CHALLENGES TO PLANS FOR MODERN HIGHSPEED HIGH CAPACITY RAILWAYDEVELOPMENT IN KENYA AND THE REGIONPRESENTATION TOTHE US AND LOCALBUSINESSCOMMUNITYNDUVA MULIMANAGING DIRECTORKENYA RAILWAYS17/05/12
ITEMS OF INTERESTLong distance railway development plans – Mombasa – Kampala/Kisumu – LAPPSET – Central line – The Great Equatorial Land BridgeCommuter rail development plans – Nairobi – Coast Region – Lake RegionChallenges
LONG DISTANCE RAILWAYS:THE GREAT EQUATORIAL LAND BRIDGE
LONG DISTANCE RAILWAYS: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Item Specification1. Design Standard AREMA2. Gauge 1,435 mm (standard gauge)3. Maximum gradient 1.00%4. Maximum curvature 1 degree (1,740 metres radius)5. Axle loading 32.5 tonnes6. Loading gauge Suitable for double stacking of containers, double deck coaches and electrification at 25 KV 50 Hz7. Freight trains maximum 120 kph; 10,000 tonnes trains speed and capacity8. Passenger trains maximum 180 kph but infrastructure designed to achieve 220 kph speed without modification9. Signalling No line-side structures10. Communication Fibre optic and/or micro wave backbone11. Environment Compliant11. Motive power High capacity diesel locomotives initially, electrification in the long run DISCUSSED AND AGREED WITH UGANDA RAILWAYS AND12. IT Comprehensive information and passenger security ETHIOPIAN RAILWAYS systems inside the stations and in the coaches.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE NAIROBI COMMUTER RAIL PROJECT Item Specification 1. Design Standard Kenya Railways 2. Gauge 1,000 mm (metre gauge) 3. Maximum gradient 1.5% 4. Maximum curvature 10 degree (175 metres radius) 5. Axle loading 18 tonnes 6. Loading gauge Suitable for double deck coaches and third rail electrification at Max 1.5 KV DC 7. Commuter trains 90 kph maximum speed 8. Coach capacity 160 passengers: 60 seated, 100 standing 9. Signalling No line-side structures 10. Communication Fibre optic and/or micro wave backbone 11. Environment Compliant 12. Motive power and train Diesel locomotives and coaching stock in push-pull formation formation, electrification in the long run 13. IT Comprehensive information and passenger security systems inside the stations and in the coaches.
CHALLENGES TO DEVELOPING RAILWAY PROJECTSConsiderations:1. Very large and expensive projects – billions of US$;2. Have long incubation period requiring tenacity;3. Challenges include: – Buy-in by stakeholders – Securing the railway corridors and locations for workshops, depots and passenger stations; – Identifying funding for infrastructure rolling stock provision and operations – Fast tracking procurement process of the various items – Identifying suitable source of energy – Providing railway expertise – Uncoordinated development – Environmental and social issues
FUNDING IDENTIFICATIONPOSSIBLE SOURCE COMMENTSPrivate sector for rolling stock and This is now the trend in railway and otheroperational logistics infrastructure operationsDevelopment partners Buy-in for the project being pursuedPrivate investors Will require GoK guarantees, which could be constrained by level of public debt to GDP ratioGovernment budget Insufficient, constrained by other compelling needsRailway development fund – set Insufficient but could be used toup by GoK and funded from fuel securitise loans by GoKlevy, grants and donations Recommendation: GoK to pursue a G-to-G arrangement with aGovernment tohaving financial and technical capability; G-to-G to be supported government Government (G- Promising, already applied for roadsto-G) arrangement a Railway Development Fund by GoK budget and development
TRACTION• Steam – obsolete• Diesel – initially• Electrification – in the long term• ELECTRIFICATION PREFERRED
OPTIONS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION Renewable/s – Solar – Wind – Sea waves – Hydro – Geothermal Fossils – Coal – Petroleum (diesel, heavy diesel and black oil) – Natural gas (methane) UnclearNUCLEAR PREFERRED – SAFE, CLEAN AND PROVEN TECHNOLOGY
ENERGY SOURCES INDICATIVE COST COMPARISONS TYPE BUILD ENERGY COST ENERGY COST (US$/KW) (US$/MWH) (KSHS/KWH) Gas Turbine 420 63.1 5.0 Coal fired 1,290 94.5 7.6 Wind 1,208 97.0 7.7 Hydro and petroleum power generation not included Geothermal 1,880 101.7 8.1 due to numerous unrelated variables in the cost matrix Nuclear 2,081 113.9 9.1
CONCLUSIONNone of the challenges is insuperableRailway development in the region is an idea whose time has come; nothing can stop it; friends will support it and assist to develop it; sceptic will be persuaded to join the believers.Electric traction is the better option;For Kenya and the region, nuclear energy could be consideredThere is commercial opportunity in the investing into large nuclear and coal power generation plants