Landforms & Landscapes Processes

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Landforms & Landscapes Processes

  1. 1. Landforms & Landscapes processes<br />
  2. 2. Landscape.<br />Landscapes are the visible features of a land. Landscapes in an area can be the water bodies, mountains etc.<br />In this photo the sea, mountain, trees are the landscapes.<br />
  3. 3. Landforms.<br />Landforms are the geomorphic feature on the surface of the earth, ranging from large-scale features such as plains, plateaus, and mountains to minor features such as hills, valleys, and alluvial fans. <br />
  4. 4. Weathering<br />Weathering is the decomposition of rocks to form smaller particles.<br />Weathering is divided into two:<br /> Chemical weathering: Weathering of rocks in which chemicals play an important role.<br /> Mechanical weathering: weathering of rocks in which physical components play an important role.<br />
  5. 5. Mechanical weathering<br />Processes of mechanical weathering:<br />Freeze thaw<br />Salt crystal growth<br />Disintegration<br />Pressure release.<br />
  6. 6. Chemical weathering. <br />Processes of chemical weathering:<br />Carbonation solution<br />Hydrolysis<br />Hydration<br />oxidation<br />
  7. 7. Surface features<br />The term karst refers to well developed features on dry lime stone. There are two types of karst:<br /> Cockpit karst<br /> Tower karst<br />Tower karst<br />Cockpit karst<br />
  8. 8. River processes<br />In rivers the erosion occur in these processes:<br /> Abrasion- the wearing away of the bed and bank by load carried by a river<br />Attrition- the wearing away of the load carried by the river which creates smaller particles like gravel and small stones.<br />Hydraulic action- the force of air and water on the sides of the river.<br />
  9. 9. Factors affecting erosion<br />Load- the heavier the particles carried more the rate of erosion<br />Velocity- more the velocity more the power.<br />Human impact- production of dams, bridges etc.<br />
  10. 10. waves<br />Swash is the movement of water up the beach.<br />Backwash is the movement of water down the beach.<br />There are two types of waves:<br /> destructive wave: <br />Have short wavelength<br />High height<br />Low period of waves<br />More back wash<br />Caused by local winds<br />
  11. 11. Constructive waves:<br />Long wavelength<br />Low height<br />Low frequency<br />High period of waves<br />Swash is more<br />Caused by winds formed in distances<br />Low energy waves<br />
  12. 12. Features of marine erosion<br /> The erosion in sea rocks are caused because of the salt water in the sea. Different shapes are formed due to erosion such as:<br />Stacks<br />Archs<br />Stumps<br />
  13. 13. Coral reefs<br /> coral reefs are calcium carbonate structures made of reef building stony corals. <br />Different types of reefs:<br />Fringing reef- grows along the shore.<br />Barrier reef- grows away from the shore.<br />Atoll reefs- grows on the remains of volcanic foundations in the sea.<br />

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