ISCRAM 2013: Meeting the Sphere Standards a case analysis of earthquake response in China

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Author: Tao Bo
Earthquake Administration of Beijing Municipality, China
Bartel Van de Walle
Tilburg University, the Netherlands

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ISCRAM 2013: Meeting the Sphere Standards a case analysis of earthquake response in China

  1. 1. EABM 1 Meeting the Sphere Standards: a case analysis of earthquake response in China Tao Bo Earthquake Administration of Beijing Municipality, China Bartel Van de Walle Tilburg University, the Netherlands ISCRAM2013 MAY15
  2. 2. EABM 2 1 The sphere project and the core standards2 Case study of Wenchuan Earthquake and Yushu Earthquake3 Discussion4 China’s Earthquake emergency system
  3. 3. EABM 3 M>5 M>7 Earthquake Records from 780 BC to 2010 in China
  4. 4. EABM 4 China Earthquake Administration (CEA), founded in 1971, is the governmental body directly under the China State Council and in charge of the affairs about earthquake disasters all over China. CEA is a very large administration, including 11 official departments, 16 scientific institutions and 31 Province level earthquake administrations. There are also city or county level earthquake administrations, which are under the lead of local government, but they also fall under the supervision of the CEA. Earthquake monitoring and prediction Earthquake disaster prevention Earthquake emergency and rescue China’s Earthquake emergency system
  5. 5. EABM 5 China’s Earthquake emergency system The Law of the People's Republic of China on Protecting Against and Mitigating Earthquake Disasters” (2008). National Earthquake Emergency Preplan(2012)
  6. 6. EABM 6 Level of Earthquake Three Initial Conditions Death number S Magnitude M Economic loss Especially important earthquake S>300 M>7.0 M>6.0 (populous region) Direct economic seismic loss larger than 1% of the GDP in the earthquake province (or county, district.) Level I Important earthquake 50≦S<300 6.0≦M≦7.0 5.0≦M≦6.0 (populous region) Certain economic loss Level II Comparativ ely important earthquake 10≦S<50 5.0≦M<6.0 4.0≦M<5.0 (populous region) Certain economic loss Level III Ordinary important earthquake S<10 4.0≦M<5.0 (populous region) Certain economic loss Level IV Earthquake response levels and activation conditions Chinese earthquake response mechanism
  7. 7. EABM 7 Chinese earthquake response mechanism
  8. 8. EABM 8 The sphere project and the core standards The Sphere project was launched in 1997 by NGOs, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), it framed a Humanitarian Charter and established the Minimum Standards, which aims to improve the quality of aid provided to people in affected regions and to enhance the accountability of the humanitarian relief system in disaster response (Sphere, 1997). The emphasis throughout is on meeting the urgent survival needs of people in the affected regions, while asserting their basic human right to a life with dignity. Structure of the Sphere Handbook 3rd edition (Sphere, 2011)
  9. 9. EABM 9 Core Standards People-centered humanitarian response Coordination and collaboration Assessment Design and response Performance, transparency and learning Aid worker performance
  10. 10. EABM 10 Wenchuan earthquake 14:28:01,CST,May 12th 2008 magnitude 8.0 69,196 people dead 18,381 listed missing 374,176 people injured direct economic loss 845.14 billion Yuan
  11. 11. EABM 11 Yushu Earthquake 7:49 a.m. CST, April 14th, 2010 magnitude 7.1 2,064 people dead 175 missing 12,135 injured direct economic loss 670 million Yuan
  12. 12. EABM 12 Organizations should provide help when the government of a quake-hit region cannot deal with the disaster. Life-saving actions should be prioritized All people should have access to assistance and aid Aid operations should include factors besides the physical injuries The last aspect calls attention to early recovery and states that the response should be improved continuously. CORE STANDARD 4 Response should be designed according to the assessment of the earthquake impacts and the need of relief supplies and aid
  13. 13. EABM 13 Difficulties in Wenchuan Earthquake Response Information Isolation NGOs and Volunteers Huge damage and secondary disaster
  14. 14. EABM 14 Beichuan county Mianzhu city Difficulties in Wenchuan Earthquake Response
  15. 15. EABM 15 Difficulties in Yushu Earthquake Response High Altitude Culture Difference
  16. 16. EABM 16 Difficulties in Yushu Earthquake Response
  17. 17. EABM 17 Case study Wenchuan Earthquake Yushu Earthquake Air rescue Rescue helicopters could not work due to weather; lack of the professional rescue helicopters Air rescue at the early stage for a short while, but the capability was limited; the airport equipment was lagging, high requirement of the type of airplanes Information disclosure CEA published the earthquake information immediately, the State Council convened news conferences; the international press came to the affected regions for news reports of the earthquake; TV stations kept reporting the earthquake information for all day CEA published the earthquake information immediately, the State Council convened news conferences; the international press came to the affected regions for news reports of the earthquake; public media published latest information on the internet Psychological intervention First time of mental intervention, only focusing on the affected people, and neglecting the rescue participants; some officers who joined the rescue or recovery operations committed suicide Launched together with the rescue operations, including the affected people and rescue participants, establish long-term intervention Transportation and communication The destruction of the communication network made some regions “isolated islands” without rescue teams; the communication did not recover until one month after the earthquake 11 days after the earthquake, 45 counties in the affected region’s transportation and communication recovered to the status before the earthquake Technology Lagging remote sensing techniques, there was no photo taken by plane on the first day, no photo in the second day because of bad weather; difficult to communicate among departments for relief information; many weak points arose during the response phase Improved remote sensing techniques, the rescue equipment was much more professional and advanced NGOs and volunteers Volunteers and NGOs arrived at the affected regions participating in the rescue by means of donations of money and supplies; because of the limited information available volunteers and NGOs flocked together at the regions reported most by the public media NGOs and volunteers were gathered right after the earthquake, but more focused on the recovery operations Comparison of response operations in the Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes
  18. 18. EABM 1.Why we use the Sphere standard to do analysis? 18 Discussion Preplan Coordination Rescue Team Technology 2.What can we do to improve the response?
  19. 19. EABM lindabo717@hotmail.com 19

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