How to Turn Attitudes Into Action!: Community-Based Social Marketing

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From the 2010 Alliance to Save Energy Green Campus Energy Efficiency Summit – Greening the Campus, Building the Workforce

From the 2010 Alliance to Save Energy Green Campus Energy Efficiency Summit – Greening the Campus, Building the Workforce

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  • 1. How to Turn Attitudes Into Action! Community Based Social Marketing Jenn Alvarez, Green Campus Lead
  • 2. Traditional Marketing • Information campaigns = education/advertising • Education/advertising = change attitudes • Information alone has little effect on changing behaviors Traditional Marketing
  • 3. Why do some adopt behaviors and others do not? • People do not know about the activity or its benefits • People who know about the activity may see barriers to change • People who may feel there are no significant behaviors to an activity, may think current activity is more beneficial
  • 4. Understand the barriers and benefits of an ACTION! • High benefits, few barriers • Perceived barriers and benefits vary dramatically among individuals To influence what people do… • Behavior competes with behavior
  • 5. What is CBSM? Based on the book: Fostering Sustainable Behavior change is most Behavior effectively achieved • Delivered at the community level • Focuses on removing barriers • Enhances the activities benefits
  • 6. 4 Major Steps 1. Identify the barriers and benefits to an activity 2. Use behavior change “tools” to design more effective programs 3. Pilot test program 4. Evaluate the impact of broadly implemented program
  • 7. Step 1: Identifying barriers and benefits • Literature review – Articles/reports • Obtain qualitative info – Focus groups – Observation – Survey
  • 8. Do your homework… RESEARCH • Articles • Reports • Studies on similar programs Helps identify issues and barriers
  • 9. Obtain Qualitative Info Focus groups • Small group • Random • Focused questions Observational studies • Investigate actual behavior
  • 10. Qualitative Data Survey 1. Clarify the objective 2. List items to be measured 3. Write the survey 4. Pilot survey 5. Select the sample 6. Conduct the survey 7. Analyze the data
  • 11. Identify External Barriers • Identify External Barriers • How to Address Barriers? • How have other programs been successful? • Realistic to overcome? • If not, change your focus
  • 12. Step 2: Use effective psychological “tools” Psychological “tools” of behavior change • Commitment – Agreement to a small request • Prompts – Consistent reminders • Norms – Socially acceptable behavior • Communication – Publicity/Marketing • Incentives - Any factor that enables or motivates a particular course of action
  • 13. “Tools” of Behavior Change Commitment • Emphasize Written over Verbal • Ask for Public Commitments • Seek Group Commitments • Actively Involve the Person • Consider Cost-Effective Ways • Use Existing points Change Tools of Behavior of Contact • Help People to View Themselves as Environmentally Concerned • Don’t use coercion (commitments must be freely volunteered)
  • 14. Examples: Commitment Energy Conservation • Invite community to participate – audit/replacing incandescent with CFL • Set deadline • Follow-up, provide solutions
  • 15. “Tools” of Behavior Change Prompts • Noticeable • Self-explanatory • Close proximity • Encourage positive behaviors
  • 16. Examples: Prompts Energy Conservation • Light switch stickers • On washing machines/dishwashers use cold water setting and wash full loads • Post information about the amount of energy an appliance uses
  • 17. “Tools” of Behavior Change Norms • Make the Norm Visible – Provide ongoing feedback • Use Personal Contact “Tools” of Behavior Change
  • 18. Example: Norms Energy Conservation • Post-up energy savings results throughout a competition, and provide tips for doing better
  • 19. “Tools” of Behavior Change Communication • Use captivating information • Know your audience • Use a credible source • Frame your message • Carefully consider threatening messages • Make your message easy to remember • Provide personal or community goals • Emphasize Personal Contact • Provide feedback
  • 20. Examples: Communication Energy Conservation • Households were mailed monthly letters that indicated the extent to which they had been able to reduce energy use over the same month during the previous year. 5% reduced increased their energy use • Households who received daily feedback on the amount of electricity they consumed, lowered energy use by 11% relative to physically identical households who did not receive feedback.
  • 21. “Tools” of Behavior Change Incentives • Pair the incentive with the behavior • Reward positive behavior • Make it visible • Be cautious about removing incentives • Prepare for people’s attempts to avoid the incentive • Non-monetary
  • 22. Examples: Incentives Energy Conservation • Introduce electricity rates that increase with use. • Charge variable rates based upon time of use. • Provide loans, grants or rebates for home energy retrofits.
  • 23. Step 3 & 4: Design and Evaluate Design & Evaluation • Identify and Prioritize Barriers • Select Tools that Match Identified Barriers • Scrutinize your Design with Focus Groups – Control/Test group – Random Assignment • Make further refinements • Pilot the strategy – Measure behavior change • Introduce to larger community • Evaluate the Community Implementation – Measure your impact
  • 24. Conclusion 1. Literature Review: Build your program on the work of others 2. Focus groups/Survey: Determine barriers you need to overcome 3. Pilot the Strategy: Test impact and further refine effectiveness 4. Evaluation: Talk about impact and share results
  • 25. CBSM Techniques Case study: HSU Green Campus Projects Adrienne Spitzer HSU Green Campus Program Coordinator
  • 26. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Give away free CFLs and power strips • Focus on educating people about the devices first  Simple and straightforward  Offer facts about them  Teach them how to use power strips properly
  • 27. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Incentives for using them:  Simplicity  Monetary savings  Helping to conserve energy/protect environment
  • 28. Tabling/Marketing Campaign • Students need to be reminded about energy efficiency • Email contact list of people who receive CFLs used for:  Volunteer opportunities  Remind them about GC  Keep energy efficiency on their mind
  • 29. Library Display • Passive advertising to active marketing • Every semester GC creates a display in the library for a week • The fall display showed that HSU gets its electricity from both renewable and nonrenewable sources  Pie chart showed percentage of a certain type of energy production HSU uses
  • 30. Library Display • Showed why nonrenewable energy is bad and how it affects the earth  Power plants pollute air/water  Emphasize why using renewable energy is better  Highlighted direct correlation between energy production and its effect on our world
  • 31. Library Display • While the display was up:  Informal surveys  People were asked for their thoughts  Comments showed a positive response • The display was effective because:  Educated about something not previously considered  Promoted an attitude change that could sponsor positive behavioral changes  Made passive publicity active
  • 32. Future Applications • A more formalized evaluation  More personal interactions  Interns ask and record questions  Leave a comment sheet  Compile and analyze data to improve future campaigns
  • 33. Adrienne Spitzer HSU Green Campus Program Coordinator ars72@humboldt.edu
  • 34. Poly Canyon Energy Competition Community Based Social Marketing Ravi Sahai, Project Intern, Cal Poly SLO
  • 35. Poly Canyon Village • Apartment style housing for 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students • 9 apartment buildings • 2700 students • Canyon PolyEach building has 4-8 Community Advisors (equivalent to RA’s in residence halls) • Greater potential for savings
  • 36. Energy Competition Emphasize personal contact and accountability • Competition between buildings • Encourages people to change behavior, not just attitude • Offers incentives and rewards: Stainless Steel EnergyWater Bottles for residents and sweatshirts for Competition CA’s • Students able to see quantitative results of behavior change
  • 37. Prizes Lessons learned? Embroidered Stainless steel water sweatshirts for CA’s bottles for residents
  • 38. Advertising • Community Advisor meeting • Tabling Events- handing out CFL’s • Sandwich board • Weekly update emails • Mid Advertising competition activity (Dance in Dark) • Fliers in target areas (laundry rooms) • Website- tips for green living
  • 39. Fliers Fliers and magnets handed out during tabling
  • 40. Sandwich Board
  • 41. Post Competition • Survey: Did you alter your behavior during the competition in order to be more sustainable?  81% Yes  19% No Will you continue your sustainable behavior patterns now that the competition is over? After  78% Yes the Competition  22% No  Send right after competition instead • Meter readings- continue to track usage • Interviewed residents, a CA, and learning community coordinator for feedback
  • 42. Lessons Learned Strategies for a successful competition: • Begin advertising early • Get RA’s/CA’s involved • Make standings/data visible • Offer incentives and rewards • Keep students updated • Tabling- face to face advertising • Follow up after competition
  • 43. Thank You! Contact Information Ravi Sahai, Green Campus Intern rsahai@calpoly.edu Thank you