How to Turn Attitudes Into Action!
    Community Based Social Marketing
                          Jenn Alvarez, Green Camp...
Traditional Marketing


 • Information campaigns = education/advertising
 • Education/advertising = change attitudes
 • In...
Why do some adopt behaviors and
others do not?


 • People do not know about the activity or its benefits

 • People who k...
Understand the barriers and benefits of an ACTION!

 • High benefits, few barriers

 • Perceived barriers and benefits var...
What is CBSM?

Based on the book:
  Fostering Sustainable   Behavior change is most
  Behavior
                           ...
4 Major Steps

1. Identify the barriers and benefits to an
   activity
2. Use behavior change “tools” to design more
   ef...
Step 1: Identifying barriers and
benefits

  • Literature review
     – Articles/reports

  • Obtain qualitative info
    ...
Do your homework…

RESEARCH
• Articles
• Reports
• Studies on similar
  programs



Helps identify issues and
  barriers
Obtain Qualitative Info

 Focus groups
 • Small group
 • Random
 • Focused questions


 Observational studies
 • Investiga...
Qualitative Data

 Survey
 1. Clarify the objective
 2. List items to be
    measured
 3. Write the survey
 4. Pilot surve...
Identify External Barriers

• Identify External Barriers
• How to Address Barriers?
• How have other programs
  been succe...
Step 2: Use effective psychological
“tools”
 Psychological “tools” of
   behavior change
 • Commitment – Agreement to a sm...
“Tools” of Behavior Change

 Commitment
 • Emphasize Written over Verbal
 • Ask for Public Commitments
 • Seek Group Commi...
Examples: Commitment

 Energy Conservation
 • Invite community to participate – audit/replacing
   incandescent with CFL
 ...
“Tools” of Behavior Change

 Prompts
 •   Noticeable
 •   Self-explanatory
 •   Close proximity
 •   Encourage positive be...
Examples: Prompts

 Energy Conservation

 • Light switch stickers

 • On washing machines/dishwashers
   use cold water se...
“Tools” of Behavior Change

 Norms
 • Make the Norm Visible
    – Provide ongoing
      feedback
 • Use Personal Contact

...
Example: Norms
 Energy Conservation

 • Post-up energy savings results throughout a competition, and
   provide tips for d...
“Tools” of Behavior Change

 Communication
 •   Use captivating information
 •   Know your audience
 •   Use a credible so...
Examples: Communication

Energy Conservation

• Households were mailed monthly letters that indicated the
  extent to whic...
“Tools” of Behavior Change


 Incentives
 • Pair the incentive with the
   behavior
 • Reward positive behavior
 • Make it...
Examples: Incentives


Energy Conservation
• Introduce electricity rates that increase with use.
• Charge variable rates b...
Step 3 & 4: Design and Evaluate

 Design & Evaluation
 • Identify and Prioritize Barriers
 • Select Tools that Match Ident...
Conclusion
 1. Literature Review: Build your program on the
   work of others
 2. Focus groups/Survey: Determine barriers ...
CBSM Techniques
Case study: HSU Green Campus Projects

                 Adrienne Spitzer
       HSU Green Campus Program C...
Tabling/Marketing Campaign


•   Give away free CFLs and
    power strips

•   Focus on educating people
    about the dev...
Tabling/Marketing Campaign


  •   Incentives for using them:
        Simplicity
        Monetary savings
        Helpi...
Tabling/Marketing Campaign




  •   Students need to be reminded about energy efficiency



  •   Email contact list of p...
Library Display


 •   Passive advertising to active marketing

 •   Every semester GC creates a display in the library fo...
Library Display




•    Showed why nonrenewable energy is bad
     and how it affects the earth
       Power plants poll...
Library Display


  •   While the display was up:
       Informal surveys
       People were asked for their thoughts
  ...
Future Applications



  •   A more formalized evaluation
       More personal interactions
       Interns ask and recor...
Adrienne Spitzer
HSU Green Campus Program Coordinator

         ars72@humboldt.edu
Poly Canyon Energy Competition
   Community Based Social Marketing


        Ravi Sahai, Project Intern, Cal Poly SLO
Poly Canyon Village
 • Apartment style
    housing for 2nd, 3rd
    and 4th year students
 • 9 apartment buildings
 • 2700...
Energy Competition
 Emphasize personal contact and accountability
    • Competition between buildings
    • Encourages peo...
Prizes




Lessons learned?




     Embroidered            Stainless steel water
     sweatshirts for CA’s   bottles for ...
Advertising
    • Community Advisor meeting
    • Tabling Events- handing out CFL’s
    • Sandwich board
    • Weekly upda...
Fliers




Fliers and magnets handed out during tabling
Sandwich Board
Post Competition
  • Survey:
      Did you alter your behavior during the competition in order
      to be more sustainabl...
Lessons Learned
  Strategies for a successful competition:
    •   Begin advertising early
    •   Get RA’s/CA’s involved
...
Thank You!

Contact Information

 Ravi Sahai, Green Campus Intern
 rsahai@calpoly.edu
Thank you
How to Turn Attitudes Into Action!: Community-Based Social Marketing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

How to Turn Attitudes Into Action!: Community-Based Social Marketing

2,270 views
2,157 views

Published on

From the 2010 Alliance to Save Energy Green Campus Energy Efficiency Summit – Greening the Campus, Building the Workforce

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,270
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

How to Turn Attitudes Into Action!: Community-Based Social Marketing

  1. 1. How to Turn Attitudes Into Action! Community Based Social Marketing Jenn Alvarez, Green Campus Lead
  2. 2. Traditional Marketing • Information campaigns = education/advertising • Education/advertising = change attitudes • Information alone has little effect on changing behaviors Traditional Marketing
  3. 3. Why do some adopt behaviors and others do not? • People do not know about the activity or its benefits • People who know about the activity may see barriers to change • People who may feel there are no significant behaviors to an activity, may think current activity is more beneficial
  4. 4. Understand the barriers and benefits of an ACTION! • High benefits, few barriers • Perceived barriers and benefits vary dramatically among individuals To influence what people do… • Behavior competes with behavior
  5. 5. What is CBSM? Based on the book: Fostering Sustainable Behavior change is most Behavior effectively achieved • Delivered at the community level • Focuses on removing barriers • Enhances the activities benefits
  6. 6. 4 Major Steps 1. Identify the barriers and benefits to an activity 2. Use behavior change “tools” to design more effective programs 3. Pilot test program 4. Evaluate the impact of broadly implemented program
  7. 7. Step 1: Identifying barriers and benefits • Literature review – Articles/reports • Obtain qualitative info – Focus groups – Observation – Survey
  8. 8. Do your homework… RESEARCH • Articles • Reports • Studies on similar programs Helps identify issues and barriers
  9. 9. Obtain Qualitative Info Focus groups • Small group • Random • Focused questions Observational studies • Investigate actual behavior
  10. 10. Qualitative Data Survey 1. Clarify the objective 2. List items to be measured 3. Write the survey 4. Pilot survey 5. Select the sample 6. Conduct the survey 7. Analyze the data
  11. 11. Identify External Barriers • Identify External Barriers • How to Address Barriers? • How have other programs been successful? • Realistic to overcome? • If not, change your focus
  12. 12. Step 2: Use effective psychological “tools” Psychological “tools” of behavior change • Commitment – Agreement to a small request • Prompts – Consistent reminders • Norms – Socially acceptable behavior • Communication – Publicity/Marketing • Incentives - Any factor that enables or motivates a particular course of action
  13. 13. “Tools” of Behavior Change Commitment • Emphasize Written over Verbal • Ask for Public Commitments • Seek Group Commitments • Actively Involve the Person • Consider Cost-Effective Ways • Use Existing points Change Tools of Behavior of Contact • Help People to View Themselves as Environmentally Concerned • Don’t use coercion (commitments must be freely volunteered)
  14. 14. Examples: Commitment Energy Conservation • Invite community to participate – audit/replacing incandescent with CFL • Set deadline • Follow-up, provide solutions
  15. 15. “Tools” of Behavior Change Prompts • Noticeable • Self-explanatory • Close proximity • Encourage positive behaviors
  16. 16. Examples: Prompts Energy Conservation • Light switch stickers • On washing machines/dishwashers use cold water setting and wash full loads • Post information about the amount of energy an appliance uses
  17. 17. “Tools” of Behavior Change Norms • Make the Norm Visible – Provide ongoing feedback • Use Personal Contact “Tools” of Behavior Change
  18. 18. Example: Norms Energy Conservation • Post-up energy savings results throughout a competition, and provide tips for doing better
  19. 19. “Tools” of Behavior Change Communication • Use captivating information • Know your audience • Use a credible source • Frame your message • Carefully consider threatening messages • Make your message easy to remember • Provide personal or community goals • Emphasize Personal Contact • Provide feedback
  20. 20. Examples: Communication Energy Conservation • Households were mailed monthly letters that indicated the extent to which they had been able to reduce energy use over the same month during the previous year. 5% reduced increased their energy use • Households who received daily feedback on the amount of electricity they consumed, lowered energy use by 11% relative to physically identical households who did not receive feedback.
  21. 21. “Tools” of Behavior Change Incentives • Pair the incentive with the behavior • Reward positive behavior • Make it visible • Be cautious about removing incentives • Prepare for people’s attempts to avoid the incentive • Non-monetary
  22. 22. Examples: Incentives Energy Conservation • Introduce electricity rates that increase with use. • Charge variable rates based upon time of use. • Provide loans, grants or rebates for home energy retrofits.
  23. 23. Step 3 & 4: Design and Evaluate Design & Evaluation • Identify and Prioritize Barriers • Select Tools that Match Identified Barriers • Scrutinize your Design with Focus Groups – Control/Test group – Random Assignment • Make further refinements • Pilot the strategy – Measure behavior change • Introduce to larger community • Evaluate the Community Implementation – Measure your impact
  24. 24. Conclusion 1. Literature Review: Build your program on the work of others 2. Focus groups/Survey: Determine barriers you need to overcome 3. Pilot the Strategy: Test impact and further refine effectiveness 4. Evaluation: Talk about impact and share results
  25. 25. CBSM Techniques Case study: HSU Green Campus Projects Adrienne Spitzer HSU Green Campus Program Coordinator
  26. 26. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Give away free CFLs and power strips • Focus on educating people about the devices first  Simple and straightforward  Offer facts about them  Teach them how to use power strips properly
  27. 27. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Incentives for using them:  Simplicity  Monetary savings  Helping to conserve energy/protect environment
  28. 28. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Students need to be reminded about energy efficiency • Email contact list of people who receive CFLs used for:  Volunteer opportunities  Remind them about GC  Keep energy efficiency on their mind
  29. 29. Library Display • Passive advertising to active marketing • Every semester GC creates a display in the library for a week • The fall display showed that HSU gets its electricity from both renewable and nonrenewable sources  Pie chart showed percentage of a certain type of energy production HSU uses
  30. 30. Library Display • Showed why nonrenewable energy is bad and how it affects the earth  Power plants pollute air/water  Emphasize why using renewable energy is better  Highlighted direct correlation between energy production and its effect on our world
  31. 31. Library Display • While the display was up:  Informal surveys  People were asked for their thoughts  Comments showed a positive response • The display was effective because:  Educated about something not previously considered  Promoted an attitude change that could sponsor positive behavioral changes  Made passive publicity active
  32. 32. Future Applications • A more formalized evaluation  More personal interactions  Interns ask and record questions  Leave a comment sheet  Compile and analyze data to improve future campaigns
  33. 33. Adrienne Spitzer HSU Green Campus Program Coordinator ars72@humboldt.edu
  34. 34. Poly Canyon Energy Competition Community Based Social Marketing Ravi Sahai, Project Intern, Cal Poly SLO
  35. 35. Poly Canyon Village • Apartment style housing for 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students • 9 apartment buildings • 2700 students • Canyon PolyEach building has 4-8 Community Advisors (equivalent to RA’s in residence halls) • Greater potential for savings
  36. 36. Energy Competition Emphasize personal contact and accountability • Competition between buildings • Encourages people to change behavior, not just attitude • Offers incentives and rewards: Stainless Steel EnergyWater Bottles for residents and sweatshirts for Competition CA’s • Students able to see quantitative results of behavior change
  37. 37. Prizes Lessons learned? Embroidered Stainless steel water sweatshirts for CA’s bottles for residents
  38. 38. Advertising • Community Advisor meeting • Tabling Events- handing out CFL’s • Sandwich board • Weekly update emails • Mid Advertising competition activity (Dance in Dark) • Fliers in target areas (laundry rooms) • Website- tips for green living
  39. 39. Fliers Fliers and magnets handed out during tabling
  40. 40. Sandwich Board
  41. 41. Post Competition • Survey: Did you alter your behavior during the competition in order to be more sustainable?  81% Yes  19% No Will you continue your sustainable behavior patterns now that the competition is over? After  78% Yes the Competition  22% No  Send right after competition instead • Meter readings- continue to track usage • Interviewed residents, a CA, and learning community coordinator for feedback
  42. 42. Lessons Learned Strategies for a successful competition: • Begin advertising early • Get RA’s/CA’s involved • Make standings/data visible • Offer incentives and rewards • Keep students updated • Tabling- face to face advertising • Follow up after competition
  43. 43. Thank You! Contact Information Ravi Sahai, Green Campus Intern rsahai@calpoly.edu Thank you

×