he had “an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart&quot;, so his doctors urged him to &quot;knock off all work&quot; and live in the country for a few weeks. After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall , Staffordshire , but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood , nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. His uncle Jos pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under loam and suggested that this might have been the work of earthworms , inspiring &quot;a new & important theory&quot; on their role in soil formation which Darwin presented at the Geological Society on 1 November </li></ul>
  69. 110. Darwin marries his cousin <ul><li>On 29 January 1838 Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home </li></ul>
  70. 111. <ul><li>Darwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection “by which to work”, as his “prime hobby”. His research included animal husbandry and extensive experiments with plants, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory. For more than a decade this work was in the background to his main occupation, publication of the scientific results of the Beagle voyage </li></ul>
  71. 112. Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) <ul><li>Darwin’s book was half way when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been “forestalled”, Darwin sent it on to Lyell, as requested, and, though Wallace had not asked for publication, he suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. </li></ul>
  72. 115. <ul><li>On the Origin of Species proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859. In the book, Darwin set out “one long argument” of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections. His only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that “light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”. His theory is simply stated in the introduction: </li></ul>
  73. 116. <ul><li>As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it varies however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form. </li></ul>
  74. 117. Origin of Species (1859)
  75. 120. <ul><li>Understanding that the earth must be hundreds of millions of years old was crucial to Darwin’s theory of evolution. He realized that the changes brought about by natural selection could only have occurred over very long periods of time. In On the Origin of Species , he insisted that ‘a man must for years examine for himself great piles of superimposed strata, and watch the sea at work grinding down old rocks’ before he could hope to comprehend the ‘incomprehensibly vast’ ages during which species had developed. </li></ul>
  76. 121. The theory: Darwin discovered that evolution occurs by natural selection, whereby species with characteristics best suited to their environment survive and pass on these attributes to their offspring. While at the Galapagos, he found 13 varieties of finches on different islands, some that ate insects, others that ate seeds. He realized they were descendants of a single ancestor species that dispersed across the islands then adapted to the different foods available on each.
  77. 122. He put a strong case for common descent , but avoided the then controversial term “ evolution ”, and at the end of the book concluded that; <ul><li>There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved. </li></ul>
  78. 123. Responses to the publication
  79. 125. Descent of Man (1871), sexual selection, and botany
  80. 126. Darwin and Orchids
  81. 131. Darwin and Insectivorous Plants
  82. 132. Venus Fly Trap Dionaea muscipula
  83. 133. 1875
  84. 136. Robert Malthus
  85. 137. Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859
  86. 138. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)
  87. 139. J. D. Hooker (1817-1911)
  88. 140. Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  89. 142. <ul><li>Darwin continued throughout most of the rest of his life to publish his research and writings on biology. In his later years, Darwin was plagued by fatigue and intestinal sickness, thought by some historians to have been caused by Chagas' disease, contracted during his travels in South America. He died on April 19, 1882, and lies buried in Westminster Abbey. </li></ul>
  90. 144. &quot; As far as I can judge of myself I worked to the utmost during the Voyage from the mere pleasure of investigation, and from my strong desire to add a few facts to the great mass of facts in natural science.&quot; -- Charles Darwin
  91. 145. Commemorative plants <ul><li>Darwinia Rudge (Myrtaceae) c. 45 Aus., esp. SW </li></ul><ul><li>Darwiniera Braas & Luckel (Orchidaceae). 1 trop. Am. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwiniothamnus Harling (Compositae). 3 Galapagos </li></ul>

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