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Disaster Management In Iran


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Disaster Management In Iran

  1. 1. Natural Disaster Management in Iran Arefeh A. Nasri Summer 2008 Survey of Planning Law Principles Policies, Rules, and Regulations
  2. 2. Natural Disaster Effects in the World <ul><li>Seventy-five percent of the world's population live in the areas affected by one of the known disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past two decades, over three million people have been killed and one million have been affected by natural disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>The second Wednesday in October is named “International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction” by UN, focusing on the importance of disaster management in the world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Disaster Management <ul><li>A combination of: </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention measures </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency responses </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness for recovery and rehabilitation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disaster Mitigation Strategies <ul><li>Minimize the potential risks by developing disaster warning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare and implement plans to provide resilience to such disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize resources including communication and tele-medicinal service </li></ul>
  5. 5. Natural Disasters in Iran <ul><li>Iran, as one of the most seismic countries in the world, has been confronted with more than 34 out of 41 types of identified natural disasters in its long history. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to its position in a high earthquake-prone zone, Iran has suffered numerous earthquakes with huge human and economic losses. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Global Seismic Hazard Map
  7. 7. Earthquake Vulnerability in Iran <ul><li>More that 126,000 people have died of 14 earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 and 51 earthquakes of magnitude 6.0-6.9 in Iran since 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the buildings in Iran are constructed by non-reinforced masonry structures and are in a high risk of collapsing by a major earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Iran is the number one country in the world for earthquakes in terms of intensity, frequency and the number of casualties (rated by UN). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Seismic Map of Iran
  9. 9. The Major Disastrous Earthquakes in Iran (1990-2005) 1,400 612 6.4 Zarand-Kerman 2005 30,000 35,000 6.5 Bam-Kerman 2003 4,300 261 6.5 Qazvin 2002 4,460 1,560 7.3 Khorasan 1997 2,500 1,200 6.1 Golestan 1997 60,000 40,000 7.7 Gilan 1990 Injuries fatalities Mag. Location Date
  10. 10. Earthquake effects in Iran vs. US <ul><li>12,200 people died and a huge population of them lost their houses during an earthquake (Ms=7.2) in Bo'in Zahra (1962). </li></ul><ul><li>During the Loma Prieta, California earthquake (Ms=7.1) only 62 people were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you analyze this huge difference ? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Disaster Management in Iran <ul><li>Disaster risk management in Iran is under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior ( Law of Foundation of National Committee for Mitigation of Natural Disaster Effects). </li></ul><ul><li>The responsibilities and functions related to natural and other man-made disasters are assigned to MOI by virtue of the Budget Act of the same year. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disaster Management Organizations <ul><li>The Bureau for Research and Coordination of Safety and Reconstruction Affairs (BRCRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting research </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of preparedness and mitigation plans </li></ul><ul><li>Collection, analysis and dissemination of information </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating reconstruction and rehabilitation activities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Disaster Management Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>The National Disaster Task Force (NDTF) </li></ul><ul><li>An inter-organizational coordinating body </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted for emergency relief operations in the national territory </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disaster Management Regulations <ul><li>The Government adopted the National Plan on Natural Disasters Prevention including policies, actions and programs considering financial, educational and research aspects of disaster prevention (1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Three main components of the plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and early warning </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and response </li></ul>
  15. 15. Earthquake Risk in Tehran <ul><li>Tehran with a land area of 254 square miles and a population of ten millions, is the most populous city in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located in a high-earthquake-risk zone. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 100 known fault lines surrounded the city (esp. in the northern part). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Faulting Systems Near Tehran
  17. 17. Why Tehran is so vulnerable? <ul><li>Tehran has suffered lots of destructive events in its history. </li></ul><ul><li>Tehran has not experienced any major earthquake since 1830,so it is now in a high risk of a strong earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 66% of the buildings in Tehran are constructed by weak or non-reinforced masonry which is one of the most vulnerable construction systems in terms of seismic- resistant capacity. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tehran Disaster Management Organizations <ul><li>Tehran Comprehensive emergency Management Plan (TCEMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Tehran Disaster Mitigation and management Center (TDMMC) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tehran Master Plan on Emergency Management <ul><li>The Tehran Master Plan on emergency management prepared in 2004 proposing a lot of projects to reduce the impacts of a potential earthquake in Tehran </li></ul><ul><li>Three objectives of this master plan are: </li></ul><ul><li>To secure residents lives and properties </li></ul><ul><li>To protect residents lives after the event </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare rehabilitation and reconstruction procedure </li></ul>
  20. 20. Strategies <ul><li>Strengthening existing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of existing urban structure </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of safety evacuation space </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of infrastructure and lifeline </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of earthquake information and education </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of insurance system </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of community level disaster management organization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>There are lots of rules, regulations and plans on the subject of earthquake, but a few of them have been implemented in vulnerable areas so far. </li></ul><ul><li>People are not completely aware of earthquake hazard and its impacts, so earthquake management plans are often ignored due to more immediate and basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities for earthquake risk reduction and in Tehran, do not cover all aspects of the issue. So, additional research is needed to improve the existing regulations and some new guidelines and standards should be prepared based on the international experiences. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Factors affecting the process of earthquake risk management in Iran: </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Weak economy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of government funds to support hazard mitigation programs </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly constructed dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enforcement of existing building codes </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Jafari, M. K., Amini Hosseini, K. et al (2005) Earthquake studies in Master Plan of Tehran, International Institute of Earthquake Eng. And Seismology, Tehran, Iran </li></ul><ul><li>International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR),   also available at: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a Seismic Damage Evaluation Model for Tehran’s Buildings in a GIS Environment, A. Bazgard, B. Omidvar, A. Mansourian </li></ul><ul><li>International Institute of earthquake Engineering and Seismology website at: </li></ul><ul><li>Geological Survey of Iran, Also available at: </li></ul><ul><li>Iran's strategy on natural disaster risk management, Ghanefar, S.J. ; Tabar, A., Also available at: </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a Seismic Damage Evaluation Model for Tehran’s Buildings in a GIS Environment , A. Bazgard, B. Omidvar, A. Mansourian </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster management , D.P.Rao Director, National Remote Sensing Agency, (Department of Space, Govt. of India), Balanagar, Hyderabad - 500 037, also available at: </li></ul><ul><li>Tehran, Iran, Disaster Risk Management Profile, Last update: July 2008, at: </li></ul><ul><li>Development Guidelines for Disaster Risk Management in Tehran </li></ul><ul><li>K. Amini Hosseini, M. K. Jafari, also available at: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of regulations and criteria for urban development in seismic areas, Case Study: Tehran Metropolitan, Kambod Amini Hosseini </li></ul><ul><li>Human Settlement Country Profile The Islamic Republic of Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake Management in Iran, a compilation of literature on earthquake management, Iranian Studies Group at MIT </li></ul><ul><li>The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, available at: </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>