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output of thought input of knowledge leads to amap institute for                                                                                      automotive and manufacturing advanced practice
Advances in Technologies for Electrically Powered Vehicles and the opportunities for industry and education  ,[object Object]
Dirk Kok,[object Object]
Introduction AMAP – integral part of the University Digital Factory Global Automotive Technology Exchange (GATE) Provide Reach Out Research & Development Teaching / Training
Digital Factory Training & Technology Transfer in Digital Engineering Technologies
GATE - LCV To ready the region for low carbon vehicles To learn vital lessons regarding conversions of ICE to LCV To transfer this knowledge to regional companies To develop training courses to develop the next generation of engineers and technicians
History Up to 1920 Electric vehicles were easier to operate, faster and cheaper and more popular then petrol 1920 Henry Ford Electric starter Texas oil 1935  Nearly all EV had gone Source: Who killed the electric car? -movie http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
History 1960 – 70 Years of the Oil crisis Reduce dependency on foreign oil Environment Reduction of Emissions needed http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
History 1979 Solargen Electric Hornet No highway speed Range 30 miles Ebay: $3500 51 miles
History 1990 Government funding boost development of Electric Vehicles and hybrids http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
History 2002 Funding Stopped 2008  NAIGT report TSB announces £100 Million funding for Low Carbon Vehicles
An Urgent Case
An Urgent Case
An Urgent Case BBC Breakfast 07-012-2009 The Climate Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark Higher targets are needed
King report 60% emissions reduction Evolutionary improvements guaranteed with current development 80% Growth in Ultra Low Carbon Vehicles 90-100%  Complete change in paradigm Public Transport most efficient in +10M
DfTjuly 2009 On the roads, vehicles will be vastly more fuel-efficient by 2022.  This will primarily be delivered through advances in the efficiency of the internal combustion engine.  Alongside this, new ultra-low emission vehicles will have made their transition onto the mass-market
Some facts 40% journeys < 25 miles 25% of CO2 comes from longer journeys EU predicts 62% increase in road and marine freight 4% increase on onboard auxiliary energy every year Brian Collins – DfT and Cranfield
Why Petrol so Useful? Because of its high Energy density. What are we battling against? Slide from: Prof. Roderick A. Smith – 95thHawksley Lecture Newcastle
Batteries Leon Rosario – PhD thesis 2007
Lithium Batteries High energy density Complex control needed Very costly Difficult to recycle
Bipolar Lead Acid Batteries Recent advances reduced the weight by up to 25%  and the volume by almost 30% without compromising the energy density No monitoring circuitry needed Easier maintenance 100% recycleable Lyons et al, 2005, www.atraverda.com
Fuel Cell 1839 – Sir William Robert Grove 1st Fuel Cell   1955 – Francis Thomas Bacon 5kW stationary 1960’s – Fuel Cells used in Space missions Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell  Considered most useful for in vehicles
A fuel cell is a bit like a battery H2  2H+ + 2e- ½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e-      H2O Electrons Electrolyte Reactionthat produces electrons Reactionthat consumes electrons Fuel Oxidant Exhausts / Heat Converts chemical energy without waste into electrical energy
The science of a fuel cell O2 O2 O2 O2 O O H2O electrolyte H+ H+ e- e- H H electrode H2 H2 H2 H2
Main types of fuel cells
Capacitor Ultra or Super Capacitor Low energy density High power Ideal for short burst power To accelerate  Temp storage during braking Individual cell voltage
Energy Efficiency Multiple power sources Charge Management Systems Power and Energy Management Strategies Controller and Converter optimisation HVAC optimisation Windows, heating, AC, mirrors, CD, DVD, fridge etc CMS
Health and Safety Battery Do not put a spanner  across the terminals Do not touch electrical connections Do not mix batteries Depot Fire Destroys 30 Electric Minibuses in Rome The most likely theory is a short circuit during the recharging of the buses’ batteries. www.wantedinrome.com
Health and Safety Another 1 minute After 3 seconds ,[object Object]
It forms an explosive mixture with air (at 4% or above)
It is flammable
It is lighter than air (unlike petrol or LPG which ‘pool’)Slide courtesy of CPI
Regulation Regulation 94 (2) of the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986 (C&U): “No person shall use, or cause or permit to be used, in any gas supply system for the propulsion of a vehicle when the vehicle is on a road any fuel except liquefied petroleum gas”. - DfT
Health and Safety Learn from history Do not paint with rocket fuel!!!
Energy Distribution “EV push the emissions upstream” Electric components all very efficient EV still 40% more efficient than ICE Coal power station Carbon sequestration Heat can be re-used New power station design
Energy Generation Wind Turbine efficiency is improving Kite ideas Tidal Wave
Energy Solar panels on the roof Other ideas
Energy Distribution Temporary storage Electricity Batteries Grid Hydrogen gas, liquid, hydride Home Storage (potential grid supply) Wind Solar
Energy Distribution Strain on the Grid? Supply to the grid? Nissan The car as a backup? Power failure Energy prices
Energy Distribution Plug in charging @ home Carport / garage charging systems Street charging Lamp post charging Inductive charging
Energy Distribution Plug in charging (work, shopping, home) Ad targeted charging Credit card charging Charging stations Smart charging Swapping battery packs Standardised packs Standardised charging rates (power) Near field communication & Digital id
Joined cities Plan
Energy Distribution Never leave a power lead trailing on the pavement or roadway. Always be aware of the potential trip hazard to pedestrians and other road users. THINK SAFETY! Never unplug your power lead from your vehicle before removing the plug from the Elektrobay. Never drive off with your power lead still attached to the Elektrobay!
USA Vehicles informed through Tarmac 2.0 Road absorbs Solar Informs through LED technology Project by DOE http://green.autoblog.com/2009/08/28/solar-roadways-get-prototype-funding-from-dot/
Korea Vehicles powered through inductive power  1 cm = 80% 12 cm = 60% Renewable energy Despite losses still NO CO2
Renault – Nissan Alliance “We believe the best way to address the problem of emissions is simply not to produce any emissions at all.”
A New Leaf Lithium-ion batteries  Range: 100 miles Regenerative braking, ultra-smooth aerodynamics and even low energy headlights.  Charging Control via your mobile. Charge time: 80% in around 25mn.
Nissan Pivo 2
Education 10%-25% of Ford Vehicle production expected to be EV Mechanical engineers need training in Electrical vehicles and hydrogen vehicles Health and Safety training Training in the use of new technologies and how to protect against fraud. Training for insurance companies, there is little precedent.
NAIGT report New Automotive Innovation and Growth Team Recommend: Provide incentives on a well-to-wheel basis The aim is reduction of CO2 and not just introduction of EV Well-to-Wheel reduction = R&D
Opportunities - NAIGT
Industry Interest Well-to-Wheel R&D Energy  Infrastructure & transport Manufacturing  Energy sources Improve Energy Efficiency Maintenance, Re-service & Recycle  Education
Projects – ECO2Trans Conversion of 2 battery buses to fuel cell Peak power through battery and ultra capacitor Conclusion Fuel Cell stack price to drop dramatically Maintenance of Batteries Disposal of old batteries Re-cycling
GATE - projects HyPower (hydrogen ICE)  ECO2Trans (Fuel Cells Buses) Energy – Fuel Cell Training PhD - management of multiple energy sources PhD - HybriDrive (use of novel gearboxes) CASE Study (EPSRC)
Projects - HyPower Conversion of a Nissan Almera to use H2 gas Conclusions A filling infrastructure Transportation  Creating H2 without adding CO2 Reduce the cost of H2
Projects – ECO2Trans To ready the region for low carbon vehicles To learn vital lessons regarding conversions To transfer this knowledge to regional companies To develop training courses to develop the next generation of engineers and technicians To change public’s opinion
Projects – ECO2Trans
Projects – ECO2Trans A Fuel Cell plant setup for training purposes Platform: small electric vehicle Setup is aimed at teaching and training  lectures and courses
Training vehicle (Diabline) Images copyrighted and courtesy of:  Philippa Shield    pipsperspectives@googlemail.com
Projects – PhD PhD research project to develop a novel strategy for combining multiple power sources in EV Research Price of batteries and ultra capacitors Energy and efficiency of power sources Efficiency of auxiliaries
Projects – ZET Zero Emission Transport Start February 2010 Aimed at further informing the public Researching novel concepts in LCV Design virtual concepts to teach, test and develop Goal: Accepting Low Carbon Vehicles

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IET presentation - alternative fuels

  • 1. output of thought input of knowledge leads to amap institute for automotive and manufacturing advanced practice
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction AMAP – integral part of the University Digital Factory Global Automotive Technology Exchange (GATE) Provide Reach Out Research & Development Teaching / Training
  • 5. Digital Factory Training & Technology Transfer in Digital Engineering Technologies
  • 6. GATE - LCV To ready the region for low carbon vehicles To learn vital lessons regarding conversions of ICE to LCV To transfer this knowledge to regional companies To develop training courses to develop the next generation of engineers and technicians
  • 7. History Up to 1920 Electric vehicles were easier to operate, faster and cheaper and more popular then petrol 1920 Henry Ford Electric starter Texas oil 1935 Nearly all EV had gone Source: Who killed the electric car? -movie http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
  • 8. History 1960 – 70 Years of the Oil crisis Reduce dependency on foreign oil Environment Reduction of Emissions needed http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
  • 9. History 1979 Solargen Electric Hornet No highway speed Range 30 miles Ebay: $3500 51 miles
  • 10. History 1990 Government funding boost development of Electric Vehicles and hybrids http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm
  • 11. History 2002 Funding Stopped 2008 NAIGT report TSB announces £100 Million funding for Low Carbon Vehicles
  • 14. An Urgent Case BBC Breakfast 07-012-2009 The Climate Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark Higher targets are needed
  • 15. King report 60% emissions reduction Evolutionary improvements guaranteed with current development 80% Growth in Ultra Low Carbon Vehicles 90-100% Complete change in paradigm Public Transport most efficient in +10M
  • 16. DfTjuly 2009 On the roads, vehicles will be vastly more fuel-efficient by 2022. This will primarily be delivered through advances in the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Alongside this, new ultra-low emission vehicles will have made their transition onto the mass-market
  • 17. Some facts 40% journeys < 25 miles 25% of CO2 comes from longer journeys EU predicts 62% increase in road and marine freight 4% increase on onboard auxiliary energy every year Brian Collins – DfT and Cranfield
  • 18. Why Petrol so Useful? Because of its high Energy density. What are we battling against? Slide from: Prof. Roderick A. Smith – 95thHawksley Lecture Newcastle
  • 19. Batteries Leon Rosario – PhD thesis 2007
  • 20. Lithium Batteries High energy density Complex control needed Very costly Difficult to recycle
  • 21. Bipolar Lead Acid Batteries Recent advances reduced the weight by up to 25% and the volume by almost 30% without compromising the energy density No monitoring circuitry needed Easier maintenance 100% recycleable Lyons et al, 2005, www.atraverda.com
  • 22. Fuel Cell 1839 – Sir William Robert Grove 1st Fuel Cell 1955 – Francis Thomas Bacon 5kW stationary 1960’s – Fuel Cells used in Space missions Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Considered most useful for in vehicles
  • 23. A fuel cell is a bit like a battery H2 2H+ + 2e- ½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e- H2O Electrons Electrolyte Reactionthat produces electrons Reactionthat consumes electrons Fuel Oxidant Exhausts / Heat Converts chemical energy without waste into electrical energy
  • 24. The science of a fuel cell O2 O2 O2 O2 O O H2O electrolyte H+ H+ e- e- H H electrode H2 H2 H2 H2
  • 25. Main types of fuel cells
  • 26. Capacitor Ultra or Super Capacitor Low energy density High power Ideal for short burst power To accelerate Temp storage during braking Individual cell voltage
  • 27. Energy Efficiency Multiple power sources Charge Management Systems Power and Energy Management Strategies Controller and Converter optimisation HVAC optimisation Windows, heating, AC, mirrors, CD, DVD, fridge etc CMS
  • 28. Health and Safety Battery Do not put a spanner across the terminals Do not touch electrical connections Do not mix batteries Depot Fire Destroys 30 Electric Minibuses in Rome The most likely theory is a short circuit during the recharging of the buses’ batteries. www.wantedinrome.com
  • 29.
  • 30. It forms an explosive mixture with air (at 4% or above)
  • 32. It is lighter than air (unlike petrol or LPG which ‘pool’)Slide courtesy of CPI
  • 33. Regulation Regulation 94 (2) of the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986 (C&U): “No person shall use, or cause or permit to be used, in any gas supply system for the propulsion of a vehicle when the vehicle is on a road any fuel except liquefied petroleum gas”. - DfT
  • 34. Health and Safety Learn from history Do not paint with rocket fuel!!!
  • 35. Energy Distribution “EV push the emissions upstream” Electric components all very efficient EV still 40% more efficient than ICE Coal power station Carbon sequestration Heat can be re-used New power station design
  • 36. Energy Generation Wind Turbine efficiency is improving Kite ideas Tidal Wave
  • 37. Energy Solar panels on the roof Other ideas
  • 38. Energy Distribution Temporary storage Electricity Batteries Grid Hydrogen gas, liquid, hydride Home Storage (potential grid supply) Wind Solar
  • 39. Energy Distribution Strain on the Grid? Supply to the grid? Nissan The car as a backup? Power failure Energy prices
  • 40. Energy Distribution Plug in charging @ home Carport / garage charging systems Street charging Lamp post charging Inductive charging
  • 41. Energy Distribution Plug in charging (work, shopping, home) Ad targeted charging Credit card charging Charging stations Smart charging Swapping battery packs Standardised packs Standardised charging rates (power) Near field communication & Digital id
  • 43. Energy Distribution Never leave a power lead trailing on the pavement or roadway. Always be aware of the potential trip hazard to pedestrians and other road users. THINK SAFETY! Never unplug your power lead from your vehicle before removing the plug from the Elektrobay. Never drive off with your power lead still attached to the Elektrobay!
  • 44. USA Vehicles informed through Tarmac 2.0 Road absorbs Solar Informs through LED technology Project by DOE http://green.autoblog.com/2009/08/28/solar-roadways-get-prototype-funding-from-dot/
  • 45. Korea Vehicles powered through inductive power 1 cm = 80% 12 cm = 60% Renewable energy Despite losses still NO CO2
  • 46. Renault – Nissan Alliance “We believe the best way to address the problem of emissions is simply not to produce any emissions at all.”
  • 47. A New Leaf Lithium-ion batteries Range: 100 miles Regenerative braking, ultra-smooth aerodynamics and even low energy headlights. Charging Control via your mobile. Charge time: 80% in around 25mn.
  • 49. Education 10%-25% of Ford Vehicle production expected to be EV Mechanical engineers need training in Electrical vehicles and hydrogen vehicles Health and Safety training Training in the use of new technologies and how to protect against fraud. Training for insurance companies, there is little precedent.
  • 50. NAIGT report New Automotive Innovation and Growth Team Recommend: Provide incentives on a well-to-wheel basis The aim is reduction of CO2 and not just introduction of EV Well-to-Wheel reduction = R&D
  • 52. Industry Interest Well-to-Wheel R&D Energy  Infrastructure & transport Manufacturing  Energy sources Improve Energy Efficiency Maintenance, Re-service & Recycle Education
  • 53. Projects – ECO2Trans Conversion of 2 battery buses to fuel cell Peak power through battery and ultra capacitor Conclusion Fuel Cell stack price to drop dramatically Maintenance of Batteries Disposal of old batteries Re-cycling
  • 54. GATE - projects HyPower (hydrogen ICE) ECO2Trans (Fuel Cells Buses) Energy – Fuel Cell Training PhD - management of multiple energy sources PhD - HybriDrive (use of novel gearboxes) CASE Study (EPSRC)
  • 55. Projects - HyPower Conversion of a Nissan Almera to use H2 gas Conclusions A filling infrastructure Transportation Creating H2 without adding CO2 Reduce the cost of H2
  • 56. Projects – ECO2Trans To ready the region for low carbon vehicles To learn vital lessons regarding conversions To transfer this knowledge to regional companies To develop training courses to develop the next generation of engineers and technicians To change public’s opinion
  • 58. Projects – ECO2Trans A Fuel Cell plant setup for training purposes Platform: small electric vehicle Setup is aimed at teaching and training lectures and courses
  • 59. Training vehicle (Diabline) Images copyrighted and courtesy of: Philippa Shield pipsperspectives@googlemail.com
  • 60. Projects – PhD PhD research project to develop a novel strategy for combining multiple power sources in EV Research Price of batteries and ultra capacitors Energy and efficiency of power sources Efficiency of auxiliaries
  • 61. Projects – ZET Zero Emission Transport Start February 2010 Aimed at further informing the public Researching novel concepts in LCV Design virtual concepts to teach, test and develop Goal: Accepting Low Carbon Vehicles
  • 62. Conclusions Are We Stuck in Prius-toric Times? Electrically Power Vehicles success depends: Public perception Range Charging time Price http://www.energydsm.com/2009/09/are-we-stuck-in-prius-toric-times/
  • 63. One North East http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNgRhQ6pxUA
  • 64. Questions Do you want to know more about: Today’s presentation Mentioned projects Or discuss project ideas: adrian.morris@sunderland.ac.uk dirk.kok@sunderland.ac.uk 0191 – 515 3888

Editor's Notes

  1. Today’s agendaI will start with an introduction about myself and AMAP.I will then take us on a short history about Electrically powered vehicles, followed by a short explanation on the power components and their difficulties.Off course, with power comes health and safety and where does that power come from?This should result in pointers for Education and Industrial interest. And before I conclude I would like to show how we are approaching the current points of interest.And then a final thought.
  2. Digital Factory: Training &amp; Technology Transfer in Digital Engineering TechnologiesGATE stands for Global Automotive Technology Exchange. The project aims to interact with industry to research emerging technologies and share global best practice for competitive advantage.
  3. We assist through consultancy and training in the full flow from product design straight through production management.Digital Factory: currently over 5000 engineers trained in digital design and manufacturing technologies.The successes of Digital Factory are best summed up in an example, where one of the trainees returned to the office and discovered a major improvement in of the company’s design, which let to a 2 million pound saving.
  4. Gate: Act as a catalyst for regional low carbon transport research and development. Provide test vehicles that may be used in any future North East hydrogen infrastructure demonstration projects; To develop regional skills linked the use of advanced automotive technologies such as; super-capacitors fuel cells and new electric motors, electronics.To develop, where appropriate, a range of training products and academic programmes (in particular work based learning) designed to overcome the anticipated skills shortage once these types of vehicle become more common.
  5. Main issues for the EV were: short range, long fuelling time, and although they could be build cheaper (to an extend) they were build for the upper class and as such very expensive.http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htmMovie: who killed the Electric Car?Cars produced around this time include: Phaeton:top speed of 14 mph, range of 18 miles
  6. Peer pressure from user; price for petrol to high and the environment was suffering. This needed to change; that is until the price of petrol dropped again a couple of years later.Cars produced around this time include:Battronic Truck which was build with Smith Delivery Vehicles (currently known as Smith Electric Vehicles).This truck was capable of speeds of 25 mph, a range of 62 miles and a payload of 2,500 pounds.Sebring Vanguard: top speed of 44 mph, a normal cruise speed of 38 mph and a range of 50 to 60 miles.Elcar: top speed of 45 mph, a range of 60 miles
  7. Last time I checked there were no bid yet.
  8. Cars produced around this time include:S10 : conversion: normal speeds and a range of 45 miles, 7 hours to recharge – that is a long cup of coffee.GM EV1: 80 mph and range of 80 milesThere is a movie out called: Who killed the Electric Car? This movie explorers the rise and fall of the EV1 and the popularity it enjoyed. You can find it on youtube (in parts).
  9. That brings us to were we are now. Thanks to GM scrapping the EV1 plans we almost start from the beginning.
  10. It is expected that the use of energy and the population growth and the miles travelled as well as number of vehicles nearly all will increase exponetially. So over the next 40 years this is what we can expect (approximation) based on personal transport and drivable age group only.The graph shows the effect of the no reductions in CO2 against the government set targets, based on expected population, miles travelled per person (both are expected to increase exponentially. It also shows how much the trees take out of the air (CO2) and the number in H2 can be varied to show the effects.NAIGT expects that it will take 30 years for a switch to occur – but do we have 30 years?King report:
  11. The graph shows the effect of the no reductions in CO2 against the government set targets, based on expected population, miles travelled per person (both are expected to increase exponentially. It also shows how much the trees take out of the air (CO2) and the number in H2 can be varied to show the effects.So we show how much energy we can take out if we manage the vegetation population, but this is in an extreme case. We need to look for further reductions in CO2 emissions.
  12. This case of urgency was enhanced this morning on the BBC breakfast show, where they stated that during the climate conference higher target were needed to combat climate change.
  13. The current trend of development already guarantees a 60% reductions based on ICE development. A promise of 60% reduction does not add anything. A promise – as made by world leaders – of 80% increased the number of ULCV, but does not really change the ICE influence. To really make an impact it is necessary to aim for 90% emissions change. The reason why this is important is that personal transport will remain the preferred and best form of transport even within cities. It is estimated that public transport is most effective in cities of 10 million plus inhabitants. But most cities are in the region of 0.5 million, where personal transport is fastest mode of transportation.
  14. Low Carbon Transport: A Greener FutureReport for the DfT July 2009
  15. As we will see later on the energy density of batteries and specifically Lithium-ion ones is higher than lead-acid but still not nearly close to petrol. Although petrol off course, looses around 60% of its effectiveness.(still around 7.2 kWh/Kg)To know what we are up against and the issues that need to be overcome, we need to know a bit more about alternative technologies: Electricity
  16. Lead acid: ambient temp, long charging timeCircled purple: operating temp = 350 degrees and increasing internal resistanceCircled red: not electrically rechargeableLithium Ion – currently has the most interest as it has the best of both worlds and thus development: manganese, cobalt, nickel and combinations of the above. Lithium Cobalt combination has been declared a environmentally toxic hazard. Only time will tell which of the lithium combinations will be successful.
  17. Lithium Ion – currently is the forerunner of the batteries, because it has all the good qualities in chemical format. High energy density, low internal resistance, quick recharge time, but currently the price is very high in regions of £1000 / kW, and not the most environmentally friendly of chemicals. Is there an alternative?
  18. Another battery technology of interest is the bipolar lead acid battery. This technology has only just arrived due to some recent development.And with it being 100% recyclable and now imagine a million battery powered vehicles... You can see the environmentalists being much happier with this one. But energy density remains an issue.
  19. The molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cells have the largest value of efficiency, mainly because most of their heat is used to either keep the reaction going and to heat the building they are providing with energy.The efficiency of PEM FC is around 55%, which can be increased by using the heat to warm the vehicle interior.
  20. Both the battery and the Fuel Cell have an optimum operating point, where there efficiency is highest. You would want to keep this point steady and this is where ultra or super capacitors come in. Various studies have been under taken that prove this principle. Individual Cell voltage improvement research is currently under taken by Newcastle University. Who have managed to create an individual capacitor cell with a higher specific energy density by increasing the voltage range. Because the capacitor cell is low voltage a large number has to be connected together in series to increase the voltage level, but due to the nature of capacitors this reduces the capacitance and the amount of energy the final combination can hold. Also, every cell has to be carefully monitored during charging and discharging cycles (much like lithium cells). The total capacitance is smaller than any of its components.
  21. CMS – managing charge for batteries, UC but also fuel cell and gensetPEMS – management of multiple source of energy and how they best work together – this is necessary because of the different characteristics of the energy sources. A battery like a fuel cell prefers a steady continuous discharge and a capacitor can thus help smooth any peaks in the process and thus prolong the life of both battery and fuel cell.Fuel Cell generates heat which is nice in the winter, but in the summer it might needs cooling.Then there are the electrical auxiliaries: windows, mirrors, wipers, CD, DVD, sigarette lighter, fridge, air matras pump;Currently its estimated that the aux power consumption will rise by 4% per year.
  22. The use of EV and fuel cell lags a 100 year behind the learning curve of petrol vehicles.
  23. I have to add to this that the full document goes on to describe that exceptions are possible and test vehicles and demo vehicles are nearly automatically exempt. But statements like this do not help the publics opinion about hydrogen, which off course has been largely formed by the following disaster.
  24. Often I hear the comment: EV push the emissions upstream, which I am not going to argue, but what I will say is that it is easier to take measures at 1 place than at 30 million placing which are constantly moving around. At the power station measures can be taken to further reduce CO2 emissions (much easier than improving the catalysts in all the 10 year old cars). New power station can be designed more efficiently or using different technologies, like nuclear or fusion (future). In France most energy is already generated by Nuclear power. Obviously, the problem there is the radioactive waste.
  25. In the UK we have plenty of wind, Tide and Waves. Not always continuous but engineers are working hard to make energy out of the options available. There are plenty of possibilities here for renewable energy. The kite idea has the possibility to go to 300 meters where there is continuous wind; maintenance, storm winds and leaks are an issue. This was shown during a discovery program.
  26. The one item we probably have not enough of in the UK is sun, but I wanted to show this idea I found online.
  27. Renewable energy generally has 1 main issue: not continuous! The wind will stop blowing now and then, it will get dark every day, the wave and tide might is one day stronger then the other. So temporary storage is important, which is where hydrogen can come in. Energy generation will keeps us moving but we can not let energy go to waste.Creating renewable energy should not be a problem, but then we have the energy how are we getting it to the customer? Electricity can be stored in 2 ways; as electricity or as hydrogen. Hydrogen can be generated through the electrolysis of water or by reforming fossil fuels.
  28. Current estimates state that the grid can cope with increased energy demands until 2020, but obviously we should not wait until then. All these requests for more energy will put a strain on the grid. We should therefore not only focus on the development and introduction of electric vehicles but also in how we can improve the grid infrastructure and make it sustainable. As well as how can we better include the different renewable sources for optimal use?One idea is to let people generate their own power and supply any excess to the grid. Nissan is already doing this through their wind farm. In their case it is cheaper to sell the generated energy to the grid and buy what they need, when they need it. Energy suppliers are worried about the ripple effect, but research is showing that this probably is not as dramatic as they expect. Although, the benefit of people putting a little windmill or solar panel on their roof to supply energy to the grid, might not be that effective. Other ideas people have is to use the car’s battery pack as a back up or cost reduction tool. Imagine, there is a power failure, you would then be able to use the excess energy from you cars battery pack to power your house. Some people are expecting that energy prices will rise as a consequence of the increased use and that there will be a big difference between daytime prices and night time prices. You could then use your car (which was charged over night during the cheap tariff) to power your house during the day, that is if you are not planning to go anywhere for the rest of the day.
  29. Once energy is generated, captured and stored we need to get it to the people and this is were some interesting new ideas and technologies can be useful.Will people be running their cables across the curbs overnight (and will the neighbour plug them in his car)?Maybe we can charge up at the lamp post or get charging poles in the street, but what if you can not park in front of your house?Charging needs to be efficient; think about the 5 o’clock effect. People come home and put their kettle on and their car on charge.
  30. The issues raised regarding energy distribution are mostly about: How will people pay? Where can people pay? When can people charge and where will they charge? Especially if the charge takes 2 hours? Ad targeted: while shopping you get your charge for free; while the supermarket knows what, when and how long you shop.Smart charging: charge stored overnight is cheaperBatt packs: pre chargingMost of the mentioned technologies would benefit from near field communications and a digital ID, with a link to a website. Web 3.0 your life is being tracked.
  31. What is the plan in the UK? The Joint –Cities plan is a plan to install a compatible network of plug-in vehicle recharging infrastructure. This plan will form a basis to implement a nation wide recharging infrastructure. Standardised charging units divided into slow charge and rapid charge.
  32. Effectively you lock your charging cable to the pole and thus no one can charge while you do you shoppingSTUDY: &quot;Range anxiety&quot; not based on rational thinkingIt is expected that EV users will charge their vehicles more often and earlier than necessary. This leads experts to believe that for every EV a charging point is needed to keep up with demand for power.
  33. The solar road technology that promises to produce clean electricity, replace power transmission and information infrastructure, requires no plowing and lights up to provide navigational and safety information is about to go from the drawing board to prototype production.
  34. Developed by the Korea Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST), the OLEV (On Line Electric Vehicle) system uses buried power cables in the road and a receiving unit in the EVs traveling on it. KAIST says that power is transferred at 80 percent efficiency when going through a centimeter of air (not exactly practical for today&apos;s cars) and is 60 percent efficient through 12 centimeters. KAIST is working to make the OLEV a suitable business prospect.According to commenter&apos;s on the articles; there is still a need for batteries but the road power would take away range fears.
  35. CO2 emissions: FCVs and EVs produce the same: none at all.Therenault – nissan alliance agrees with the idea from korea: Power vehicles fromrenewables and you do not have any emissions at all. But Nissan is taking the development a step further and are looking to develop a car from the ground up.
  36. Most EV&apos;s look like conventional vehicles.  Whilst this has the advantage of user acceptance as they are largely conversions, a fresh look could reveal a more radical concept as we don&apos;t need large engine compartments; you can fit the power source – whether that be battery, fuel cell, capacitor or combination – anywhere. For example: the Nissan Pivo 2
  37. Vehicles will become more electrical over the next years. With the electrification of the fleet a change in approach to electric vehicles will be necessary; i.e. To build them we will need electrical trained engineers and chemical for fuel cells vehicles. Ford is setting up their own Electric Vehicle University to retrain its employees.The population needs to be trained to deal with fuel cell (hydrogen) and electric vehicles and with them also the law and insurance companies.
  38. If we now take step back to the beginning and the urgent case I was arguing. There is a report by the NAIGT team.The NAIGT team is a large group of representatives from across the industry: representing the major stakeholders in the sector.Do not think EV alone! This is were the research and development is.This includes development with the aim to commercially produce Ultra Low Carbon Vehicles.But largely ignores the development of Air vehicles and steam vehicles. Very much aimed at the current established manufacturers.
  39. Proposed development:Micro / mild Hybrids first, followed by full hybrids, to plugin hybrids to Electrically Powered VehiclesImmediate from now:Focus on ICE with a minor change to EVMedium research from around 2020 onwards:Improvements across the boardEV finally getting a footholdLong term from around 2030 onwards:Fuel Cell technologies finally affordableICE getting closer to 70% efficiency (with electric vehicles already &gt;80% efficient)This proposed scenario is not providing the change in paradigm that we need to tackle climate change.
  40. The well-to-wheel look provides us with opportunities for R&amp;D.Energy needs to be distributed and needs to be paid for.The manufacturing processes will need to be improved when new battery, fuel cell or capacitor discoveries are made.Maintenance will likely become recycling and can be a hazardous future with potentially toxic chemicals used to make the lithium-ion battery.Above all, people need to be educated in what to expect and like with new gadgets some people do not want to change.Nothing is set in stone yet and the right idea can find you a large following.
  41. Part of the GATE strategy are these projects.
  42. Through our current projects and projects we are going to undertake in the future we provide education: University interaction,
  43. We  are  building  a  fuel  cell  test  bed  setup  based  around  a  small  electric vehicle. This setup will also provide teaching and training setup for  lectures and courses to be run at the university. This setup looks like this:
  44. The PhD project  is a project  to optimize the control of energy within series hybrid electric vehicles.
  45. One of the concepts we are eager to develop is the Capacitor powered bus, where every time a bus stop it gets a short additional charge and as such has a long range.
  46. Are We Stuck in Prius-toric Times?The article raises the question: It has been 10 years; what can we now choose from? And the results are not promising, but if we tackle the issues below we should make a change.The technologies for Electric Powered vehicles are advancing and progress has been made, but certain problems still need to be overcome to make EV a success. The biggest problems for EV are charging time and range, while for FC cars the cost of the fuel cell and the safety are significant problems.
  47. A little glimpse of a possible future.