NATURAL DISASTER IN IRAN Iran (the Islamic Republic), located in thecentral Middle East and covering an area of1,648 million sq km with a population of morethan 70 million, is facing many types of natural and man-made disasters.
NATURAL DISASTER IN IRAN According to the Global Assessment Reporton Disaster Reduction (2009), Iran’s naturaldisasters risk class has been estimated as 8out of 10
NATURAL DISASTER IN IRAN During the last four decades, natural hazardshave led to more than 109,000 deaths and 53million persons affected. Earthquake, flood and drought are the mostimportant natural hazards of the country. The Rudbar-Manjil earthquake (1990), Bamearthquake (2003), Golestan flash floods (2000-2005) and cyclone Gonu (2007) were the mostdeadly or destructive disasters during recentdecades.
NATURAL DISASTER IN IRAN In general, hydro- meteorological hazardshave shown an increasing trend in terms ofoccurrence and damage. as of 1st January 2011, Iran hosts the 2ndlargest group of long standing refugees in theworld, with a total of 1,073,366 refugees. Clearly, a great deal of attention to disastermanagement and risk reduction (DMRR) isdemanded in Iran.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN Iran has set up national frameworks andprograms in this regard.(Along with globalinitiatives of strategic planning for DMRRsuch as the “Hyogo Framework for Action”adopted by the United Nations)
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN The country is divided into nine DisasterManagement Poles each comprising two to fourprovinces. Two main organizations are responsible forDMRR: 1) the National Disaster ManagementOrganization (NDMO), under the Ministry ofInterior (MOI) and 2) the National Passive Defense Organization(NDPO)
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) The National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was alsoestablished under NDMO to follow the Hyogo Framework forAction (HFA) priorities for action. Both NDMO and NPDO have a Health & Medical ServicesTaskforce (HMST) and Disaster & Emergency ManagementCenter (DEMC) at the Ministry of Health & Medical Education(MOH&ME), MOH&ME consists of 49 Universities of Medical Sciences &Health Services (UMSHS) that are responsible for both highereducation and health care delivery in designated geographicalareas. Each UMSHS has its own Emergency Operations Center (EOC)collaborating with other organizations responding to disasters.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) In addition to military forces and otherministries, the Iranian Red Crescent Society(IRCS) is the main response organization and isin charge of international humanitarianassistance by law. To optimize social, technological andeconomical services and achieve goalsidentified in “2025 I.R.Iran’s Visions ofDevelopment”, the country has found strategicplanning and framework development as animperative means of making that vision cometrue.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) *The most popular instances of developmentroad mapping in Iran are the “NationalScientific Roadmap” initiated since 7 March2011,the “1st to 5th Five-Year NationalDevelopment Program” , and the“Comprehensive Health Sector Road Map”by MOH&ME, which has been in action sinceMay 2011.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) Since the Bam earthquake (2003), severalorganizations such as the IRCS and theInternational Institute of EarthquakeEngineering & Seismology (IIEES) haveworked on public education to enhancecommunity disaster preparedness. The media have also played a prominent rolein increasing community awareness.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) Despite this fact, a study in three disaster-proneprovinces showed low household readiness fornatural disasters, specifically earthquakes andfloods This highlights the necessity of approaches totranslate the community knowledge intopractice. Focusing on community-based approaches alsoshould be emphasized, with a focus onvulnerable groups, especially elders, whosenumbers are increasing within the Iraniancommunity.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) * Improving women’s literacy andparticipation in the community is an asset forIran.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) The equity orientation of the I.R.Irangovernment focusing on the mostsocioeconomically vulnerable people is anopportunity for disaster risk reductionprograms targeting this part of thecommunity in urban and rural areas.
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN IRAN(CONT’D) Despite technological limitations, earlywarning systems (EWS) of hydro-meteorological hazards are gettingestablished and expanded throughout thecountry.